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© 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning Part II Organizational Perspectives Chapter 4 Foundations of Police Organization.

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Presentation on theme: "© 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning Part II Organizational Perspectives Chapter 4 Foundations of Police Organization."— Presentation transcript:

1 © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning Part II Organizational Perspectives Chapter 4 Foundations of Police Organization

2 © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning Learning Objectives 1.Understand the roots of classical organizational theory and its relation to bureaucracy. 2.Know how scientific management is applied to organizations today. 3.Determine how the principle of hierarchy or chain of command is used in the police setting. 4.Understand the importance of authority in the police department. 5.Explain how and why specialized units are created in the police organization. 6.Know the deficiencies or criticisms of classical organizational theory. 7.Critique the criticisms or defend classical organizational theory.

3 © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning Traditional Police Organization The traditional, or classical, police organization is a quasi-military model. Sir Robert Peel used the military model as the basis for the first modern police department in London in 1829. American police initially adopted the quasi-military model.

4 © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning Classical Organizational Theory Scientific Management –Frederick W. Taylor (1865–1915) Principles of Management –Max Weber (1864–1920)

5 © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning Scientific Management Workers exert the least amount of effort in accomplishing the greatest amount of work Produce greater volume of product at a lower cost Focused efforts on the employee Management analyzed tasks and assumed more responsibility Goal was to provide an orderly manner to work Worker and manager cooperate, rather than oppose each other Functional Supervision: Workers are supervised by people with expertise in their area Rational man theory: If people work for rewards, when they are properly rewarded, then they are productive

6 © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning Five Principles of Successful Organizations 1.A program of action prepared by means of annual and 10-year forecasts 2.An organization chart to guarantee order and assure each man a definite place –careful recruiting –technical, intellectual, moral, administrative training of the personnel in all ranks 3.Observation of the necessary principles in the execution of command 4.Meetings of the department heads of every division –conferences of the division heads presided over by the managing director to insure coordination 5.Universal control, based on clear accounting data that is rapidly made available

7 © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning Weber’s Principles of Management Bureaucratic Management –Well-defined hierarchy of authority –Specialization –Formalization –Impersonality of management –Personnel decisions based on merit

8 © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning Hierarchy of Authority Supervisors have more authority than subordinates, but less authority than the superior officer to whom they report Ensures orders are followed, responsibility is placed with proper individuals, and everyone is aware of their responsibilities via direct supervision –Span of control The number of subordinates a superior supervises without regard to the effectiveness of that supervision –Unity of command Placing one superior in command or in control of every situation and every employee Instituted to ensure that conflicting orders are not issued by several superiors –Delegation of authority The assignment of tasks, duties, and responsibilities to subordinates, while at the same time giving them power to make decisions Accomplished by policy formulation and direction

9 © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning Specialization Refers to division of labor or job differentiation Police executive must divide tasks among various work groups or units to preserve efficiency –Function –Geography –Time –Level of authority –Functional specialization

10 © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning Advantages and Disadvantages of Specialization Advantages Reduces the need for training Increases job control Increases job proficiency Provides career enrichment for some officers Disadvantages Diminishes territorial coverage Job dissatisfaction increases Administrative coordination is made more difficult

11 © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning Important Factors for Considering Specialization 1.Quality of personnel 2.Need 3.Departmental goals

12 © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning Formalization Written rules and regulations providing direction and control Policies or procedures –Comprehensive set of guidelines for a specific activity or duty Special orders –A directive that is temporary in nature –A directive used to provide additional guidance or supplement a policy for individual units Memoranda –Used to notify individuals of assignments, orders, and other information

13 © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning Criticisms of Traditional Police Management Officers need to be treated as human beings, not machines Weber’s principles of organization must be mediated with team building or participatory management Authoritarianism –When officers fail to comply with policies, superiors motivate them with punishment, which negatively affects morale.

14 © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning In Defense of Classical Theory Most expedient way to effectively manage large numbers of employees Theory has survived because it focuses on accountability Straightforward and easily understood by employees

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