Presentation on theme: "Infectious Disease A disease caused by a Pathogen that can be passed from person to person."— Presentation transcript:
1 Infectious DiseaseA disease caused by a Pathogen that can be passed from person to person
2 An organism that causes disease Most are microscopic PathogenAn organism that causes diseaseMost are microscopic
3 Louis Pasteur Proved the Theory of Spontaneous Generation was false Showed that airborne microbes were the cause of diseaseDiscovered microbes could be killed by the heating of the liquid they were in
4 Robert KochExperimented with various dyes that stain bacteria and make them more visible under the microscopeAlso devised an ingenious method of separating a mixture of bacteriaDemonstrated that each infectious disease is caused by a specific pathogeninoculated an animal with the bacteria and passed the resulting infection from one animal to another until, at the end of the experimental chain, only one type of bacterium remained
5 Four Types of Pathogens ProtistsSingle celled organismsAmoeba, Giardia, Plasmodium vivaxDysentery, Giardia, MalariaFungiDermatophytesAthletes Foot, Ringworm
6 Viruses Nucleic acid with a protein cover DNA or RNA Damage or destroy cells by reproducing inside the cellAdenovirus, Influenza virus, HIVCold, Flu, AIDS
7 Bacteria Can damage cells directly Streptococcus, Strep throat Can damage cells indirectly by producing toxinsClostridium tetani,TetanusCan use shapes and arrangement of bacteria to help identify
8 Sources of PathogensSoil, food, water, airContaminated objectsInfected animalsAn infected personDisease can be spread through contact with any of the above Sources of Pathogens.
9 How Pathogens are Spread Contact withInfected peopleInfected animalsContaminated animalsContaminated food, water or soil
10 Predicting Casualties Chart the growth of bacterium that reproduces by simple cell division once every 20 minutes.Make a table and graph showing the number of organisms created during a 3-hour period.
11 Predicting Casualties 20 min Time PeriodsNumber of Cells124381653266471282569512Predicting Casualties
13 Predicting Casualties 20 minute Time PeriodsNumber of Cells1.012.024.038.0416.0532.0664.07128.08256.09512.0101,024.0112,048.0124,096.0138,192.01416,384.01532,768.01665,536.017131,072.018262,144.019524,288.0201,048,576.0212,097,152.0224,194,304.0238,388,608.02416,777,216.02533,554,432.02667,108,864.027134,217,728.028268,435,456.029536,870,912.0301,073,741,824.0Predicting CasualtiesHow long till we reach a million cells?
21 First line of defense Surfaces of skin, breathing passages, mouth, stomachTrap and kill most of the pathogens that come into contact with them
22 How it Works Skin Destructive chemicals Oil Sweat Dead cells fall off Tightly packed cells don’t allow access
23 How it Works Breathing Passages Mucus and cilia trap and remove pathogensSneeze or cough to force pathogens out
24 How it Works Mouth and Stomach Destructive chemicals Saliva Stomach acid
25 Second line of defense Inflammatory Response Fluid and white blood cells leak from blood vessels into nearby tissuesWBC’s help fight pathogensPhagocytes
26 Inflammatory Response Blood vessels widen and increase blood flow to the area causing rednessLeaked fluid causes swellingSome pathogens do not grow and reproduce at higher temperatures
27 Third line of defense Immune System T cells (Helper and Killer) B cellsAntibodiesLymphocytes distinguish between different kinds of pathogens
28 Third line of defense Antigens Molecules that the immune system recognizes either as part of the body or as coming from outsideLike a team uniform
29 Third line of defense AIDS A virus that attacks the Immune System Enters Helper T cellsOver time, HIV does damage the immune system, and the body will lose it’s ability to fight disease.
30 Two types of Immunity Active Results from getting disease or From vaccinationLong lastingPassiveAntibodies given to fight diseaseShort term (months)Both protect the body from pathogens
31 Active ImmunityWhen a person acquires immunity because their own immune system has produced antibodies in response to the presence of a pathogenProduced by cells of the immune system as part of the immune response
32 Active Immunity Memory cells When a pathogen enters the body memory cells recognize the antigen and start the immune response so quickly that the persons won’t get sick
33 Active Immunity Vaccination Vaccine Pathogens (viruses) that have been weakened or killed but can still trigger an immune responseAntibiotic – Bacteria only
34 Active Immunity3 things you can do to help your Body recover when you are sickGet plenty of restDrink lots of fluidsEat well balanced meals
35 Passive Immunity Does not last a lifetime (short term) Antibodies that are passed to the blood of baby from the mother’s blood during pregnancy