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Contact Investigations WHO ? WHERE ? WHEN ? HOW LONG ? WHY ? HOW ?

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Presentation on theme: "Contact Investigations WHO ? WHERE ? WHEN ? HOW LONG ? WHY ? HOW ?"— Presentation transcript:

1 Contact Investigations WHO ? WHERE ? WHEN ? HOW LONG ? WHY ? HOW ?

2 WHO ? IS RESPONSIBLE FOR CONTACT INVESTIGATION? YOU ARE!!!!!! YOU ARE!!!!!!

3 ROLE OF HEALTH DEPARTMENT TO ENSURE THAT ALL PERSONS WHO ARE SUSPECTED OF HAVING TUBERCULOSIS ARE IDENTIFIED AND EVALUATED PROMPTLY AND THAT AN APPROPERIATE COURSE OF TREATMENT IS PRESCRIBED AND COMPLETED SUCCESSFULLY TO ENSURE THAT ALL PERSONS WHO ARE SUSPECTED OF HAVING TUBERCULOSIS ARE IDENTIFIED AND EVALUATED PROMPTLY AND THAT AN APPROPERIATE COURSE OF TREATMENT IS PRESCRIBED AND COMPLETED SUCCESSFULLY MMWR TREATMENT OF TB pg.15

4 Health departments are responsible for ensuring contact investigations Health departments are responsible for ensuring contact investigations Public health officials must decide which Public health officials must decide which Contact investigations should be assigned a higher priority Contact investigations should be assigned a higher priority Contacts to evaluation first Contacts to evaluation first Decision to investigate an index patient depends on presence of factors used to predict likelihood of transmission Decision to investigate an index patient depends on presence of factors used to predict likelihood of transmission

5 WHY? IDENTIFY TB EXPOSURE IDENTIFY TB EXPOSURE IDENTIFY TRANSMISSION IDENTIFY TRANSMISSION PREVENT TB DISEASE PREVENT TB DISEASE

6 Purpose of Contact Investigation Identify, evaluate and treat individuals who may have been infected with TB by a person with active, infectious TB Identify, evaluate and treat individuals who may have been infected with TB by a person with active, infectious TB Detect additional cases of active TB Detect additional cases of active TB Identify and treat contacts with LTBI to prevent TB disease Identify and treat contacts with LTBI to prevent TB disease

7 VIRGINIAS STANDARD OF CARE TB CASES/TB SUSPECTS - the initial interview will be conducted within 3 days TB CASES/TB SUSPECTS - the initial interview will be conducted within 3 days At least 90% of newly reported AFB smear + cases will have contacts identified and at least 95% of the contacts will be evaluated for disease and/or infection At least 90% of newly reported AFB smear + cases will have contacts identified and at least 95% of the contacts will be evaluated for disease and/or infection

8 Contact investigation will be initiated within 3 days of the first notification and completed within three months 85% of contacts found to be infected with Mtb infection will complete a full coarse of recommended treatment 85% of contacts found to be infected with Mtb infection will complete a full coarse of recommended treatment

9 Contact investigations are complicated undertakings that typically require hundreds of interdependent decisions, the majority of which are made on the basis of incomplete data, and dozens of time-consuming interventions….. HOW?

10 CASE MANAGEMENT SKILLS EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION CONFIDENTIALITY CONFIDENTIALITY THOROUGHNESS THOROUGHNESS PERSISTANCE PERSISTANCE

11 Evaluation of the Index Patient Comprehensive information regarding the index patient is the foundation of a contact investigation Comprehensive information regarding the index patient is the foundation of a contact investigation Requires review of medical records and patient interview(s) Requires review of medical records and patient interview(s) Requires systematic collection and management of data Requires systematic collection and management of data

12 Guidelines for the Investigation of Contacts of Persons with Infectious Tuberculosis 2005

13 Guidelines for Investigation of Contacts Identification, evaluation and treatment of contacts is element of case management Identification, evaluation and treatment of contacts is element of case management Characteristics of case determine need for and extent of contact investigation Characteristics of case determine need for and extent of contact investigation Contact investigation activities should be planned, prioritized to ensure identification and treatment of highest risk contacts Contact investigation activities should be planned, prioritized to ensure identification and treatment of highest risk contacts

14 Probability of TB Transmission Transmission dependent on three factors Transmission dependent on three factors Infectiousness of the person with TB Infectiousness of the person with TB Environment in which the transmission occurs Environment in which the transmission occurs Duration of the exposure to TB bacteria Duration of the exposure to TB bacteria

15 Infectiousness of patient Infectiousness of patient Pulmonary, laryngeal, or pleural Pulmonary, laryngeal, or pleural AFB on sputum smear (1+ or 4+) AFB on sputum smear (1+ or 4+) Cavitation on x-ray, Cavitation on x-ray, Adolescent or adult Adolescent or adult Period of infectiousness Period of infectiousness Environment – activities leading to aerosolization Environment – activities leading to aerosolization Inspect home, work and social environment Inspect home, work and social environment Duration of exposure – proximity, small space, limited ventilation - increase chance that susceptible contact will breathe AFB into lungs Duration of exposure – proximity, small space, limited ventilation - increase chance that susceptible contact will breathe AFB into lungs

16 Decisions to Initiate a Contact Investigation

17 NOT EVERY TB CASE REQUIRES A CONTACT INVESTIGATION

18 Additional considerations…. Pulmonary, laryngeal or pleural TB Pulmonary, laryngeal or pleural TB Pleural is now grouped with pulmonary because sputum cultures can yield M. tuberculosis even when no lung abnormalities are apparent on x-ray Pleural is now grouped with pulmonary because sputum cultures can yield M. tuberculosis even when no lung abnormalities are apparent on x-ray AFB smears should always be done when diagnosis is pleural TB (suspected or confirmed) because parenchyma abnormalities may be hidden by fluid AFB smears should always be done when diagnosis is pleural TB (suspected or confirmed) because parenchyma abnormalities may be hidden by fluid

19 Additional considerations…. Consider contact investigation for TB case with extra pulmonary disease if there were procedures that generate aerosols (i.e. autopsy, embalming, wound irrigation or manipulation of a draining abscess) Consider contact investigation for TB case with extra pulmonary disease if there were procedures that generate aerosols (i.e. autopsy, embalming, wound irrigation or manipulation of a draining abscess)

20 Additional considerations…. If original specimens were from If original specimens were from bronchoscopy/bronchial washings: bronchoscopy/bronchial washings: Guidelines recommend equating results of AFB microscopy on bronch washings to sputum Guidelines recommend equating results of AFB microscopy on bronch washings to sputum VDH recommends that sputum be collected and assessment of infectiousness be based on sputum AFB results VDH recommends that sputum be collected and assessment of infectiousness be based on sputum AFB results If unable to collect sputum, use results of bronchial washings If unable to collect sputum, use results of bronchial washings

21 Additional considerations…. Available resources should be focused on identifying, evaluating and treating exposed persons who are more likely to be infected or to become ill with TB disease if they are infected Available resources should be focused on identifying, evaluating and treating exposed persons who are more likely to be infected or to become ill with TB disease if they are infected Persons with longest, closest contact Persons with longest, closest contact Infants, young children, immunocompromised, persons with serious underlying medical conditions Infants, young children, immunocompromised, persons with serious underlying medical conditions

22 Concentric Circle Work/School Social/ Community Household

23 Additional considerations Do we suspect the base case to be MDR? Do we suspect the base case to be MDR? Contacts of MDR need to be continually re-assessted Contacts of MDR need to be continually re-assessted Potential for prolonged periods of infectiousness Potential for prolonged periods of infectiousness

24 INDEX CASE THE FIRST PERSON WITH TB DISEASE WHO IS IDENTIFIED IN A PARTICULAR SETTING THE FIRST PERSON WITH TB DISEASE WHO IS IDENTIFIED IN A PARTICULAR SETTING

25 SOURCE CASE THE PERSON OR CASE THAT WAS THE ORIGINAL SOURCE OF THE INFECTION THE PERSON OR CASE THAT WAS THE ORIGINAL SOURCE OF THE INFECTION TWO CIRCUMSTANCES FOR SOURCE INVESTIGATION TWO CIRCUMSTANCES FOR SOURCE INVESTIGATION WHEN CONGREGATE LIVING SETTING DETECTS AN UNEXPLAINED CLUSTER OF TST CONVERSIONS WHEN CONGREGATE LIVING SETTING DETECTS AN UNEXPLAINED CLUSTER OF TST CONVERSIONS WHEN LTBI OR TB DISEASE IS DIAGNOSED IN A YOUNG CHILD WHEN LTBI OR TB DISEASE IS DIAGNOSED IN A YOUNG CHILD

26 Evaluation of the Index Patient and Possible Sites of Transmission Elements of the patient investigation Elements of the patient investigation Pre-interview phase Pre-interview phase Background information (case report, records, laboratory results, x-rays) Background information (case report, records, laboratory results, x-rays) Patient characteristics (language, severity of illness, ability to cooperate) Patient characteristics (language, severity of illness, ability to cooperate) Determination of infectious period (preliminary) Determination of infectious period (preliminary)

27 Determining the Infectious Period Above is a starting point for estimating the period of likely infectiousness. Interview the patient and/or review medical records to determine duration of symptoms. If estimates vary, use the longer time.

28 Interviewing the Patient Recommendation that interview occur < 1 business day for persons considered to be infectious and < 3 business days for others Recommendation that interview occur < 1 business day for persons considered to be infectious and < 3 business days for others Interview conducted in person (face-to-face, not phone!), by prepared interviewer with requisite skills Interview conducted in person (face-to-face, not phone!), by prepared interviewer with requisite skills Second interview 1-2 weeks later Second interview 1-2 weeks later Interview process continues throughout course of treatment Interview process continues throughout course of treatment

29 Interviewing the Patient Language of patients choice; interpreter if required Language of patients choice; interpreter if required Assurance of confidentiality and privacy Assurance of confidentiality and privacy Review and verify information gathered from other sources Review and verify information gathered from other sources Infectious period Infectious period Potential transmission settings – patients ADL Potential transmission settings – patients ADL Day, night, work, school, social, health care, travel Day, night, work, school, social, health care, travel Refer to calendar, use holidays as reminders Refer to calendar, use holidays as reminders List of contacts List of contacts Names, including street names,types, frequencies and duration of exposure, Names, including street names,types, frequencies and duration of exposure, Use a standard form to record information Use a standard form to record information If no names, ask about groups, social network If no names, ask about groups, social network

30 WHERE ? WHERE ARE WE GOING TO LOOK FOR PEOPLE WHO HAVE SHARED AIRSPACE WITH OUR TB CASE? WHERE ARE WE GOING TO LOOK FOR PEOPLE WHO HAVE SHARED AIRSPACE WITH OUR TB CASE? REMEMBER, YOUR CONTACT LIST WILL CHANGE, CI IS AN ONGOING PROCESS REMEMBER, YOUR CONTACT LIST WILL CHANGE, CI IS AN ONGOING PROCESS USE YOU ORW AS A SOURCE OF INFORMATION FOR CONTACTS USE YOU ORW AS A SOURCE OF INFORMATION FOR CONTACTS

31 Field Investigation Site visits Site visits First visit to site should be to gather information; second and subsequent visits should be done after specific investigation plan is in place First visit to site should be to gather information; second and subsequent visits should be done after specific investigation plan is in place Each site will have its own culture Each site will have its own culture Should be made within 3 days of initial interview Should be made within 3 days of initial interview Media concerns Media concerns

32 Field Investigation/Site Visits Complimentary/supplementary to interviews Complimentary/supplementary to interviews All possible sites of transmission should be evaluated All possible sites of transmission should be evaluated May identify additional contacts May identify additional contacts May identify high-risk contacts (children) May identify high-risk contacts (children) Size, ventilation characteristics may help estimate level of exposure Size, ventilation characteristics may help estimate level of exposure May raise additional questions for re-interview of patient May raise additional questions for re-interview of patient Likely to attract attention, raise questions Likely to attract attention, raise questions Requires planning, anticipation of questions Requires planning, anticipation of questions

33 Specific Investigation Plan The final step in the evaluation of the index patient and possible sites of transmission The final step in the evaluation of the index patient and possible sites of transmission Summarize information from interviews, site visits Summarize information from interviews, site visits Make a decision on need for/extent of contact investigation Make a decision on need for/extent of contact investigation If a contact investigation is indicated If a contact investigation is indicated List contacts and assign priorities List contacts and assign priorities Establish time line Establish time line Develop list of resource requirements and staffing plan Develop list of resource requirements and staffing plan If a contact investigation is not required If a contact investigation is not required Summary of available information and reason for decision Summary of available information and reason for decision Include investigation plan in permanent record Include investigation plan in permanent record

34 Priorities Is the contact investigation high priority? Is the contact investigation high priority? Is the contact high risk and therefore high priority? Is the contact high risk and therefore high priority?

35 Assigning Priorities to Contacts Occurs after contact investigation decisions Occurs after contact investigation decisions Characteristics of the index patient Characteristics of the index patient Availability of resources Availability of resources Priority/order for investigation of contacts Priority/order for investigation of contacts Characteristics of contacts Characteristics of contacts Age, immune status, underlying medical conditions Age, immune status, underlying medical conditions Estimated level of exposure Estimated level of exposure Proximity, duration, volume of space (small room vs. large), ventilation Proximity, duration, volume of space (small room vs. large), ventilation

36 Priority for evaluation evaluation of contacts: AFB smear positive laryngeal/pulmonary/pleural TB High High Under age 5 Under age 5 Medical risk factors Medical risk factors HIV HIV Immunosuppressive agents (steroids, cancer chemotherapy, anti-rejection drugs for organ transplants, tumor necrosis factor alpha agents) Immunosuppressive agents (steroids, cancer chemotherapy, anti-rejection drugs for organ transplants, tumor necrosis factor alpha agents) Other medical risk factors (silicosis, renal disease, diabetes, gastrectomy) Other medical risk factors (silicosis, renal disease, diabetes, gastrectomy) Exposure during medical procedure (bronchoscopy, autopsy, sputum induction) Exposure during medical procedure (bronchoscopy, autopsy, sputum induction) Exposure in congregate setting Exposure in congregate setting

37 Priority for evaluation evaluation of contacts: AFB smear positive laryngeal/pulmonary/pleural TB Medium Medium Aged 5-15 Aged 5-15 Exposure exceeds time/space/ventilation limits recommended by state or local TB program Exposure exceeds time/space/ventilation limits recommended by state or local TB program Estimate of exposure by setting Estimate of exposure by setting Time at location Time at location Size/volume of shared airspace Size/volume of shared airspace Ventilation – windows, fans Ventilation – windows, fans May be up or downgraded depending on results of testing of higher priority contacts May be up or downgraded depending on results of testing of higher priority contacts

38 Priority for evaluation evaluation of contacts: AFB smear negative laryngeal/pulmonary/pleural TB Priority for evaluation evaluation of contacts: AFB smear negative laryngeal/pulmonary/pleural TB High High Contacts < age 5 Contacts < age 5 Medical risk factor Medical risk factor Exposure during medical procedure Exposure during medical procedure Medium Medium Household Household Exposure in congregate setting Exposure in congregate setting Exceeds duration/environmental limits Exceeds duration/environmental limits

39 Priority for evaluation of contacts: Suspected pulmonary TB, AFB negative with abnormal chest x-ray not consistent with TB High High None None Medium Medium Household Household Age < 5 years Age < 5 years Medical risk factor Medical risk factor Exposure during medical procedure Exposure during medical procedure

40

41 Timeline for Contacting/Evaluation of Contacts Establish after assignment to high, medium or low priority category Establish after assignment to high, medium or low priority category High or medium priority should be contacted within 3 days and evaluated within < 7 days for high priority and < 14 days for medium priority contacts High or medium priority should be contacted within 3 days and evaluated within < 7 days for high priority and < 14 days for medium priority contacts Symptomatic contacts should be evaluated immediately Symptomatic contacts should be evaluated immediately

42 Diagnostic and Public Health Evaluation of Contacts Remember priority assignment Remember priority assignment Highest risk = highest priority = major effort to contact and complete evaluation Highest risk = highest priority = major effort to contact and complete evaluation Initial assessment for all high and medium priority contacts Initial assessment for all high and medium priority contacts Screen for symptoms of active disease; proceed immediately to x-ray and sputum collection if symptomatic; do not wait for results of TST Screen for symptoms of active disease; proceed immediately to x-ray and sputum collection if symptomatic; do not wait for results of TST Children <5 and immunocompromised adults should be evaluated and have chest x-ray, whether symptomatic or not Children <5 and immunocompromised adults should be evaluated and have chest x-ray, whether symptomatic or not

43 Diagnostic and Public Health Evaluation of Contacts Others (high and medium priority contacts) should receive TST ASAP if not already TST positive Others (high and medium priority contacts) should receive TST ASAP if not already TST positive Two step TST procedure should not typically be used for testing contacts Two step TST procedure should not typically be used for testing contacts BCG exposure should be recorded, but is not a contra- indication to testing BCG exposure should be recorded, but is not a contra- indication to testing > 5mm induration is considered to be a positive TST in a contact investigation > 5mm induration is considered to be a positive TST in a contact investigation Individuals with positive TST require further evaluation Individuals with positive TST require further evaluation Chest x-ray Chest x-ray Sputum smears and culture if indicated (abnormal x-ray, symptoms) Sputum smears and culture if indicated (abnormal x-ray, symptoms) Individuals who are previously TST positive should be screened for symptoms, further evaluated only if indicated by screening Individuals who are previously TST positive should be screened for symptoms, further evaluated only if indicated by screening

44 Tuberculin Skin Testing of Contacts Repeat testing Repeat testing Estimated interval between infection and detectible skin test reactivity is 2-12 weeks Estimated interval between infection and detectible skin test reactivity is 2-12 weeks Reinterpretation of data previously collected indicates that 8 week is outer limits of window period. Reinterpretation of data previously collected indicates that 8 week is outer limits of window period. CDC & NTCA recommendation that window period be decreased to 8-10 weeks CDC & NTCA recommendation that window period be decreased to 8-10 weeks VIRGINIA – WINDOW PERIOD DEFINED AS 10 WEEKS FOR VIRGINIA CONTACT INVESTIGATIONS VIRGINIA – WINDOW PERIOD DEFINED AS 10 WEEKS FOR VIRGINIA CONTACT INVESTIGATIONS

45 HOW LONG? EXPANDING THE CONTACT INVESTIGATION EXPANDING THE CONTACT INVESTIGATION FINDING NEW CONTACTS NOT IDENTIFIED IN THE BEGINNING FINDING NEW CONTACTS NOT IDENTIFIED IN THE BEGINNING

46 Should be considered only after results of investigation of high and medium priority contacts is complete and results have been evaluated Should be considered only after results of investigation of high and medium priority contacts is complete and results have been evaluated Infection rates are higher than expected Infection rates are higher than expected Evidence of secondary transmission Evidence of secondary transmission TB disease is found ( source vs. secondary) TB disease is found ( source vs. secondary) Requires careful consideration – may require new contact investigation rather than expansion of initial investigation Requires careful consideration – may require new contact investigation rather than expansion of initial investigation TST conversions occur between first and second TST TST conversions occur between first and second TST

47 INCIDENT COMMAND VDH DDP-TB ENCOURAGES THIS MODEL IN ALL LARGE CONTACT INVESTIGATIONS VDH DDP-TB ENCOURAGES THIS MODEL IN ALL LARGE CONTACT INVESTIGATIONS WE ARE AVAILABLE TO ANSWER YOUR QUESTIONS AND TO PROVIDE ASSISTANCE WE ARE AVAILABLE TO ANSWER YOUR QUESTIONS AND TO PROVIDE ASSISTANCE

48 DOES ANYONE HAVE AN UNUSUAL CONTACT INVESTIGATION TO SHARE???

49 Required Documents Guidelines for the Investigation of Contacts of Persons with Infectious Tuberculosis, Guidelines for the Investigation of Contacts of Persons with Infectious Tuberculosis, December 16, 2005; Volume 54, # RR-15. December 16, 2005; Volume 54, # RR-15. Treatment of Tuberculosis, June 20, 2003; Treatment of Tuberculosis, June 20, 2003; Volume 52, # RR-11. Volume 52, # RR-11. Controlling Tuberculosis in the United States, March Controlling Tuberculosis in the United States, March Targeted Tuberculin Testing and Treatment of Latent Tuberculosis Infection, Targeted Tuberculin Testing and Treatment of Latent Tuberculosis Infection, Virginias CI Nursing Directive/Guideline Virginias CI Nursing Directive/Guideline

50 Questions?

51 HAPPY CONTACT INVESTIGATIONS !


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