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There are several paths to Solar Production of H 2 ApproachStatusProspects Electrolysis using solar electricity – solar PV, solar thermal, wind, etc. C$$

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Presentation on theme: "There are several paths to Solar Production of H 2 ApproachStatusProspects Electrolysis using solar electricity – solar PV, solar thermal, wind, etc. C$$"— Presentation transcript:

1 There are several paths to Solar Production of H 2 ApproachStatusProspects Electrolysis using solar electricity – solar PV, solar thermal, wind, etc. C$$ PhotoelectrochemicalR? Photobiological processes – algae, bacteria R? Biomass processing – gasification, pyrolysis; energy crops, waste R, DWaste is promising Thermochemical Water-splittingDAppears promising R: Research D: Development C: Commercial

2 Costs of biomass production and collection are high; use waste materials Ethanol from corn currently uses more fossil energy to produce than it contains Cellulosic ethanol processes could use agri-waste Supercritical Water Partial Oxidation of municipal waste appears promising –Convert waste to resource –Residue is clean and safe –Application to California Hydrogen Highway?

3 Thermochemical water-splitting can use the high temperatures solar energy can provide Example: H 2 O + Zn ZnO + H o C ZnO Zn + ½ O o C H 2 O H 2 + ½ O 2 All chemicals recycle, water is decomposed. Potential efficiency increases with (1-T cold /T hot ) per Carnot. Over 300 cycles exist; which are best for solar?

4 DOE project reviewed candidate cycles Is the process practical? –Simplicity, Economics, Solar compatibility, Knowledge base, Safety Does it have potential for high efficiency? –10 cycles selected, efficiency ~40 to 80% possible Laboratory verification now underway Pilot plant design will be done for best cycles Advanced tower o CDish o C

5 Example: Cadmium cycles are potentially attractive Cadmium oxide cycle Cadmium carbonate cycle Cycles are simple with no side reactions Aspen flowsheets indicate efficiency up to 71% Cost estimates are encouraging

6 Solar-based Hydrogen Production has a role DOE-supported research is underway on several pathways, most not yet ready for application Waste biomass could be implemented now on a developmental basis Solar thermochemical processes appear promising, could be implemented soon California Hydrogen Highway could demonstrate these processes


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