2Henri Fayol’s Background * Graduated from the National School of Mines in Saint Etrenne in 1860* After graduation he went to work and spent his entire career at Commentry-Fourchamboult-Decazeville. He was named managing director in 1888 and maintained that position until he retired in 1918.* He is credited with saving the company from bankruptcy* During his career he lectured at Ecole Superievre de la Guerre* In his retirement he established the Center of Administrative Studies
3Fayol’s Big Contributions to Management 1) Universality of management: The same skills are needed to manage a coal mine that are needed to manage a hospital, post office, university, etc..2) Management is a field in and of itself: There were no schools of management prior to Henri Fayol!!!
4Fayol’s Principles of Management Division of Labor Fayol Encouraged job specialization while realizing that too narrow a focus lead to boredom and falling productionAuthority & Responsibility This is more than giving and having orders followed. Fayol thought that authority should derive from expertise, leadership skill, knowledge, etc., and lead to a sincere commitment from subordinates
5Fayol’s Principles of Management Unity of Command Orders should be received from only one person.Line of Authority There should be a chain of command from the very top to the very bottom of the organization. Fayol realized that there should be as few layers of management as possible
6Fayol’s Principles of Management Centralization Fayol preferred a less centralized management hierarchy. He didn’t want decisions made too far away from the problemUnity of Direction Today we would call this singleness of purposeInitiative Employees should be able to act on their own which spurs creativity and innovation
7Fayol’s Principles of Management Equity employees should be treated fairly.For personnel to be encouraged to carry out their duties with all the devotion and loyalty of which they are capable, they must be treated with respect for their own sense of integrity, and equality results from the combination of respect and justiceOrder The arrangement of positions in the organization should maximize efficiency and provide employees with career opportunities
8Fayol’s Principles of Management Discipline Managers need to enforce rules to achieve company goals.Remuneration of Personnel Fayol was an early supporter of bonuses and profit sharing plansStability and tenure of employees Long-term employees lead to better producing companies.
9Fayol’s Principles of Management Subordination of Individual Interests to the common interest Employees need to understand how their performance affects the entire organizationEsprit de Corp Managers should develop a shared feeling of devotion to a common cause
10Fayol’s Functions of Management PLANNINGORGANIZINGCONTROLLINGLEADING
11Fayol’s Qualities of Effective Plans UNITY At any one time an organization should have only one guiding organizational goalCONTINUITY Planning is an ongoing process and previous plans should be modified to fit together in the corporate frameworkACCURACY Managers should collect and utilize all available information to make a plan as accurate as possibleFLEXIBILITY A manager should not be stuck with a static plan, but be able to change and alter as situations do.
12Common criticisms of Henri Fayol Management is not always universal: Fayol was criticized because he only had experience in a coal mine. Many have said just because you can manage a coal mine does not necessarily mean you can manage a hospital.His writing is lessons learned in his career: Everything that Fayol wrote about was something from his career as the managing director of a mining company. The criticism is that his background was not all that diverse.
13Common Criticism’s of Henri Fayol Taylor’s argument: Taylor thought that specialization was the best form of management. He thought that each worker did eight different things and that for each thing there should be a supervisor. Fayol thought that each person should only have one supervisor. Further, Fayol liked having teams do work together and making their own decisions rather than having a specialist do every little thing.
14Common Criticisms of Fayol Modern Criticism: Fayol refused to purchase stock in his own company because he felt it compromised his position as the firm’s managing director. Today, managers are expected to have their pay tied to stock because it is seen as their job to increase shareholder wealth.Fayol, also, wanted to board of director’s and shareholders to have limited power because he felt they were incompetent. This is criticized by those today who demand shareholder rights be increased.