Presentation on theme: "1. 2 Context for the Study Concerns about a shrinking scientific workforce General public lacks the basic understanding of science needed in a technological."— Presentation transcript:
2 Context for the Study Concerns about a shrinking scientific workforce General public lacks the basic understanding of science needed in a technological society High school science courses are not providing the skills and knowledge needed to meet these dual challenges
3 Committee on High School Science Laboratories: Role and Vision SUSAN R. SINGER, (Chair), Carleton College, Northfield, MN HUBERT DYASI, City College of the City University of NY ARTHUR EISENKRAFT, University of Massachusetts, Boston, MA PAMELA HINES, SCIENCE/AAAS, Washington, DC MICHAEL LACH, Chicago Public Schools, IL DAVID LICATA, Pacifica High School, Garden Grove, CA NANCY PELAEZ, California State University, Fullerton, CA WILLIAM SANDOVAL, University of California, Los Angeles, CA JAMES SPILLANE, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL CARL E. WIEMAN, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO MARGARET L. HILTON, Study Director HEIDI A. SCHWEINGRUBER, Program Officer JEAN MOON, Director, Board on Science Education MARY ANN KASPER, Senior Program Assistant
4 Charge to the Committee Review status and future directions for the role of high school science laboratories.
5 Guiding Questions Current state of high school science labs? Effectiveness of alternatives to traditional labs? If labs never existed and were now designed from scratch, what would they look like? What is known about labs based on principles of instructional design?
6 Guiding Questions How can technologies extend a vision for labs? How do structures and policies of high schools influence science lab learning? What are the costs associated with different models of high school science labs?
7 Conclusion 1 Unclear Definition and Goals Researchers and educators do not agree on how to define high school science laboratories or on their purposes. Gaps and disagreements in the research and in capturing the knowledge of expert science teachers hamper the accumulation of evidence that might guide improvements in laboratory education.
8 Framework Definition of Laboratory Laboratory experiences provide opportunities for students to interact directly with the material world (or with data drawn from the material world), using the tools, data collection techniques, models, and theories of science.
9 Framework Goals of Laboratory Experiences Mastery of subject matter. Developing scientific reasoning. Understanding the complexity and ambiguity of empirical work. Developing practical skills. Understanding of the nature of science. Interest in science and science learning. Developing teamwork abilities.
10 Findings History of Laboratory Research and Practice For over 150 years, scientists and educators have assumed labs are essential to learning science. Historically, laboratory experiences were isolated from the flow of science teaching. This approach remains typical today (we call these typical laboratory experiences). Researchers asked whether typical laboratory experiences added value.
11 Findings Recent Trends Researchers draw on principles of learning from cognitive research. Studies focus on how to sequence science instruction. Researchers design and study units that integrate labs, lecture, discussion, reading. We call these integrated instructional units.
13 Conclusion 2 Design Principles can Help Labs Achieve Goals 1)Clear learning outcomes in mind. 2)Thoughtfully sequenced into the flow of classroom science instruction. 3)Integrate learning of science content with learning about the processes of science. 4)Incorporate ongoing student reflection and discussion.
14 Conclusion 3 Quality of Lab Experiences The quality of laboratory experiences is poor for most students Worst for minority students and students in lower level science classes
15 Conclusion 4 Teaching Capacity Constraints Improving high school teachers capacity to lead labs effectively is critical to advancing goals. This would require major changes in undergraduate science education, including a range of effective laboratory experiences for future teachers and comprehensive teacher support systems.
16 Conclusion 5 Organizational Constraints The organization and structure of most high schools impedes teachers and administrators ongoing learning about science instruction and implementation of quality laboratory experiences.
17 Conclusion 6 Implementation of State Science Standards Constrains Goals State science standards that are seen as encouraging teaching of extensive lists of science topics may discourage teachers from dedicating the time needed for effective laboratory learning.
19 Conclusion 7 Assessment Methods Constrain Goal Attainment Current large-scale assessments are not designed to accurately measure student attainment of the goals of laboratory experiences. Developing and implementing improved assessments to encourage effective laboratory teaching would require large investments of funds.
20 Findings What next? The committee does not recommend any specific policies or programs to improve laboratory experiences, BUT A serious research agenda is required to build our knowledge of how various types of laboratory experiences may contribute to specific science learning outcomes. Research partnerships including teachers, researchers, scientists, and school systems are best able to carry out this agenda.
21 Findings Research areas to be addressed Assessment of student learning in labs. Effective teaching and learning in labs. Diverse populations of learners. School organization for effective lab teaching. Continuing learning about laboratory experiences.
22 Findings Labs for the 21 st Century Improving labs requires focused and sustained attention. Applying principles of instructional design can help science educators more effectively integrate labs into the curriculum. Our definition, goals, design principles and findings offer a framework to begin the difficult work of designing labs for the 21 st century.