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Eruptions and Forms of Volcanoes
Types of Eruptions Violent and explosive Quiet and flowingDepends on trapped gases and magma composition
Trapped Gases Water vapor and carbon dioxide are trapped in magmaAt low pressure, they escape quietly when they reach the surface At high pressure, they escape violently when they reach the surface
Magma Composition Two types:Basaltic – less silica and very fluid; produces quiet eruptions Granitic – lots of silica, high water vapor content, and very thick; produces very violent eruptions
Forms of Volcanoes Three forms: Shield Cinder Cone Composite
Shield Volcano Formed by quiet eruptionsBasaltic lava builds up in flat layers Gently sloping sides Ex: Hawaiian Islands
Cinder Cone Volcano Caused by explosive eruptionsGranitic lava thrown high into the air Lava cools into different sizes of volcanic material called tephra Steep-sided, loose slopes
Composite Volcano A mix of the other two types Quiet or violentBasaltic or granitic Steep or gentle slopes Layered or tephra
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