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1Copyright © 2014 Cengage Learning
What is an Interest Group? Members share common views and objectives Seek to influence government officials and policies to benefit the group 2Copyright © 2014 Cengage Learning
The Reasons for Interest Groups ■Legal and Cultural Reasons ■Decentralized government Separation of powers Government structure provides multiple access points for interest-group influence ■The Strength of the Party System and Political Ideologies 3Copyright © 2014 Cengage Learning
Characteristics of Interest Groups ■Organizational patterns vary depending on purpose/mission of the organization Centralized Decentralized Primarily people from professional and managerial occupations Decisions made by few members 4Copyright © 2014 Cengage Learning
Economic Groups Promote members’ economic interests Business Groups Most often are trade organizations Lobby for policies favoring Texas business Labor Groups Support public policies designed to increase wages, obtain worker health coverage, promote safe working conditions, and protect the interests of workers 5Copyright © 2014 Cengage Learning
Professional/Career Groups Professional Groups Organizations of professionals that lobby for policies beneficial to their members Government Employee Groups Organizations of government employees that lobby for better working conditions, higher wages, more fringe benefits, better retirement packages Teachers, public officers and employee groups 6Copyright © 2014 Cengage Learning
Social Groups Racial and Ethnic Groups Seek to influence decisions affecting racial equality and eliminating racial discrimination NAACP Latino groups are the most numerous. League of United Latin American Citizens Mexican American Legal Defense and Education Fund (MALDEF) 8Copyright © 2014 Cengage Learning
Women’s Groups Engage in lobbying and educational activities to promote greater political participation by women Texas Women’s Political Caucus League of Women Voters of Texas Religious-based Groups Lobby for policies promoting religious interests Christian Coalition, The Texas Industrial Areas Foundation 9Copyright © 2014 Cengage Learning
Public Interest Groups Promote general interests of society rather than the narrower private or corporate interests Pursue diverse goals 10Copyright © 2014 Cengage Learning
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Texas Power Groups Effective interest groups strongly linked with legislators and bureaucrats for the purpose of influencing decision making Business and professional trade associations and labor unions Maintain links with legislators and bureaucrats, have been around a long time, have headquarters in Austin 12Copyright © 2014 Cengage Learning
Lobbying Communicating with and attempting to influence government officials on behalf of special interests Texas ranked second in nation in money spent on lobbying state government 9 to 1 – ratio of lobbyists to legislators 13Copyright © 2014 Cengage Learning
Lobbying Personal Communication Communication between lobbyist and legislators Goal is to inform legislators of the lobbying group’s position on an issue Emphasis on information-based communications Relationships are formed over time. 14Copyright © 2014 Cengage Learning
Lobbying Favors and Gifts Arrange social gatherings, gift giving, and travel (with limitations) in order to influence lawmakers Grassroots Activities Mobilizing public support of an issue with use of political campaign techniques such as commercials, the Internet, social media, etc. 15Copyright © 2014 Cengage Learning
Electioneering Active campaigning on behalf of candidate or an issue Publicizing the political record of incumbent candidates Mailing lists, Internet activities, commercials, etc. Allow candidates to speak at interest-group events Public endorsements “Getting out the vote” 16Copyright © 2014 Cengage Learning
Campaign Financing by Political Action Committees Organizational device used by interest groups and other groups to raise money for campaign contributions No Texas limitation on PAC contributions or fundraising (excluding judicial campaigns) 17Copyright © 2014 Cengage Learning
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Bribery and Unethical Practices Most common form is an elected official agreeing to vote a particular way in exchange for campaign contributions Tom DeLay and TRMPAC 20Copyright © 2014 Cengage Learning
Regulation of Interest Group Politics Texas Ethics Commission Created to enforce legal standards for lobbyists and public officials Registers lobbyists and election candidates Collects sources of campaign contributions on a required basis Investigates and conducts hearings on ethic complaints against state officials, state employees, and candidates 21Copyright © 2014 Cengage Learning
Regulation of Interest Group Politics Corporations and interest groups cannot give directly to a campaigns, must create PACs Soft money directed to state Republican and Democratic party coffers as “administrative expenses” Citizens United v. Federal Election Commission (2009) 22Copyright © 2014 Cengage Learning
Interest Group Power and Public Policy Political influence of interests groups determined by: Sizable membership, good financial resources, good leadership, high degree of unity, well represented in the government structure, the socioeconomic conditions in the state Pinpointing Political Power 23Copyright © 2014 Cengage Learning
1. Explain what interest groups are, why they form, and that their essential characteristics are. 2. Describe the types of interest groups and analyze the qualities of a powerful interest group. 24Copyright © 2014 Cengage Learning
3. Evaluate the kinds of activities that interest groups use to influence Texas government. 4. Analyze how interest groups are regulated and evaluate the effectiveness of these laws. 25Copyright © 2014 Cengage Learning
1. True or False: All interest groups have one objective in common: to promote their self-interest. 2. Which are generally more powerful in Texas, business interest groups or labor groups? 3. True or False: LULAC is considered to be the oldest interest group dedicated to the interests and rights of Latinos in the United States. 26Copyright © 2014 Cengage Learning
1. Name two techniques lobbyists use to influence legislators. 2. Does Texas place limits on PAC contributions, as the federal government does? 3. True or False: At present, Texas forbids corporations to contribute campaign funds directly to state candidates. 27Copyright © 2014 Cengage Learning
1. True or False: Texas's campaign finance laws often involve public disclosure by public officials and lobbyists. 2. True or False: The Texas Ethics Commission is the primary state agency regulating political contributions and expenditures by lobbyists and public officials. 3. True or False: A campaign contribution accepted by a public official with an agreement to act in the contributor’s interest is against the law. 28Copyright © 2014 Cengage Learning
Chapter Eleven The Citizen in Government The Political System ~~~~~ Interest Groups.
Interest Groups Magruder Chapter Nine.
Review 1.What is the primary goal of Interest Groups? 2.Give 3 reasons behind the growth of Interest Groups in the United States 3.What are the reasons.
1 Business Influence on Government and Public Policy Professor Craig Diamond BA 385 November 4, 2009 Chapter 12.
Journal: Discuss with a partner What type of “groups” do you belong to? – Think…clubs, sports, band, charity organizations, etc… Why did you join these.
CHAPTER 11 Interest Groups
INTEREST GROUPS. Learning Objectives 12. Identify the different incentives that motivate people to join interest groups. 13. Compare types of interest.
Unit 4: Interest Groups. I. What are Interest Groups? A. An organized group that tries to influence public policy. The change in policy is aimed at helping.
Legal, Regulatory, and Political Issues
The Nature of Interest Groups What role do interest groups have in influencing public policy? How can we compare and contrast political parties.
Chapter 12 Business Influence on Government and Public Policy © 2012 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning 1.
1 The Nature of Interest Groups What role do interest groups have in influencing public policy? How can we compare and contrast political parties and interest.
Interest Group are: Organizations composed of individuals who share one or more interests in common and who have formed an association for their purpose.
Which INTEREST GROUPS do you (or might you someday) belong to? Interest group: A collection of people who share certain views on public matters and work.
Copyright © 2014 Cengage Learning INTEREST GROUPS Chapter Seven.
Interest Groups A private organization that tries to persuade public officials to respond to the shared attitudes of its members Interest groups attempt.
Chapter 11.3 Interest Groups. Types of Interest Groups Interest groups form to promote a shared viewpoint. By pooling their resources, members can increase.
INTEREST GROUPS AND CAMPAIGN FINANCE Interest Groups *A group of people who share common goals and organize to influence government. *Usually concerned.
Voting and Interest Groups Let your voice be heard.
Political Parties, Interest Groups, and Mass Media Unit IIIB Interest Groups.
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