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Tissues Tissues - Cells of the same type joined together for a common purpose.

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Presentation on theme: "Tissues Tissues - Cells of the same type joined together for a common purpose."— Presentation transcript:

1 Tissues Tissues - Cells of the same type joined together for a common purpose

2 Characteristics 60-99% water Dehydration Edema Osmosis Tonicity
Characteristics of Tissues 60-99% water with various substances dissolved in it (tissue fluid) Dehydration: insufficient amount of tissue fluid Edema: excess amount of tissue fluid - swelling Osmosis: unassisted diffusion of water Isotonic: solutions with concentrations of non-penetrating solutes equal to those in the cell i.e. 0.9% saline or 5% glucose Hypertonic: solutions with high concentrations of non-penetrating solutes = crenation of cells due to loss of water from the cell (sometimes given in an IV to pull excess fluid from edematous patients) Hypotonic: solutions with lower concentrations of non-penetrating solutes = lysis due to continued rush of water into cell i.e. distilled water (used carefully to rehydrate extremely dehydrated patients; also in drinks such as colas, tea, and sports drinks

3 Types of Tissues Epithelial Connective Nervous Muscle

4 Epithelial Tissue Support Structure Functions Characteristics
Epithelial: covers surface of body and lining of intestinal, respiratory, urinary tracts, and other body cavities; forms glands Has supporting “basement membrane” for protection Forms thin sheets, not very strong Has no blood vessels but depends on capillaries in underlying connective tissue Functions Protection i.e. skin Absorption i.e. digestive tract lining and kidneys Filtration i.e. kidneys Excretion i.e. kidneys Secretion i.e. glands, kidneys sensory reception i.e. skin

5 Epithelial Tissue Cell Types
Squamous Cuboidal Columnar Pseudostratified Stratified Glandular Cell types Squamous: “scale-like”, single layer, flat; diffusion Cuboidal: square, fat; secretion Columnar: tall, narrow; absorption, secretion; goblet = mucus; cilia Pseudostratified: single layer of differing heights; secretion; goblet cells; cilia Stratified: multiple cell layers; protection Glandular: make and secrete a particular product Endocrine: no ducts; hormones Exocrine: ducts; mucous, sweat, oil, salivary, liver, pancreas

6 Squamous Epithelium

7 Cuboidal Epithelium

8 Columnar Epithelium

9 Connective Tissue Support Structure Matrix Connective tissue
Supporting framework of organs and other body parts Widely separated cells and abundant intercellular matrix Fibers in matrix: collagen, elastic, reticular

10 Soft Connective Tissue
Areolar Adipose Reticular Fibrous Dense Regular Dense Irregular Soft connective tissue (CT proper) Areolar: support; collagen and elastin fibers, thin and glistening, wraps and cushions organs, nerves Adipose (fat): signet ring shaped cells; stores fat as reserve food or energy source, insulates body, acts as padding Reticular: soft internal skeleton i.e. lymph nodes, spleen Fibrous (dense regular CT): tensile strength when force is in one direction i.e. tendons, ligaments, fasciae, aponeuroses Fibrous (dense irregular CT): tensile strength when force is in many directions i.e. dermis of skin

11 Adipose Tissue

12 Reticular CT

13 Dense Regular CT

14 Dense Irregular CT

15 Hard Connective Tissue
Cartilage Hyaline Elastic Fibrocartilage Osseous Hard connective tissue Cartilage: tough, elastic material found between bones of spine and at end of long bones where it acts as a shock absorber; also found in nose, ears, larynx; no nerves poor blood supply - heals poorly Hyaline: embryonic skeleton, ends of long bones, costal cartilage of ribs, nose, trachea, larynx Elastic: external ear (pinna), epiglottis Fibrocartilage: intervertebral discs, pubic symphysis, discs of knee joints Osseus (Bone): similar to cartilage but has calcium salts, nerves, blood vessels; body structure, calcium storage

16 Cartilage

17 Osseous CT

18 Nervous Tissue Types of Cells Functions Locations Nervous tissue
Made up of special cells called neurons and neuroglia (supporting cells) Transmits impulses throughout the body Reacts to stimuli Makes up brain, spinal cord, and nerves

19 Muscle Tissue Structure Function Types Cardiac Smooth Skeletal
Highly cellular, well vascularized Produces movement by contraction of muscle fibers (cells) 3 types Skeletal: attaches to bones to provide movement; striated, voluntary Cardiac: causes heart to beat; striated, involuntary Smooth: in walls of hollow organs i.e. digestive tract, blood vessels; No striations, involuntary

20 Cardiac Muscle

21 Smooth Muscle

22 Skeletal Muscle

23 Membranes Combination tissues of ET and CT

24 Membrane Types Mucous Serous Synovial Dense fibrous Cutaneous
Mucous: lines body cavities, “wet” membrane; absorption and secretion Serous: lines closed body cavities and secretes serous fluid to protect from friction i.e. pleura, peritoneum, pericardium Synovial: tough, fibrous tissue that lines the cavities of freely movable joints Dense fibrous: tough, opaque for protection i.e. dura mater, periosteum, sclera Cutaneous: “dry” membrane; skin

25 Organs Groups of tissues with a similar function

26 Integumentary System Skin Protection Body Temp Control Sensory

27 Skeletal System Protection Movement

28 Muscular System Movement

29 Nervous System Sensory Integration Control

30 Endocrine System Integration Communication

31 Cardiovascular System

32 Lymphatic Immune System

33 Respiratory System Gas Exchange

34 Digestive System Process food Nutrient absorption

35 Urinary System Maintains water and electrolyte balance

36 Reproductive System Production of offspring

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