10The backbone is part of the ENDOSKELETON (internal skeleton). It’s job: SUPPORTPROTECTGIVES BODY SHAPEA PLACE FOR MUSCLES TO ATTACH
11Endoskeleton also includes the skull(protects brain as u see in my picture), ribs(protects organs), arm and leg bones (help you move)..but YOU already knew that!
12How can you tell the difference between types of vertebrates? BODY TEMPERATUREFish, amphibians, reptiles are ECTOTHERMS - body temp. changes with environment.Birds and mammals are ENDOTHERMS - body controls temp by controlling internal heat it produces.
13Chordates have slits in their throat called PHARYNGEAL One last fact about vertebrates:Chordates have slits in their throat called PHARYNGEALMost other vertebrates have their pharyngeal slits disappear before birth.PHARYNX
14Fish keep these slits all their lives as part of their gills. PHARYNGEAL SLITSFish keep these slits all their lives as part of their gills.
16HOW DO FISH USE THEIR GILLS? WHAT ARE THE 3 GROUPS OF FISH?
17FISH:vertebrates that live in waterfins for movementectothermicgills to breathehave scales - overlapping plates that protect skin
18Fish swim along, open their mouth & take in H20 OBTAINING O2Fish swim along, open their mouth & take in H20The H20 moves thru mouth to gillsGILLS: feather-like structures - red in color due to blood vessels in them.
19H20 flows over gills O2 moves into blood C02 flows out into H20
20Like all vertebrates, fish have a closed circulatory system Like all vertebrates, fish have a closed circulatory system. The heart pumps blood in a loop:HEART GILLS BODY HEART
21FINS: thin membrane stretched across bony supports MOVEMENTFINS: thin membrane stretched across bony supports
22Well, not like this…..more like…. FEEDINGFISH have highly developed nervous systems and sense organs to help in capturing food and avoiding predatorsWell, not like this…..more like….
23Their eyesight is better than yours (remember there is less light under water) Sharks can smell and even taste a tiny amount of blood - as little as one drop- in 115 liters of water! That is 57.5 two liter sodas!
24AND some fish have taste organs in the most unusual places AND some fish have taste organs in the most unusual places. Catfish have taste organs on their whiskers!
25Some fish like the barracuda have sharp teeth for stabbing food FEEDINGSome fish like the barracuda have sharp teeth for stabbing food
26Others, like trout have short blunt teeth for gripping & crushing insects
27Filter Feeders like the Basking Shark and Manta Ray use comb-like structures on their gills to filter tiny plants and animals from the water.
28Fish ReproductionMost fish have external fertilization: as female releases eggs, male spreads a cloud of sperm over them.Some fish like guppies and sharks have internal fertilization: when the eggs are mature enough to live on their own, female gives birth.
29Biologists classify fish into 3 groups: Jawless FishesBony FishesCartilaginous FishesThey are grouped according to their mouth structure and type of skeleton
31skeletons made of cartilage Jawless FishNo scalesskeletons made of cartilageone fin (no pairs of fins)jawless mouth scrapes, stabs and sucks to get foodLampreys are eel shaped parasites-use sharp teeth and suction-cup mouth to feed
33Skeletons made of cartilage Have jaws and pairs of fins CARTILAGINOUS FISHSharks, Rays, SkatesSkeletons made of cartilageHave jaws and pairs of finsPointed, tooth-like scales cover bodies - rougher than sandpaperCarnivoresRays and Skates live on ocean floor - filter feeders - east mollusks, crustaceans, small fishes
34CARTILAGINOUS FISH - Sharks Streamlined bodies for quick movementMouth on bottom part of headJagged teeth arranged in rows - 1st couple rows are for feeding - remaining rows are replacement teeth. If a tooth is lost, one from next row moves up (NO DENTURES EVER NEEDED!)Sharks
36CARTILAGINOUS FISH - Sharks Swimming or currents move water over gillsSpend most of time hunting for food - will attack anything that smells like food.Poor eyesight - that is why they swallow strange objects at times.
38BONY FISHMost familiar fish are bony fish: trout, tuna, flounder, salmon, goldfish, etc.Covered with scalesPocket on each side of head that holds gills - flap over gills opens to release water
39Swim Bladder and Buoyancy BONY FISHSwim Bladder and BuoyancyFish neither sink or float. They have an organ called a SWIM BLADDER - sac that stabilizes body at different depths. It contains O2, nitrogen & CO2...
40Swim Bladder and Buoyancy ...if the gas is less the fish sinks lower - if it is more the fish moves higher in the water. The change in the gas volume affects the Buoyancy Force - force that water exerts upward on any underwater objectLESSTHINK BALLOONS!MORE
41Bony Fish DiversityMake up 95% of all fish speciesLive in salt and fresh waterSome live in deep water and some in shallow