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Natural Selection.

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Presentation on theme: "Natural Selection."— Presentation transcript:

1 Natural Selection

2 Today’s Objectives: SOL BIO.8b-d
TSW investigate and understand how populations change through time, including: How variation of traits, reproductive strategies, and environmental pressures impact on the survival of populations Recognizing how adaptations lead to natural selection How new species emerge

3 Charles Darwin On the Origin of Species Sailed with the HMS Beagle
Observations made in the Galapogos Islands These observations helped him form the theory of how species change over time called natural selection

4 What is Natural Selection?
Natural selection is governed by the principles of genetics.

5 Types of Adaptations Protective Coloring Physiological Adaptations
Camouflage Mimicry Physiological Adaptations Reproductive Changes Other changes Behavioral Adaptations

6 Evidence for Evolution
Fossil record Anatomy Homologous structures Analagous structures Vestigial structures Embryology Molecular biology (DNA differences)

7 What is a Population? Populations evolve over many generations, individuals don’t Populations are groups of interbreeding individuals that live in the same place at the same time Individuals in a population compete for resources with each other

8 How Does Evolution Work?
Populations produce more offspring than the environment can support The unequal ability of individuals to survive and reproduc leads to the gradual change in a population over many generations

9 Mechanism for change in a population of organisms
Animals who have greater fitness survive in environment and live to reproduce Random changes (mutations) can lead to greater or less fitness Adaptations allow an organism to survive better in their environment

10 Mutations & Variety Produced by Sexual Reproduction Allow for Diversity within a Population
Genetic drift (caused by chance) Bottleneck Founder effect Genetic equilibrium Hardy-Weinberg law In H-W equilibrium, does not occur

11 Adaptations Can arise in response to environmental pressures
Temperature Antibiotic resistance in bacteria Pesticide resistance Morphological changes in peppered moths

12 Types of Selection Directional Stabilizing Disruptive
Extreme form favored by natural selection Stabilizing Middle form most successful Disruptive Two extreme forms successful in separate environments

13 How are new species created?
Geographic isolation Reproductive barriers Change in chromosome numbers Adaptive radiation

14 Types of Evolution Convergent evolution Divergent evolution
Dolphins & fishes Wings of bees & bats Divergent evolution Darwin’s finches Adaptive radiation

15 How fast does evolution occur?
Gradualism Darwin Species change slowly over time Punctuated Equilibrium Gould & Lewontin Species can make rapid “leaps” in evolution Modern Synthesis Parts of both are correct

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