Presentation on theme: "Biomass Energy CDAE 006 3.22.02 Coco Joly, Alexandra Bambery, Patrick Murphey, Kacey Campell, Amy McCarthy."— Presentation transcript:
Biomass Energy CDAE Coco Joly, Alexandra Bambery, Patrick Murphey, Kacey Campell, Amy McCarthy
Biomass Basics -Biomass fuels have the potential of providing 4%- 25% of the United States energy needs -3.6% of United States Energy Consumption derived from Biomass Sources Three major forms of biomass energy -Solid Biomass (Wood, Incineration) -Liquid Fuel (Ethanol, Biodiesel) -Gaseous Fuel (Landfills, Methane)
Biomass: In Context US Energy Consumption: –30% Petroleum –24% Natural Gas –23% Coal –8% Nuclear –7% Renewable Sources US Renewable Energy Consumption - 46% Conventional Hydroelectric - 38% Wood -8% Waste -2% Geothermal -1% Alcohol Fuel -1% Solar -1% Wind 8% Waste (US Energy Information Administration) Municipal solid waste, tall oil, digester gas, liquid waste tall oil, waste alcohol, medical waste paper pellets, sludge waste, tires, agricultural byproducts sugar and corn stalks, closed loop biomass, fish oil, straw
Biomass: Municipal Solid Waste Management
Biomass Energy: Landfill Methane - Landfill gas results from the decomposition of cellulose contained in municipal and industrial solid waste.
Biomass: Landfill Gas The efficiency of the process depends on the waste composition and moisture content of the landfill, cover material, temperature and other factors. 50% methane, 45% carbon dioxide and 5% other gases. The energy content of landfill gas is 400 to 550 Btu per cubic foot. Capturing landfill gas before it escapes to the atmosphere allows for conversion to useful energy. A landfill must be at least 40 feet deep and have at least one million tons of waste in place for landfill gas collection and power production to be technically feasible.
Landfill Gas Generation from municipal solid waste and landfill gas is projected to increase by nearly 9 billion kilowatthours, to about 31 billion kilowatthours (0.5 percent of generation) in No new waste-burning capacity is expected to be added in the forecast (US Energy Information Administration)
Biomass: In Vermont VT Energy Consumption Sources Nuclear 36% System 14% Hydro Quebec 35% Oil 2% Gas 1% Other Renewable 5% Small Hydro 7% Since 1984, Vermont has met all increase in energy demands(a total of 125 Mw) by renewable in-state sources: -40 Mw Small Hydro -73 Mw McNeil/Rygate (Biomass Plants) -6 Mw Searsburg Wind Farm EPA Landfill Incentive Program
Environmental Advantages Burning municipal waste decreases the amount of space needed for landfills Using a variety of crops reduces soil loss, improves water quality, and creates better habitat for wildlife Emissions of sulfur and nitrogen oxides are low
Environmental Disadvantages Emissions of carbon monoxide and carcinogenic particulates are higher than those from oil and gas Air quality problems in New England and Pacific N.W. (reduced visibility) Ash produced from biomass burning contains concentrated amounts of pollutants creating disposal issues
Economic Advantages Reduces dependence on fossil fuels, which reduces the money spent on importing fuel Possible increased job growth in new energy and environmental technologies Boost to rural economies – creates a varied crop basis and reduces federal subsidies for farming
Economic Disadvantages Large amount of land needed to support crops. This will decrease the amount of land available for: – Raising cattle –Further development projects Transporting costs for areas that cannot produce crops year round.
Should Food Be Used For Fuel? Energy and Food Production in Developing Countries: –Average dietary intake in the world is ~ 2100 kcal/day with 40 g of protein (primarily from plants such as grains and legumes) –Use three to four times less energy for food production per person than the United States. –Most energy goes into harvesting and gathering firewood (human power). –Human power is less economical - if all operations are done by hand, one farmer can manage about 1 hectare Energy and Food Production in The United States: –In the United States the average diet is ~ 3300 kcal/day with 100 g of protein (primarily from animal products) –Half of all feed used for livestock could be used for human consumption: more than 90 % of U.S corn crops are used to feed cattle. 25 million tons of plant protein per year are fed to animals to produce 6 million tons of animal protein. –~ One half of the food energy input goes into tractors and other machines. Only 1% of energy is provided by humans and animals. –Modern farms are more economical to run - one farmer can manage 100 hectare for grain production.
Decreasing Fuel and Increasing Demand For Food As the worlds population grows, the demand for food, and therefore the demand for fossil fuel use increases as well. - An easy way to increase the food supply without dramatically increasing energy consumption is to reduce the intake of animal protein. - The United States use about 600 kg of grain products to produce about 115 kg of animal foods per year per person. - Developing countries use about 180 kg of grain products per year per person are consumed. - If the United States did not feed that 600 kg to animals, 83 million more people in developing countries could be fed at their current consumption rate. - If plant products are used directly for food for humans, there will also be more available for fuel.
Biomass in the News March 18, 2004: The Mauna Loa Macadamia Nut Corp. processing factoring in Hawaii will add a new power plant next year to burn macadamia nut shells as a means to produce electricity. Plant will cost $12 to $15 million to build and will produce 1.2 megawatts of electricity. This is enough to power the entire nut processing and packaging plant; will be operating by the end of (From the Honolulu Advertiser) March 8, 2004: The New Hampshire Public Utilities Commission has given and order approving a plan to replace a coal-burning boiler with a wood-burning boiler at Public Service of New Hampshire's Schiller Station in Portsmouth. (From SolarAccess.com) February 19, 2004: Biomass research is increasing; the Energy Department will spend $110 million this year to promote bioproduct research. Plant- based materials could potentially create less pollution and fewer toxic byproducts than petroleum substitutes. (From The Kansas City Star)
Biomass Information Sources The American Bioenergy Association: This group advocates for expanded biomass research, and an expansion in the production of power, transportation fuels and chemicals from biomass. The Department of Energys Biomass Program: They are bringing you a prosperous future where energy is clean, abundant, reliable, and affordable. Biomass Energy Research Association: www. bera1.org This is an association of biofuels researchers, companies and advocates that promote the education and research on renewable biomass energy and waste-to-energy systems. National BioEnergy Industries Association: This is a technical site with the purpose of improving the environment and offering the best engineering solutions in the Biomass sector, especially in the form of wood burning boilers.www.bioenergy.org