2Strand: Force, Motion, and Energy SOL 5.3 The student will investigate and understand basic characteristics of white light. Key concepts include:The visible spectrum, light waves, reflection, refraction, diffraction, opaque, transparent, translucent;Optical tools (eyeglasses, lenses, flashlight, camera, kaleidoscope, binoculars, microscope light boxes, telescope, prism, spectroscope, mirrors); andHistorical contributions in light
3Essential Knowledge, Skills, and Processes Explain the relationships between wavelength and the color of light. Name the colors of the visible spectrum.ROYGBIV
4VocabularyVisible spectrum (visible light): a combination of several different wavelengths of light traveling together. It is part of the Electromagnetic Spectrum.
5Essential Knowledge, Skills, and Processes Diagram and label a representation of a light wave (wavelength, peak, trough)
6VocabularyWaves: a disturbance which carries energy and that travels away from the starting point.Wavelength: the distance between one crest of a wave and the next crest (distance between compressions); red is longest and violet is shortestPeak: the highest point of a light waveTrough: the lowest point of a light waveFrequency: the number of waves (light or sound) produced in a given unit of time, such as a second
7Essential Knowledge, Skills, and Processes Compare and contrast reflection and refractionReflection Refraction
8Vocabulary Reflection: the bouncing of light from a surface Refraction: the bending of light as it passes through one material to another
9Essential Knowledge, Skills, and Processes Design an investigation to determine what happens to light as it passes through a convex lens. Describe the results.A convex lens causes light to converge, or focus, producing an image that is smaller than the original object.
10Essential Knowledge, Skills, and Processes Design an investigation to determine what happens to light as it passes through a concave lens. Describe the results.A concave lens causes light to diverge, or spread out, producing a larger image than the original.
11Essential Knowledge, Skills, and Processes Identify some common optical tools, and describe whether each has lenses, mirrors, and/or prisms in it. These should include:eyeglassesflashlightscamerasbinocularsmicroscopes
12Essential Knowledge, Skills, and Processes Eyeglasses: have lensesc. Hyperopia (farsightedness)a. Normal eyeb. Myopia (nearsightedness)Corrected with concave lensCorrected with convex lensNo correction needed
13Essential Knowledge, Skills, and Processes Flashlight: has lenses and a mirror
14Essential Knowledge, Skills, and Processes Cameras: have lenses, mirrors, and a prism
15Essential Knowledge, Skills, and Processes Binoculars: have lenses and prisms
16Essential Knowledge, Skills, and Processes Microscope: has lenses
17Essential Knowledge, Skills, and Processes Explain the terms transparent, translucent, and opaque, and give an example of each.Plastic wrap Wax paper Aluminum FoilTransparent Translucent Opaque
18Vocabulary Transparent: materials that allow all light to pass through Translucent: letting light through but scattering itOpaque: materials that do not let light throughTransmit: to send (as in sound or light). It also means light passing through an object.
19Essential Knowledge, Skills, and Processes Analyze the effects of a prism on white light and describe why this occurs. Explain why a rainbow occurs.
20Essential Knowledge, Skills, and Processes Describe the contributions of these scientists in creating and using optical tools:Galileo GalileiRobert HookeAnton van LeeuwenhoekIsaac Newton
21Galileo Galilei Italian Lived from 1564-1642 Developed the refracting telescopeDeveloped the first known example of the microscope
22Robert Hooke English Lived from 1635-1703 Devised the compound microscope and illumination systemDiscovered plant cellsExamined fossils with a microscope
23Anton van Leeuwenhoek Dutch; born in Holland Lived 1632-1723 Made over 500 simple microscopesDiscovered bacteria, free-living and parasitic microscopic protists
24Isaac Newton English Lived from 1643-1727 Discovered that white light was not a simple entity, but splits into a range of colorsWhen he passed white light through a glass prism, he noted that a spectrum of light was formed; particle theory of lightReflecting telescope