Presentation on theme: "Set up Cornell Notes on pg. 15"— Presentation transcript:
1 Set up Cornell Notes on pg. 15 Topic: 9.1 Manipulating DNAEssential Question:Suppose you cut DNA. You know that you should find four DNA fragments on a gel, but only three appear, and one fragment is very large. Explain what happened?9.1 Manipulating DNA2.1 Atoms, Ions, and MoleculesSuppose you cut DNA. You know that you should find four DNA fragments on a gel, but only three appear, and one fragment is very large. Explain what happened?KEY CONCEPT Biotechnology relies on cutting DNA at specific places
3 Points to Ponder (Top of p. 14) A natural disaster strikes. Families are separated. How can they be reunited?If a body is found and the person cannot be identified by looks, how can we identify them?What types of identifiers do we have?
4 DNA- skin, sperm, saliva, blood Fingerprinting Teeth A natural disaster strikes. Families are separated. How can they be reunited?If a body is found and the person cannot be identified by looks, how can we identify them?What types of identifiers do we have?DNA- skin, sperm, saliva, bloodFingerprintingTeeth
5 Unidentified body found after the sinking of the RMS Titanic known as “The Unknown Child” NO. 4 - MALE - ESTIMATED AGE, 2 - HAIR, FAIR.CLOTHING - Grey coat with fur on collar and cuffs; brown serge frock; petticoat; flannel garment; pink woolen singlet; brown shoes and stockings.No marks whatever.Possibly third-class.
6 The sailors aboard the Mackay-Bennett, who were very upset by the discovery of the unknown boy's body, paid for a monument, and he was buried on 4 May 1912 with a copper pendant placed in his coffin by recovery sailors that read "Our Babe."
7 His body, identified as that of a child around two years old, was initially believed to be that of either a two-year-old Swedish boy, Gösta Pålsson; a two-year-old Irish boy, Eugene Rice, or Eino Viljami Panula, a 13-month old Finnish babyHowever, with improved DNA testing available in 2007, Canadian researchers at Lakehead University in Thunder Bay tested the child's HVS1, a type of mitochondrial DNA molecule, and it did not match the Panula family.
8 Finally identified in 2007 using DNA evidence DNA extracted from the exhumed remains and DNA provided by a surviving maternal relative helped positively match the remains to Sidney Leslie Goodwin ( ), and the reidentification was announced on 30 July 2007The Goodwins and their 6 children were third class passengers and all perished
9 KEY CONCEPT Biotechnology relies on cutting DNA at specific places. Baby 81 was rescued after the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami. He was reunited with his parents by using DNA fingerprinting technology
10 Biotechnology allows us to Produce transgenic organismsCloneStudy diseases and evolutionProduce medical treatments for people with illnesses
11 DNA cannot be picked up and rearranged by hand Therefore, scientists must be able to work with DNA without being able to see it, or handle it directly
12 Scientists use several techniques to manipulate DNA. Chemicals, computers, and bacteria are used to work with DNA.Scientists use these tools in genetics research and biotechnology.
13 Restriction enzymes act as “scissors” by cutting DNA allow scientists to more easily study and manipulate genescut DNA at a specific nucleotide sequence called a restriction siteDNARestriction enzyme
14 Different restriction enzymes cut DNA in different ways. each enzyme has a different restriction site
15 some cut straight across and leave “blunt ends” some make staggered cuts and leave “sticky ends”Sticky ends
16 Between what nucleotides does this restriction enzyme cut between? T and C or C and T
17 ATTACGACCTAGGACG 1. How many fragments are produced? Restriction Enzymes (Middle of p. 14)Restriction enzyme: cuts between T and AATTACGACCTAGGACG1. How many fragments are produced?2. Are all the fragments the same length?3. Please organize the fragments from biggest to smallest.4. How many nucleotides in each segment when organized?
18 ATTACGACCTAGGACG How many fragments are produced? 3 Restriction enzyme: cuts between T and AATTACGACCTAGGACGHow many fragments are produced? 3Are all the fragments the same length? NoPlease organize the fragments from biggest to smallest. ACGACCT/AGGACG/ATTHow many nucleotides in each segment when organized? 7, 6, 3
20 After DNA has been cut, several different things can be done with it: The gene can be studiedThe gene can be placed in another organismBut first, the DNA fragments have to be separated from one anotherSorted according to their size
21 Gel electrophoresis is used to separate DNA fragments by size. A DNA sample is cut with restriction enzymesElectrical current pulls DNA fragments through a gel
22 Smaller fragments move faster and travel farther than larger fragments Fragments of different sizes appear as bands on the gel
23 A restriction map shows the lengths of DNA fragments between restriction sites. only indicate size, not DNA sequenceuseful in genetic engineeringused to study mutations
24 ATTACGACCTAGGACG Restriction enzyme: cuts between T and A Restriction Enzymes (Middle of p. 14)Restriction enzyme: cuts between T and AATTACGACCTAGGACGYou organized the fragments from biggest to smallest.ACGACCT (7)AGGACG (6)ATT (3)
25 -Grab 3 colors. Please organize the fragments from biggest to smallest on this restriction map.ACGACCT (7)AGGACG (6)ATT (3)10987654321---Draw and complete this restriction map on the bottom of pg. 14+
26 “Who Ate the Cheese?” Warm-Up Please complete the warm-up by yourselfBooks open to5 mins
27 Who Ate the Cheese? Practice Gel Electrophoresis-Restriction Enzyme Lab Objective: You will examine crime evidence and model the process of gel electrophoresis and DNA fingerprinting to identify the person who ate the Queen’s cheese.Read the Royal Incident ReportYou are looking for the sequence CCGGGG CCThe restriction enzyme always cuts between the C /GAll cuts will leave blunt endsCount the number of base pairs in each fragment of DNARecord the # on the bottom of each DNA fragmentMake a restriction map to identify who, if anyone, is guilty of eating the queen’s cheese