Presentation on theme: "Colonial Governors of Louisiana"— Presentation transcript:
1Colonial Governors of Louisiana Spanish periodLouisiana (New Spain)Spanish periodLouisiana was the name of an administrative district of New Spain from 1764 to 1803 that represented territory west of the Mississippi River basin, plus New Orleans, Louisiana.The area, comprising what is now known as the Louisiana Purchase, was turned over to the French for a few days in 1803 before it, in turn, was turned over to the United States.Spain was to be largely a benign absentee landlord administering it from Havana, Cuba and contracting out governing to people from many nationalities as long as they swore allegiance to Spain.Although only maintaining it for 36 years, the Spanish were the ones who in fact were responsible for establishing much of New Orleans and Louisiana character that are normally associated with the French. Further, the Spanish control was to continue Catholic influence in the region.
2Photos Courtesy of the State Governor's Office and Wikipedia Antonio de UlloaSpanish PeriodGovernorAntonio de Ulloa was the first “Spanish” governor of Louisiana,Served under King Charles III.The French colonists rebelled against Spanish authority in 1768 and demanded his departure.Sailed to Havana, CubaAntonio de Ulloa12 January 1716 – 3 July 1795Spanish general, explorer, author, astronomer, colonial administrator and the first Spanish governor of Louisiana. He was born in Seville, the son of an economist.Ulloa entered the navy in In 1735 he was appointed with fellow Spaniard Jorge Juan a member of the French Geodesic Mission, a scientific expedition which the French Academy of Sciences was sending to Peru to measure a degree of the meridian at the equator, led by Pierre Bouguer. He arrived on 5 March 1766 in New Orleans to serve as the first Spanish governor of West Louisiana. The French colonists refused to recognize Spanish rule, and de Ulloa was expelled from Louisiana by a Creole uprising in 1768.For the remainder of his life he served as a naval officer. In 1779 he became lieutenant-general of the naval forces. Ulloa died at Isla de Leon, Cádiz, in 1795.Antonio de UlloaPhotos Courtesy of the State Governor's Office and Wikipedia
3Alejandro O'Reilly Governor 1769-1770 Spanish PeriodGovernorKing Charles III appointed O'Reilly to quell the rebellion of 1768.In his brief administration, he reorganized the colony and emphasized fairness to anxious French colonists uneasy about Spanish rule.Spanish Empire in the second half of the 18th century. O'Reilly served as the second Spanish governor of colonial Louisiana, being the first Spanish official to actually exercise power in the Louisiana territory after France ceded it to Spain. For his much appreciated services to the Crown of Spain, he was ennobled as a conde (count), and granted a coat of arms.Born in Dublin, Ireland in 1722, like many tens of thousands of other "Wild Geese", (Irish expatriates in the 17th-18th centuries), O'Reilly left Ireland to serve in foreign, Catholic armies. O'Reilly became a colonel in the Austrian army. After campaigning in the Spanish invasion of Portugal (1762), he swore allegiance to Spain and rose to become a brigadier general. In the 18th century there were six full-strength Irish infantry regiments serving in Spain and throughout its world-wide empire: Irlanda Regiment,(est. 1702), Hibernia Regiment, (1705), Limerick Regiment,(1718), Ultonia Regiment, (1718), Conancia Regiment, (1715), and Waterford Regiment, (1718).Alejandro O'ReillyPhoto Courtesy of Wikipedia
4Luis de Unzaga Governor 1770-1777 Spanish PeriodGovernorUnzaga was appointed by O'Reilly who left in 1770, and served under King Charles III.Continued policies to strengthen ties between French colonists and Spanish administrators. 1721 – 1790 also known (Luis Unzaga Y Amezaga)Was the first Spanish Louisiana Governor (from 1769 to 1777) as well as a captain general of Venezuela and Cuba.Unzaga (pronounced oon-thah'-gah), was born in Malaga, Spain.He accompanied Alejandro O'Reilly to New Orleans, Louisiana in 1769 to put down the Rebellion of 1768 of French settlers objecting to the turnover of Louisiana to Spain in the Treaty of Fontainebleau (1762).Following the formal establishment of the Cabildo (council), Unzaga became governor on December 1, 1769.In 1770 he married Marie Elizabeth de St. Maxent, second daughter of Gilbert Antoine de St. Maxent, the wealthiest man in Louisiana.Unzaga was noted for allowing open trade.He became Captaincy General of Venezuela from June 17, 1777 to December 10, In 1783 he became governor for Cuba where one of his first orders was ordering the a halt to the unrestrained cutting of cedars/Luis de Unzaga
5Bernardo de Gálvez Spanish Period Governor 1777-1785 Galvez served under Charles III and improved upon Unzaga's policies.Worked to increase commerce and trade.When Spain declared war against England, he supplied Americans with arms, and captured all British posts in West Florida. Those actions then gave Spain possession of both East and West Florida after the war.Bernardo de Gálvez y Madrid, Viscount of Galveston and Count of Gálvez (Spanish: Bernardo de Gálvez y Madrid, vizconde de Gálveztown y conde de Gálvez) (July 23, 1746, Málaga, Spain—November 30, 1786, Mexico City) was a Spanish military leader and the general of Spanish forces in New Spain who served as governor of Louisiana and governor of Cuba.Gálvez aided the Thirteen Colonies in their quest for independence and led the Spanish armies against Britain in the Revolutionary War, defeating the British at Pensacola and reconquering Florida for Spain. He spent the last two years of his life as viceroy of New Spain, succeeding his father Matías de Gálvez y Gallardo, who had been viceroy before him. Galveston, Texas and several other places are named for him.Bernardo de Gálvez
6Esteban Rodriguez Miró y Sabater Spanish PeriodGovernorMiro served under Charles III and Charles IV.Interim governor while Galvez was in Cuba from 1782 to 1785, and was appointed Governor in 1785.During his term, Spain allowed trade with France and the French West Indies and removed the duty on ships for two years which contributed to the development of New Orleans as an international port.Esteban Rodriguez Miró y Sabater ( June 4, 1795), also known as Esteban Miro and Estevan Miro, was a Spanish army officer and governor of the American provinces of the Louisiana Territory and West Florida.Miro was one of the most popular of the Spanish governors largely because of his prompt response to the Great New Orleans Fire (1788) which destroyed almost all of the city.Esteban Rodríguez Miró
7Francisco Luis Hector de Carondelet Spanish PeriodGovernor. Francoise-Louis Hector,Carondelet served under King Charles IV.Native of France, he was also a loyal Spanish army officer and governor.Francisco Luis Hector, barón de Carondelet ( ) was an administrator of Flemish descent in the employ of the Spanish Empire.He was born in Noyelles, Flanders. Carondelet was named governor of El Salvador in 1789, and was a Knight of Malta.After this he was the governor of the Spanish colonies of Louisiana and West Florida from 1791 to The Carondelet Canal in New Orleans, Louisiana was constructed on his orders and was named after him.He intrigued with western communities, notably Kentucky, for the purpose of detaching them from the Union. His purpose was to thwart the policy of the United States to secure unchallenged access to the Mississippi River, a tendency which made Spanish colonial officials fear for the safety of Louisiana and New Spain. The movement came to an end with the ratification (1795) of Pinckney's Treaty, also known as the Treaty of San Lorenzo.After his term in Louisiana Carondelet served as President of La Real Audiencia de Quito from 1799 through his death in 1807.Francisco Luis Hector de Carondelet
8Photo Courtesy of the State Governor's Office Manuel Gayoso de LemosGovernorGayoso was appointed by Charles IV because of his ability to speak English and his knowledge of colonial politics.He died from yellow fever in 1799.Spanish PeriodManuel Luis Gayoso de Lemos Amorín y Magallanes (1747 – 1799) was the Spanish governor of Louisiana from 1797 until his death in Born in Oporto, Portugal on May 30, 1747, to Spanish consul Manuel Luis Gayoso de Lemos y Sarmiento and Theresa Angélica de Amorín y Magallanes, he received his education in London, where his parents were living.At age 23 Manuel Gayoso de Lemos joined the military, the Spanish Lisbon Regiment as a cadet (1771) and was commissioned ensign (sub-lieutenant) the following year. The Lisbon Regiment had been reassigned from Havana to New Orleans since the Spanish rentry under Field Marshal Alejandro O'Reilly in Throughout his life Gayoso de Lemos retained his military rank and he was a brigadier at the time of his death. Don Manuel Gayoso de Lemos married three times: first to Theresa Margarita Hopman y Pereira of Lisbon, with whom he had two children; then in 1792 to Elizabeth Watts of Philadelphia with no children; and finally to Margaret Cyrilla Watts of Louisiana, with whom he had one son.On November 3, 1787, Manuel Gayoso de Lemos assumed military and civil command of the fort and the newly organized District of Natchez (West Florida), having been appointed district governor by Governor-General Esteban Rodríguez Miró, governor of Louisiana and West Florida. On his arrival, Gayoso de Lemos established an informal cabildo (council) of landed planters which was formalized in Most of the council were of non-Spanish origin having come down from the Ohio River Valley settlements (especially Kentucky). Gayoso de Lemos continued to encourage American settlement on Spanish soil, especially by Catholics, notably the Irish and the Scots, and those who brought significant property. He moved the administrative part of the town of Natchez from the waterfront up onto the bluffs. One of the most troubling aspects during his civil administration was confusion in the land titles, with a number of inconsistent land grants. Unfortunately, Rodríguez Miró's successor, Governor-General Carondelet was not amenable to rectifying the problem.While in Natchez, Gayoso de Lemos used the greed of a number of Americans, notably General James Wilkinson and Philip Nolan to help limit the growth of the United States. Also to this end, Gayoso de Lemos entered into alliances with the local Indian tribes and signed formal treaties with them in 1792, 1793 , and Under his direction the Spanish fortified the Mississippi at Nogales (later Walnut Hills, then later changed to Vicksburg) and Chickasaw Bluffs (later Memphis). He was instrumental in acquiring the information from James Wilkinson concerning the proposed US attack on New Orleans in 1793 by General George Rogers Clark.However, under the terms of Pinckney's Treaty promulgated in 1796, Spain agreed to relinquish the Natchez District to the United States. Thus Gayoso de Lemos oversaw the gradual Spanish withdrawal from the east-side of the middle Mississippi. In March 1797 the fort at Nogales was decommissioned with the troops and stores being moved to St. Louis. Final evacuation of the district did not occur until 1798.Gayoso de Lemos succeeded Carondelet as Governor-General of Louisiana and West Florida on August 5, His first act was to issue his own Bando de Buen Gobierno (Edit of Good Government) and to send a list of instructions to commandants of all posts concerning land grants.As governor, Gayoso de Lemos consolidated the military, still fearing a possible thrust south by Britain and desiring to keep Louisiana as a buffer between the US and the Spanish province of Texas. He continued the unofficial policy of allowing Americans to bring their slaves with them from the north, although the importation of new slaves had been prohibited in Louisiana since In 1798, Gayoso de Lemos, issued a comprehensive edict concerning Catholicism as the state faith of the colony. In addition to increasing formal church membership (and tithing), it attempted to coerce people to give up unnecessarily working on Sundays and holy days. In it, Gayoso de Lemos condemned anyone who challenged the theology or social centrality of the church. That same year he instituted state-run garbage collection (a novel idea at the time).Gayoso de Lemos died in New Orleans of yellow fever on July 18, Colonel Francisco Bouligny became the acting military governor and Nicolas Maria Vidal the acting civil governor.Manuel Gayoso de LemosPhoto Courtesy of the State Governor's Office
9Acting military governor July 18, 1799 - September 18, 1799 Francisco BoulignySpanish PeriodActing military governor July 18, September 18, 1799 Born 1736Died 1800 Note: Not listed in Wikipedia nor the State Governor’s site, but listed in the Social Studies Clairmont Press 8th Grade Social Studies Book Appendix page 546. His name is listed at this site as a Military Governor.A site naming him can be found here!Acting military governor July 18, Sep 18, 1799 Born 1736Died 18001769 Summer Arrives in Louisiana with Alejandro O'Reilly Returned to Spain to attend to personal affairs. and writes a lengthy memoir on Louisiana outlining ways to develop and strengthen the colony. He is appointed Lt. Governor of the colony and returns while Bernardo Galvez is acting governor December 10 He has been an officer for 20 years 10 months and seven days of which 2 years 11 months and 7 days were spent as adjutant f the Louisiana Infantry and six years 2 months and two days a captain of the same regiment December 23 Galvez approves Bouligny plan for settling Malagan families on the Teche January 8 Bouligny leases slaves and orders supplies through St. Maxent until those that Galvez has ordered arrive in the colony. Supplies ordered from St. Maxent: 6 barrels of salt 4 barrels of tafia 400 pounds of powder 1,000 bullets 1,000 lb. gun shot and bird shot 2,003 flints two grosses wood cutters knives 10 lb. vermilion two grosses fire beaters (batte feu) 30 lbs. of beads (rasade) 6 bols of Limbourg cloth One Gross of work shirts Ten grosses of bells (Grelots) 6 packs white caldrons (Chaudron blanc) 200 assorted wood chisels 200 assorted gauches 50 hatchets to split posts 50 hatchets to split shingles 50 two-handled knives 13,000 assorted nails 100 assorted pliers 4 dozen pincers 100 Hay Scythes...etc.
10Sebastian de la Puerta y O'Farril Marquis de Casa Calvo GovernorCasa Calvo was appointed by Charles IV as an interim governor after Gayoso's death.Spanish army officer and native Cuban who governed during the tumultuous times.Spain and America were in conflict over free navigation of the lower Mississippi River; and Napoleon tried to force the return of Louisiana to France.Spanish PeriodSebastian Casa CalvoOnly 18 years of age at the time, Casa Calvo first comes to Louisiana with Governor O’Reilly . He is a close friend of O’Reilly, whose son married a niece of Casa Calvo.1793 Casa Calvo is in command of Ft. Dauphine, St. Domingo, when 77 Frenchmen are brutally murdered by blacks, an outrage the Marquis permitted without offering any assistance to the unfortunate Frenchmen.1799 September 18 Shortly after the death of Governor Gayoso, the Marquis de Someruelos, captain-general of Cuba and Louisiana, appoints Casa Calvo to be ad interim military governor of Louisiana. One of his first acts is to transmit to the captain-general a petition from the planters, asking for the removal of restrictions on the importation of slaves. The planters want them to be brought to the colony in unlimited numbers, or at least enough of them to supply all the labor necessary for the conduct of the plantations.1800 February 5 With the consent of the acting governor, the Marques de Casa-Calvo, Americans Evan Jones and William Hullings lead ceremonies commemorating the death of George Washington. A small parade and ceremonies on the levee are accompanied by a cannon salute by an American naval vessel on the river 1800 August Forty planters petition acting civil governor Vidal to renew the importation of bozales directly from Africa. Sindico Procurador General Pedro Barran leads the opposition in the Cabildo. He cites the lack of a fugitive slave fund and the abundance of fugitive slaves everywhere. The Cabildo votes to back him. In the end Vidal, Casa-Calvo and Intendant Lopez decide that royal consent was not needed since the king had never validated Carondelet’s embargo of 1792.1800 December 24 Intendant Lopez issues a proclamation permitting importation of bozales. Casa-Calvo, who had been a planter in Cuba sympathizes with the planters. The Cabildo refuses to recognize the validity of the proclamation and appeals to the crown. This is one of the few points on which the Cabildo prevails this late in the Spanish Era July 15 Manuel Juan de Salcedo , a 58 year old colonel, arrives and assumes the office of governor. Nicolas Maria Vidal has been acting civil governor of Louisiana while the Marques de Casa-Calvo has been acting military governor of the colony. Casa Calvo immediately sails for Havana.1803 Spring of 1803 Casa Calvo returns to New Orleans having been appointed to act as joint commissioner with Salcedo in turning over the province of Louisiana to France. Pierre Clement de Laussat, the French commissioner to receive the colony summons all militia officers to his lodging to declare by yea or nay whether they intended to remain in the service of Spain.1803 May 18 Salcedo and Casa-Calvo issue a joint proclamation informing the inhabitants of Louisiana about the retrocession. Eight days later they send a copy of the royal order authorizing the transfer to the Cabildo. The formal transfer awaits the arrival of French general Claude Perrin Victor, but he never arrives because the war has resumed in Europe Nov. 30 The transfer of power is completed but Casa Calvo remains in New Orleans where he spends a considerable portion of his time encouraging the belief that Louisiana was to be re-ceded to Spain. He claims to have been appointed the Spanish Commissioner to determine the western boundary of Louisiana. He maintains a troop of 50 Spanish soldiers Oct. 15 Casa Calvo in company with Morales, the intendant, leaves New Orleans for the old post of Adaise (or Adazes), near Natchitoches. Gov. Claiborne, fearing it is the intention of the two Spanish officers to stir up dissension among the people in the western part of the territory, sent Captain Turner along with them to keep an eye on their movements and report January Early in January 1806 the two Spaniards return to Natchitoches and on the 25th Claiborne writes to Morales "I believe it a duty to remind you that the departure from the territory of yourself and the gentleman attached to your department will be expected in the course of the present month."1806 Feb. 4 Casa Calvo comes back to New Orleans on Feb. 4 and is almost immediately asked to leave the territory by the 15th. On the 12th Claiborne sends him a passport, with "best wishes for the health and happiness of the nobleman" whose presence has become so unacceptable. Casa Calvo is highly indignant at this treatment though there is nothing to do but to accept the passport and leave Louisiana, never to return.1825 Casa Calvo dies
11Manuel María de Salcedo - Wikipedia Juan Manuel de SalcedoGovernorSalcedo served under Charles IV and battled his government over the rights of Americans to navigate freely down the Mississippi River below Natchez.He left for a post in the Canary Islands after he officially transferred the colony to France on November 30, 1803.Spanish PeriodManuel María de Salcedo - WikipediaManuel María de Salcedo was a governor of Spanish Texas from 1808 until 1813.Salcedo gained leadership experience helping his father, the governor of Spanish Louisiana.In 1807, he was appointed governor of Texas, and he officially assumed that role on November 7, As governor, he and his uncle Nemesio Salcedo, the Commandant General of the Interior Provinces, often disagreed, especially on immigration issues.Salcedo was overthrown by Juan Bautista de las Casas in January 1811 and imprisoned for several months in Monclova. After he persuaded his captor to switch allegiances, Salcedo assisted in capturing documents detailing the movements of Miguel Hidalgo's army. The rebel army was captured one week later, and Salcedo led the military tribunal which eventually sentenced the rebel leaders to death. After fulfilling his duties with the tribunal Salcedo returned to Texas, but did not resume his duties for several months as a result of a dispute with his uncle and whether he was at fault for his own capture.In 1812, Salcedo led the Spanish army in Texas against the filibusters calling themselves the Republican Army of the North. He was never able to defeat the other army, and finally surrendered on April 2, Despite assurances that he would be imprisoned, leaders of the filibuster army executed him the following day. To avenge Salcedo's death, the Spanish army quickly reconquered Texas and dealt harshly with any they suspected of treason.