Presentation on theme: "Shakespeare’s Life and Times/ Romeo and Juliet"— Presentation transcript:
1 Shakespeare’s Life and Times/ Romeo and Juliet Background Information
2 William ShakespearePerhaps the most famous playwright/ author in the world to this dayBorn (April 23rd is celebrated as his birthday)Born in Stratford-upon-Avon, England (100 miles west of London)Agricultural center, market townMarried Anne Hathaway of Stratford in 1582Had three children with her“lost years” – not much is known about him.
3 William ShakespeareTheatres were closed due to outbreak of the plagueDuring this time, it is believed that Shakespeare made social connections with others..1594Theatres reopened.Shakespeare is listed as treasurer of the Queens Chamber (an acting guild)
4 William Shakespeare Between 1594 and 1599 Shakespeare wrote a lotPrinciple actor and manager for Chamberlain's menProspered financially, made investments1599 – became part owner of the Globe Theater1603 – James I becomes king of England –Shakespeare’s company performed for him 11 times.Around 1608 – stopped writing playsDied in 1616 at the age of 52.Credited with writing 37 plays and 154 sonnets
5 Shakespeare’s Works Four Main “types” of writing ComediesHistoriesPoems/SonnetsTragediesAlso other works attributed to him called “Aprocrypha”
6 Shakespeare’s Works Comedies Histories Has a happy ending – usually involves marriagesLight-hearted toneEmphasis on situations, multiple plotsClever servantsExamples – The Comedy of Errors, Midsummer Night’s Dream, Much Ado About Nothing, Taming of the ShrewHistoriesMostly based on the lives of English kingsUsed other people’s writings of English and Roman history to write these playsOften viewed as Tudor propagandaExamples: King John, Richard II, Henry V, Henry VIII
7 Shakespeare’s Works Sonnets About 154 poems Themes of love, time, beauty, mortalityStructure:14 lines totalThree four-line stanzas (called quatrains)Final couplet (2 lines) in iambic pentameterRhyme Scheme (ABAB CDCD EFEF GG)
8 Shakespeare’s Works Tragedies Linked to Aristotle’s ideas about tragedy:Noble/Admirable Protagonist - Audience must like, understand, and sympathize with main characterProtagonist has a tragic flaw –Hamartia – character flawHubris - prideCatastrophe/ Fall ending in deathFate/FortuneCatharsis – emotional purging – fall evokes pity and terror in audience (ie. The audience feels bad for the main character)
9 Shakespeare’s Works Tragedies ALSO influenced by Roman Tragedies Revenge plays a big roleTyranny – main leader with a lot of power over othersExcessive violence/bloody horror (everyone dies)Further influenced by the world he lived inHierarchy of people (kings, nobles, serfs, etc.)Order is given by GodOrder is disrupted in tragedyInternal forces – human weaknessExternal forces – bad luck/fortuneOrder is restored through an authority figure
10 Shakespeare’s Works Tragedies - Characteristics Noble but flawed charactersMotivated by – spiritual virtues, feelings, sincerity, glory/failurePlot - Key features -Cause and effect“tragic destiny” or fateProtagonist has an inner struggleAlways ends in death.At the very end, might leave audience with some sort of “hope”.Examples: Romeo and Juliet, King Lear, Macbeth, Hamlet, Othello, and many more
11 The Theatre during Shakespeare’s Time No women actors – women’s roles were usually played by younger boysThe plays were usually written by actors, people kept in mind certain people to play certain rolesAudience –close packedno reserved seats for commonersWould throw food/hiss/booNo scenery - words describe what is supposed to be “seen”Costumes were elaborate
14 Romeo and Juliet Based on existing material – old poems and plays First published in 1597Genre: tragedySetting: Italian city of Verona (mostly)14th centuryProtagonists: Romeo and Juliet
15 Romeo and Juliet Themes – a theme is a universal idea HastinessInfatuationSelfishnessForcefulness of loveIndividual vs. SocietyInevitability of fateMotifs – help explore themesLight/darkOpposite points of view
16 Romeo and Juliet “comic relief” in the form of lesser characters Specifically the nurse“fights” to get audience excited about the play“thumb-biting” – like giving the middle fingerShakespeare uses “puns” or plays on words to keep audience interested/entertainedCharacters divided into two “sides” – kind of like two gangs.Capulets vs. Montagues
17 Terms you should be familiar with Theme, Motif, symbol , metaphor, simile, pun, allusion, analogy, aside, iambic pentameter, blank verse, characterization, irony, dramatic irony, monologue, oxymoron(you already defined these in web activity)
18 Terms you should be familiar with Protagonist – “good guy” / who story is aboutAntagonist – “bad guy” works against the main characterDramatic structure – structure of the playConflict – struggle between characters or forcesFigurative language – language that is NOT meant to be taken literally.Foreshadowing – hints or clues about what is coming up.
19 Terms you should be familiar with Imagery – language that appeals to sensesMotivation – why a character does somethingPersonification – figure of speech in which something non-human is described as human and/or given a personalitySuspense – makes audience uncertain about what’s going to happen nextSoliloquy – speech in which a character is alone on stage and expresses thoughts aloud
20 Irony – three typesIrony – portrays differences between appearance and reality1. dramatic irony – contrast between what the audience sees and what the character does not know2. situational irony – contrast between what is EXPECTED and what actually happens3. verbal irony – contrast between what is SAID and what is meant (most common)
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