2Types of Cardiovascular Disease Cardiovascular diseases include:HypertensionAtherosclerosisheart attackArrhythmiacongestive heart failurestroke.
3HypertensionA person whose blood pressure consistently measures 140/90 or higher has hypertension, or high blood pressure.Over time, hypertension can lead to heart disease.You can reduce your risk of developing hypertension byexercising regularlymaintaining a healthy weightreducing stresseating foods that are low in sodium
4AtherosclerosisAtherosclerosis (ath uh roh skluh ROH sis) is a disease in which fatty substances, including cholesterol , build up on the inside walls of arteries. These deposits, called plaque narrow or block the arteries.PlaqueAngina pectoris (an JY nuh PEK tur is) is the chest pain that occurs when an area of the heart does not get enough oxygen-rich blood.
5Heart AttackA heart attack occurs when some of the tissue in the heart doesn’t receive its normal blood supply and dies.The cause is usually a blood clot that forms in a coronary artery that has been narrowed by atherosclerosis.Four major risk factors: high blood pressure, high levels of cholesterol in the blood, physical inactivity, and smoking.
6ArrhythmiaIrregular heartbeats, or arrhythmias (uh RITH mee uhs), are another form of heart disease. The heart may beat too slowly or too quickly, or with an uneven rhythm.Fibrillation (fib ruh LAY shun) is a life-threatening arrhythmia in which the heart twitches rapidly in an uncoordinated fashion.
7Congestive Heart Failure Congestive Heart Failure is a condition in which the heart slowly weakens over time.Usually, years of atherosclerosis and high blood pressure can lead to congestive heart failure.As the heart weakens, it is unable to pump as much blood as it once did.
8StrokeA stroke is a sudden disruption of blood flow to part of the brain. Strokes can occur when an artery that supplies blood to an area of the brain is blocked.Strokes also can occur when a weakened artery in the brain bursts, flooding the area with blood. If the burst artery is located in the cerebrum, the main portion of the brain, the stroke is called a cerebral hemorrhage (suh REE brul HEM ur ij). May also be caused by a head injury
12Risks You Cannot Control Heredity Having a family history of certain cardiovascular diseases, such as hypertension, may increase your risk of developing those diseases.Ethnicity Some diseases strike people of certain ethnicities disproportionately.Gender Some cardiovascular diseases strike men and women at different rates.Age As people age, their risk of cardiovascular disease increases.
13Risks You Can Control Maintain a healthy weight. Eat a healthy diet. Be physically active.Manage stress.Monitor your blood pressure.Avoid smoking and drinking.
14Health Stats This graph shows the most common cancers in males and females. Is lung cancer more common in males or females? Why do you think this is the case?
15How Cancer Affects the Body Cancer is a group of diseases that involves the rapid, uncontrolled growth and spread of abnormal cells.Cancer harms the body by destroying healthy body tissues.Cancer cells typically form a mass of tissue called a tumor.The word malignant (muh LIG nunt) is used to describe a cancerous tumor.The spread of cancer from where it first develops to other parts of the body is called metastasis (muh TAS tuh sis).
16Causes of CancerHeredity Some people inherit genes that have a tendency to change, or mutate, into forms that allow cells to reproduce too rapidly.Environment The environment contains cancer-causing agents known as carcinogens (kahr SIN uh junz). Carcinogens can cause mutations in genes that control cell reproduction.
19Detecting and Treating Cancer The key to curing cancer is early detection and treatment.
20TestsScreening tests, such as mammograms and chest X-rays, can detect cancers before any symptoms appear.If cancer is suspected from screening test results, surgeons may remove a small piece of the tissue in question to examine it for signs of cancer.This procedure is called a biopsy (BY ahp see).
21TreatmentsCancer treatments depend on the type of cancer, its location, and its stage of development.Surgery can remove a malignant tumor.Radiation therapy can kill cancer cells and slow tumor growth.Chemotherapy (kee moh THEHR uh pee) uses drugs to slow the reproduction of cancer cells. Immunotherapy (im yuh noh THEHR uh pee) uses drugs to stimulate the body’s immune system to attack cancer cells.
22Preventing CancerRegularly examining your skin and breasts or testicles for abnormal lumps or growth is a good habit to start.Although the specific cause of most cancers is unknown, certain behaviors have been shown to decrease the risk of cancer.Do not use any form of tobacco.Avoid alcohol.Respect the sun’s ultraviolet rays.Choose a diet low in saturated fat and cholesterol.Exercise regularly and maintain a healthy weight.Avoid unnecessary X-rays, especially during pregnancy.Avoid known carcinogens.
23DiabetesDiabetes (dy uh BEE teez) is a disease in which the body’s ability to use glucose (blood sugar) is impaired.Diabetes involves insulin (IN suh lin), a hormone produced by the pancreas that stimulates body cells to take up and use blood sugar.If not controlled, diabetes can be life-threatening.People with diabetes are also at risk forheart diseasestrokekidney diseaseblindnessinfections requiring amputationcomplications during pregnancy
24Type 1 DiabetesA person with type 1 diabetes produces little or no insulin.Without insulin, glucose levels in the blood remain high.Symptoms includethirstfrequent urinationnauseahungerfatigueweight loss
25Type 2 DiabetesPeople with type 2 diabetes produce sufficient insulin, but their body cells do not respond normally to insulin.As with type 1 diabetes, the result is a high level of glucose in the blood.Symptoms are the same as for type 1 diabetes, but also includedrowsinessitchingblurred visionnumbness in the hands or feetfrequent, hard to heal infectionsRisk factors for type 2 diabetes include a family history of diabetes, being overweight, and a lack of physical activity.
27AllergiesAllergies develop when foreign substances enter the body and set off a series of reactions.Any substance that causes an allergy is called an allergen.The immune system’s overly sensitive response to an allergen causes large quantities of a chemical called histamine (HIS tuh meen) to be released.Histamine is responsible for the symptoms of an allergy, such as sneezing and watery eyes.
28AsthmaAsthma is a disorder in which a person’s respiratory passages become inflamed and narrow significantly in reaction to certain “triggers.”Asthma attacks can be triggered by many things, includingcertain allergenstobacco smokestressexercisecold weatherDuring an attack, a person may wheeze, cough, or become short of breath.
29ArthritisInflammation or irritation of a joint is known as arthritis (ahr THRY tis).Arthritis is not life-threatening, but it can be extremely painful and disabling.Arthritis results in joint stiffness, joint pain, or swelling in one or more joints.There is no cure for most types of arthritis.