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Types of Cardiovascular Disease Cardiovascular diseases include: Hypertension Atherosclerosis heart attack Arrhythmia congestive heart failure stroke.

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Presentation on theme: "Types of Cardiovascular Disease Cardiovascular diseases include: Hypertension Atherosclerosis heart attack Arrhythmia congestive heart failure stroke."— Presentation transcript:


2 Types of Cardiovascular Disease Cardiovascular diseases include: Hypertension Atherosclerosis heart attack Arrhythmia congestive heart failure stroke.

3 A person whose blood pressure consistently measures 140/90 or higher has hypertension, or high blood pressure. Hypertension Over time, hypertension can lead to heart disease. You can reduce your risk of developing hypertension by exercising regularly maintaining a healthy weight reducing stress eating foods that are low in sodium

4 Atherosclerosis (ath uh roh skluh ROH sis) is a disease in which fatty substances, including cholesterol, build up on the inside walls of arteries. These deposits, called plaque narrow or block the arteries. Atherosclerosis Angina pectoris (an JY nuh PEK tur is) is the chest pain that occurs when an area of the heart does not get enough oxygen-rich blood. Plaque

5 A heart attack occurs when some of the tissue in the heart doesnt receive its normal blood supply and dies. Heart Attack The cause is usually a blood clot that forms in a coronary artery that has been narrowed by atherosclerosis. Four major risk factors: high blood pressure, high levels of cholesterol in the blood, physical inactivity, and smoking.

6 Irregular heartbeats, or arrhythmias (uh RITH mee uhs), are another form of heart disease. The heart may beat too slowly or too quickly, or with an uneven rhythm. Arrhythmia Fibrillation (fib ruh LAY shun) is a life-threatening arrhythmia in which the heart twitches rapidly in an uncoordinated fashion.

7 Congestive Heart Failure is a condition in which the heart slowly weakens over time. Congestive Heart Failure Usually, years of atherosclerosis and high blood pressure can lead to congestive heart failure. As the heart weakens, it is unable to pump as much blood as it once did.

8 Slide 8 of 21 A stroke is a sudden disruption of blood flow to part of the brain. Strokes can occur when an artery that supplies blood to an area of the brain is blocked. Stroke Strokes also can occur when a weakened artery in the brain bursts, flooding the area with blood. If the burst artery is located in the cerebrum, the main portion of the brain, the stroke is called a cerebral hemorrhage (suh REE brul HEM ur ij). May also be caused by a head injury

9 Slide 9 of 21 Top View of Brain Cerebral hemorrhage

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12 Heredity Having a family history of certain cardiovascular diseases, such as hypertension, may increase your risk of developing those diseases. Risks You Cannot Control Ethnicity Some diseases strike people of certain ethnicities disproportionately. Gender Some cardiovascular diseases strike men and women at different rates. Age As people age, their risk of cardiovascular disease increases.

13 Maintain a healthy weight. Risks You Can Control Eat a healthy diet. Be physically active. Manage stress. Monitor your blood pressure. Avoid smoking and drinking.

14 Slide 14 of 16 Health Stats This graph shows the most common cancers in males and females. Is lung cancer more common in males or females? Why do you think this is the case?

15 Slide 15 of 16 Cancer is a group of diseases that involves the rapid, uncontrolled growth and spread of abnormal cells. How Cancer Affects the Body Cancer harms the body by destroying healthy body tissues. Cancer cells typically form a mass of tissue called a tumor. The word malignant (muh LIG nunt) is used to describe a cancerous tumor. The spread of cancer from where it first develops to other parts of the body is called metastasis (muh TAS tuh sis).

16 Slide 16 of 16 Causes of Cancer Heredity Some people inherit genes that have a tendency to change, or mutate, into forms that allow cells to reproduce too rapidly. Environment The environment contains cancer-causing agents known as carcinogens (kahr SIN uh junz). Carcinogens can cause mutations in genes that control cell reproduction.

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19 Slide 19 of 16 The key to curing cancer is early detection and treatment. Detecting and Treating Cancer

20 Screening tests, such as mammograms and chest X-rays, can detect cancers before any symptoms appear. Tests If cancer is suspected from screening test results, surgeons may remove a small piece of the tissue in question to examine it for signs of cancer. This procedure is called a biopsy (BY ahp see).

21 Cancer treatments depend on the type of cancer, its location, and its stage of development. Treatments Surgery can remove a malignant tumor. Radiation therapy can kill cancer cells and slow tumor growth. Chemotherapy (kee moh THEHR uh pee) uses drugs to slow the reproduction of cancer cells. Immunotherapy (im yuh noh THEHR uh pee) uses drugs to stimulate the bodys immune system to attack cancer cells.

22 Regularly examining your skin and breasts or testicles for abnormal lumps or growth is a good habit to start. Preventing Cancer Although the specific cause of most cancers is unknown, certain behaviors have been shown to decrease the risk of cancer. Do not use any form of tobacco. Avoid alcohol. Respect the suns ultraviolet rays. Choose a diet low in saturated fat and cholesterol. Exercise regularly and maintain a healthy weight. Avoid unnecessary X-rays, especially during pregnancy. Avoid known carcinogens.

23 Diabetes (dy uh BEE teez) is a disease in which the bodys ability to use glucose (blood sugar) is impaired. Diabetes Diabetes involves insulin (IN suh lin), a hormone produced by the pancreas that stimulates body cells to take up and use blood sugar. If not controlled, diabetes can be life-threatening. People with diabetes are also at risk for heart disease stroke kidney disease blindness infections requiring amputation complications during pregnancy

24 A person with type 1 diabetes produces little or no insulin. Type 1 Diabetes Without insulin, glucose levels in the blood remain high. Symptoms include thirst frequent urination nausea hunger fatigue weight loss

25 People with type 2 diabetes produce sufficient insulin, but their body cells do not respond normally to insulin. Type 2 Diabetes As with type 1 diabetes, the result is a high level of glucose in the blood. Symptoms are the same as for type 1 diabetes, but also include drowsiness itching blurred vision numbness in the hands or feet frequent, hard to heal infections Risk factors for type 2 diabetes include a family history of diabetes, being overweight, and a lack of physical activity.

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27 Allergies develop when foreign substances enter the body and set off a series of reactions. Allergies Any substance that causes an allergy is called an allergen. The immune systems overly sensitive response to an allergen causes large quantities of a chemical called histamine (HIS tuh meen) to be released. Histamine is responsible for the symptoms of an allergy, such as sneezing and watery eyes.

28 Slide 28 of 19 Asthma Asthma is a disorder in which a persons respiratory passages become inflamed and narrow significantly in reaction to certain triggers. Asthma attacks can be triggered by many things, including certain allergens stress cold weather tobacco smoke exercise During an attack, a person may wheeze, cough, or become short of breath.

29 Inflammation or irritation of a joint is known as arthritis (ahr THRY tis). Arthritis Arthritis is not life-threatening, but it can be extremely painful and disabling. Arthritis results in joint stiffness, joint pain, or swelling in one or more joints. There is no cure for most types of arthritis.

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