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Organic Chemistry: Studying compounds that contain carbon – life is carbon based.

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Presentation on theme: "Organic Chemistry: Studying compounds that contain carbon – life is carbon based."— Presentation transcript:


2 Organic Chemistry: Studying compounds that contain carbon – life is carbon based

3 How many bonds does carbon always form? 0 of

4 Metabolism: how cells acquire, transform, store, and use energy

5 Polymerization: Large compounds are constructed by joining together smaller compounds. Monomers (smaller cpds) are joined together to form polymers


7 Composed of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen - C, H, O

8 A. Function Main source of energy: stored in the bonds released when bonds are broken

9 Absorbed in the digestive tract as glucose enters Breaks down complex carbohydrates If not used stored or excess can be converted to fat About 50% of the body s calorie intake should be from carbohydrates

10 Sugars and starches Plant food such as fruits, vegetables, grains Refined: much of the nutritional value and nutrients have been stripped away white flour, white rice, cakes biscuits and snack foods Your body cannot break down cellulose – but referred to as fiber (is important!)

11 a) Monosaccharides – simple (single) sugars Monomers : glucose, galactose, fructose b) Disaccharides – double sugars Polymers: sucrose (glucose + fructose) lactose (galactose + glucose)

12 c)Polysaccharides Polymers:starch and cellulose (in plants), & glycogen (in animals) Used for: storing energy

13 What are the simplest carbohydrates? 1. Monosaccharides 2. Disaccharides 3. Polysaccharides 0 of 32

14 - loss of water while putting together This is how complex carbohydrates are made (these can be stored) The chemical bond is formed between the - OH groups in each molecule Draw (on overhead)

15 - water splitting A water molecule is added to split apart complex carbohydrates

16 Important to the human body because the digestive system must break down the complex carbohydrates Once complex carbohydrates are broken down, they can be used in cellular respiration

17 Which of the following stores energy in animals? 1. Starch 2. Cellulose 3. Glycogen 4. Fiber 0 of 32

18 Fats, oils or waxes Composed of carbon, oxygen & hydrogen (C, O, H)


20 1)store energy (hibernation) - insulation 2)form biological membranes phospholipid bilayer of cell membranes Why? helps limit what can enter & exit the cell hydrophobic & hydrophilic parts (Fig 6.28) 3) used as chemical messengers (hormones)

21 1) Broken down into fatty acids 2) Stored in body tissues Used to store or release energy Fatty acids + glycerol [dehydration synthesis]

22 Unsaturated lipids: there is 1 or more carbon to carbon double bonds Does NOT contain the max. number of hydrogen atoms possible Healthier – Found in olive oil, fish oils, avocados,


24 Saturated lipids: carbon to carbon single bonds Contains the maximum (saturated) number of hydrogen atoms possible Less healthy – Found in animal products In meat, eggs, & cheese: harder to digest


26 Which type of lipid has double bonds and is not full of hydrogens? 1. Saturated Lipid 2. Unsaturated Lipid 0 of 32

27 Composed of nitrogen, carbon, hydrogen, oxygen (N, C, H, O) Monomers: amino acids (there are 20 common amino acids)

28 Peptide bond: joins 2 amino acids [A dehydration synthesis]

29 1. Growth & repair of tissue 2. Transport (hemoglobin transports oxygen) 3. Pump small molecules in and out of cells

30 1. Digestive enzymes break down into amino acids 2. When needed, proteins can enter the Citric Acid Cycle (cellular respiration) to help us get energy

31 Eggs, milk, meat, fish, poultry

32 What IS found in proteins, but NOT in carbohydrates or lipids? 1. Carbon 2. Hydrogen 3. Oxygen 4. Nitrogen 0 of 32

33 What type of bond holds amino acids together? 1. Ionic Bond 2. Peptide Bond 3. Parental Bond 4. James Bond 0 of 32

34 Store & transmit genetic information

35 Composed of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen & phosphorus (C, H, N, O, P)

36 RNA: ribonucleic acid DNA: deoxyribonucleic acid

37 Which macromolecule stores genetic information? 1. Carbohydrates 2. Lipids 3. Proteins 4. Nucleic Acids 0 of 32

38 I need the most help with….? 1. Carbohydrates 2. Lipids 3. Proteins 4. Nucleic Acids 5. Dehydration Synthesis & Hydrolysis Reactions 6. I need help with everything! 7. I feel pretty comfortable with everything 0 of 32

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