Presentation on theme: "The Americas, West Africa, and Europe"— Presentation transcript:
1The Americas, West Africa, and Europe Chapter 1 Section 1
2Ancient Cultures in the Americas First humans- from Asia-40,000 years agoSpread across N and S AmericaHunting and Gathering10,000 – 5,000 years ago – MexicoFarming → communities or civilizations3,000 years ago Native American civilizationsAztecs→ settled in Mexico 1200s
3Native American Societies of the 1400s Pueblo in Southwest (AR and NM)→ adobe houses→ grew rice and beansIroquois in Northeast (NY) → hunted, fished, gathered fruits and nutsTrade routes linked Native Am groups→ share goods/ideasLand was not to be bought and sold, but to be sharedFamily and spirits
4West African Societies of the 1400s Kingdoms and strong rulersIslam → 1400s. Founded by Muhammad→ 1 God, AllahPortuguese settled on islands off of Africa→ farms → African slaves
5European Societies of 1400s Rank systemRules/ Nobles→ powerful/owned landChurch leaders clergy, important alsoPeasants→ at bottom, worked fieldsThe Reformation, early 1500s→ ppl belonged to Roman Catholic Church but some called for changes. Ppl broke away and formed Protestant churches.New $ New business→ joint-stock companies: ppl invested $, company used $ for trade and investors got profits.Better ships and navigation → exploration
7Columbus Crosses the Atlantic Tried to find NW passage to Asia for trade.Claim any land for Spanish and convert them to Christianity1492 → then 3 more trips brought ppl to settle the landNot good for Indians→died of diseases, working conditionsNo more Indians? Need more slaves → Africans. 1250s – 1800s 12million African slaves to AmericaTreaty of Tordesillas → divided western Hemisphere N to S to settle disputes on colonization: Spain in West, Portugal in East
8The Spanish Claim a New Empire After Columbus many more conquistadores, Spanish explorers.Hernán Cortés→ conquered the Aztecs and took their gold. →Aztecs rebelled→ 1521 Spanish defeat Aztecs and called colony New SpainSpanish men married Native American women and had mestizos children → half Spanish half Native AmericanBrutal working conditions → brought in African slaves → Spain really rich
9Spain Explores the Southwest and West Spain sent explorers→ missionaries → to New MexicoSante Fe → convert Pueblo ppl so that other European nations wouldn’tBuilt missions in TX, CANative Americans did the labor
11An English Settlement at Jamestown 1607 English settlers founded Jamestown, VA1st permanent English colony →leader John SmithRough to survive, almost didn’t make itSell tobacco→ indentured servants: got food and shelter to work on plantationPpl began to fight, poor were taxed too much and not voting
12Puritans Create a “New England” Puritans→ religious group that wanted to rid the Church of England of Catholic practices1620 founded a colony in Plymouth1630→ Mass Bay Colony→ leader: John Winthrop, more prepared than othersTried to convert Native Americans1674→ King Philip’s War→ Native Americans vs English→ English won
13Settlement of the Middle Colonies & Prosperity William Penn and the Quakers→ religious tolerance, equality, cooperation→ treated Native Americans fairlyTrade=prosperitymercantilism→ rich 2 ways: 1. getting gold and silver 2. selling more than it buys (duh)Navigation Acts: England control trade with colonies1732→ 13 English colonies: assemblies that could raise taxes and make laws
15Plantations in the South and Industry in the North Had cash crops→ tobacco plantationsUsed and depended on African slave laborGot richNorthManufacturing and tradeMany immigrantsNo dependent on slave labor
16The Enlightenment & Great Awakening The Enlightenment→ you could use reason and science to find truth→ Leader: Ben Franklin2 important effects: 1. science as a source of truth weakened authority of Church 2. ppl has natural rights that govt must respect and challenged authority of British rulersGreat Awakening→ renewed religious feelings → new Christian denominations
17French and Indian War France had land too → Great Lakes, Canada Brits and French fought over the land1754 War began: Brits win1763: France gives up Canada & all of N. Am east of Mississippi River to BritsNative Americans dislike Brits→ led by Pontiac Native Am try to attack: lose.Proclamation of 1763: Brits banned colonists from settling west of Apps (they did it anyway)
18Colonial Resistance and Rebellion Chapter 2 Section1
19Problems between the Colonies and Britain Colonists say that Brits tax them too much: i.e. Sugar ActSaid Brits had no right to tax them bc they were not represented by ParliamentStamp Act: made colonists buy stamps to put on everything→ boycotted brit goods
20Problems between the Colonies and Britain Cont. 1770→ Boston Massacre: Brit soldiers fire at mob of colonistsBoston Tea Party: dumped Brit tea into harbor (symbolic)Britain closes Boston Harbor and put Boston under martial law1st Continental Congress writes a declaration of colonial rights and says if Brits attack they will fight them
21Road to RevolutionNew England towns prepare for war with ammo and whatnot1775 Brits march to Lexington Mass to get weapons→ Battle of Lexington and Concord: colonists defeat Brits2nd Cont. Congress meet→ send peace offer to King George III, he rejects it and says that colonists are in rebellion
22The Patriots Declare Independence Colonists reject Brit rule with help from ideas of John Locke (life, liberty and property) and Thomas Paine’s Common SenseJuly 4, 1776 Thomas Jefferson writes the Declaration of IndependencePeople’s rights to life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness cannot be taken awayGov’t gets power from the people and ppl can remove gov’t if it threatens rightsListed how the King took away their rights
24Choosing Sides & Important Battles Loyalists: supported the British and were loyal to the KingPatriots: wanted independenceMarch 1776: Brits seize NYC- tried to isolateChristmas Night 1776: Washington crosses the Delaware and took Trenton, NJFall 1777: Saratoga, NY: Americans defeat Brits and convince France to support themValley Forge: Washington’s army suffered from cold and hunger
25Winning the War 1778 Americans get help France→ Marquis de LafayetteBritish→ Charles CornwallisYorktown: French and Am forces surround Brits→ surrendered on OctTreaty of Paris 1783: Brits recognize the US as a nation with borders from Atlantic Ocean to Mississippi River
26The Confederation and the Constitution Chapter 2 Section 3
27Experimenting with Confederation Republic: a gov’t which ppl elect reps to govern. Democracy: power by an electoral system.Articles of Confederation: gave a lot of power to states and little to federal gov’tNorthwest Ordinance of 1787: land west of Apps Mts= territories and decided how new states would enter the unionProblem: small states has same power as big states
28Writing and Ratifying the Constitution Checks & Balances: prevents any branch from getting too much powerTime to ratify or give official approvalFederalists: support new Const.Antifederalist: opposed the Const.Wanted Bill of Rights: formal written guarantee of rights→ freedom of speech, religion, and pressConst. can be changed, amended, living doc.
29George Washington 1st President Bc he kicked so much butt in Revolutionary War, he was the logical choice to be 1stWooden Teeth?! Not really, but had many different types of dentures but none of them ever worked. Never smiled in pictures
31Hamilton vs JeffersonAlexander Hamilton: Secretary of Treasury- wanted strong central gov’t → got central bank → FederalistThomas Jefferson: Sect of State- wanted weak central gov’t; more state rights→ Democratic-Republican
32John Adams 2nd President – Bad temper Jefferson as VP→ runner up is VP Adams and Jefferson hated each otherXYZ Affair- France interferes with Am shipping, and try to bribe Am officials, the ppl want a war, Adams settles it with diplomacyAlien and Sedition Acts → against the law to slander gov’t officials
34Thomas Jefferson 3rd President Jeffersonian republicanism→ ppl should control the gov’t and it should be small and simpleLouisiana Purchase→ bought from France the land from Mississippi River to the Rockies→ sent Lewis & Clark to explore
35Jefferson ContMarbury vs Madison and judicial review→ Supreme Court has authority to decide of a law was allowed by Const.Super intelligent→ wrote Declar of IndpeOn his tombstone he did not include that he was President of USHad an affair with his slave Sally Hemmings, thought to have 5 kids with her, recent DNA evidence confirms this
36War of 1812Britain and France at war→ both threatened Am ships, and Brits seized Am sailors and forced them to serve in brit navy. It’s On!→ Am wins!3 important outcomes: 1. Anti-war Federalists died out 2. Am develop industries 3. US is independent
38Industrial Revolution & Nationalism and Sectionalism North establishes market economy→ farming and manufacturing that support each other.South→ Cotton Gin increases cotton production, more slaves neededMissouri Compromise→ which states would be admitted into the union as free or slave. Result→ Slavery would only be legal only south of a certain line.
39Andrew Jackson 7th President Jacksonian democracy: faith in the common manAlmost assassinated twice! By the same guy! Crazy guy thinks that he is heir to Brit throne and misfires on first shot and Jackson goes after him, guy misfires again! He is acquitted bc insanity. Odds of two consecutive misfires: 1 in 125,000
40Jackson Cont.Indian Removal Act: Native Am must move west of Mississippi River→ Trail of Tears: Cherokee were forced to walk from Georgia to new territory→ quarter of Cherokee diedStates’ Rights: more power to states, less to federal gov’t→ those who thought that Jackson had too much power formed the Whig Party
42Settling the Frontier Why go West? Economic→ cheap land and a fresh startManifest Destiny→ thought that God wanted them to settle the West and control itWhat about the Native Americans?Treaty of Fort Laramie→ gave them control of much of central plains. N. Am had to agree not to attack settlers.
43Settling the Frontier Cont. Trails to the West: Santa Fe Trail & Oregon Trail→ Jim has dysentery!Mormons followed the Oregon Trail and settled in Great Salt LakeBritain and US split up the Oregon territory →this give us current US/Canadian border
44Texan IndependenceMexico wanted Am to settle in Texas so it would become more stable→ soon Am outnumbered Spanish speaking ppl= conflictProtestant not CatholicBrought slaves→ Mexico outlawed slavery and tried to get the Texans to free their slavesTried to force Texans to obey Mexican law= Texas Revolution
45Texan Independence Cont. The Alamo→ Mexicans captured the Am mission and killed 187 Ams→ “Remember the Alamo”James Polk becomes Pres and expanded westward even moreTreaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo→ gave almost half of Mexico’s land to US
47New EconomyMarket revolution: ppl began to buy and sell goods rather than making them for themselvesFree enterprise: econ system in which private businesses and individuals control productionTextile mills: unsafe working conditions & low payStrikeUnions
49Spiritual Awakening & Reform Second Great Awakening: religious movement that used emotional sermons to awaken religious feelingsUnitarian: appealed to reason not emotion → wealthy educated pplTranscendentalism: one could find truth by looking at nature and within themselves → ppl who wanted to reform society- Ralph Waldo EmersonGave hope of freedom to enslaved ppl
50Slavery & Abolition Abolition: effort to free the slaves William Lloyd Garrison and The Liberator → immediate freeing of slaves → extremeFrederick DouglassFormer slave (escapes) learned to read and write, spoke out against slavery → said that it needed to be done w/out violenceNat Turnerled violent slave rebellion. Result: whites afraid → restrictions even tighter
51Women and ReformMany women worked for abolition movement and women’s rightsElizabeth Cady Stanton: helped to organize women’s conventionSeneca Falls Convention: supported reformsWomen’s suffrage: right to voteSojourner TruthFormer slave→ spoke out for women’s rights and abolition
52The Divisive Politics of Slavery Chapter 4 Section 1
53Slavery in the Territories Wilmot Proviso: a bill that would ban slavery in many territories.North: liked it- too many slave states would give them too much power in CongressSouth: hated it- said that slaves were property which is protected by Const.CA wants to enter as free state even though most of it is below Missouri Compromise line.Pres Zach Taylor says that states can decide how they want to enter the Union.
54Slavery in the Territories Cont. South says that any a ban on slavery is a challenge to their lifestyleThreaten with secession: a decision to leave the UnionHenry Clay: Compromise of 1850CA= free stateFugitive Slave Act: requires Northerners to return an escaped slave to the master.
55Protest, Resistance, and Violence Response to Fugitive Slave Act→ Underground Railroad: volunteers that hid slaves on their way to freedomHarriet Tubman: escaped slave, worker on railroadKansas-Nebraska Act→ newly divided state could decide if they wanted slavery or not. Both sides rushed to get it admitted as their own.Violence broke out: nickname: Bleeding Kansas
56Slavery and SecessionDred Scott: slave taken to free state by master. Scott claims that since he lived in a free state for a time he was free.Supreme Court says no: he is propertyAbe Lincoln: against slaveryWins presidential election with no help from Southern DemsSouth feels that they lost political power and 7 southern states leave UnionConfederate States of America: Pres. Jefferson Davis
58Union & Confederate Forces Clash Civil War begins: April 1861 Fort Sumter in SCHeld by Union but on Confed territory → Union doesn’t give it up → Confeds attack and take it.North advantages: more ppl, more factories, more food, better rails.South advantages: better generals, more soldiers
59Union & Confederate Forces Clash Cont. North 3 part plan: 1. blockade Southern ports to keep out supplies 2. split Confeds in two at Miss River 3. capture Confed capital Richmond VABull Run: 1st battle, Confeds win. Stonewall Jackson→ Confeds generalUlysses S. Grant→ Union generalRobert E. Lee→ defends Confed capitalDefeated at Antietam: bloodiest battle
60Politics of WarJanuary 1, 1863: Emancipation Proclamation: freed all slaves in Confed lands. Not yet for slave states still apart of the UnionNorth: high moral purposeSouth: even more reason to fight
62The Tide Turns1863: South wins many battles under general Stonewall Jackson→ accidentally shot by own troopsRobert E. Lee takes over→ tries to invade the NorthThe Battle of Gettysburg: after 3 days of fierce fighting Lee retreatsGrant captures Vicksburg for the Union.Union controlled Mississippi RiverConfed split in 2
63The Tide Turns Cont. The Gettysburg Address: Delivered by Abe Lincoln More than 50,000 soldiers died from both sidesAbe honors the dead and asks Americans to preserve the Union.
64The Confederacy Wears Down Losses at Gettysburg and Vicksburg weaken morale for the SouthUlysses S. Grant: commander of Union armies & William Tecumseh Sherman: commander of military in MississippiFought the South hard→ destroyed towns as wentConditions very harsh for SouthernersApril 9, 1865 end of Civil WarLincoln says terms should not be harsh.Confeds not to be taken prisoner
65The War Changes Everything Nation:No state threatened to secededFederal govt became more powerfulSouthern econ collapsesNo slaveryRuined landsAmerican Life:13th Amendment: abolished slavery in the USAbe Lincoln shot by John Wilkes Booth
66Reconstruction and Its Effects Chapter 4 Section 4
67The Politics of Reconstruction Reconstruction: the period of rebuilding after the Civil War & bringing Confed states back into the UnionAndrew Johnson now Pres. He upholds Lincoln plan→ pardoning Confeds if they swear allegiance to Union
68The Politics of Reconstruction Cont. Radical Republicans thought too easy on South. Wanted:Destroy political power of former slave ownersAf. Am to be citizens & right to voteFreedman’s Bureau: gave food, clothing to former slaves & hospitals.14th Amendment: gave Af. Am citizenship15th Amendment gave Af. Am right to vote
69Changes in Southern Econ Af. Am wanted own land: promised “40 acres and a mule”→ Congress did not honor it.No more slavessharecropping: system where landowners give a few acres to workers and they keep some profit and give the rest to owner.Tenant famers: rented land for cash.
70Changes on the Western Front Chapter 5 Section 1
71Native American Cultures in Crisis Great Plains: grassland in west-central USPlains Indians:Horses: made N. Am more mobile, hunted buffaloBuffalo: many basic needs, food, shelter, clothingWhy Move West?:Gold and Silver: Cities developed around mining townsHomestead Act: 160 acres of free land to anyone who would live on the land and cultivate it for 5yrs
72Native American Cultures in Crisis Cont. The gov’t sets aside land for N. Am but later reverses it and limits the land occupied by tribesTribes that attempt to stay on land are slaughtered by US troopsGov’t forces the Sioux to sign Treaty of 1868→ restricts them to a reservation. Sitting Bull doesn’t sign it, thinks he can do as he pleases. Nope.
73Cont.Little Bighorn: Custer tries to defeat N. Am there and secure gold.Sitting Bull ready for them → Custer’s Last StandArmies raided and Sitting Bull surrendersDawes Act: effort to try to Americanize N. AmLand sold, children taken away, buffalo goneBattle of Wounded Knee:Ghost Dance to bring back buffalo→ Scares white ppl→ massacre of N. Am.
74The Growth of the Cattle Industry Chapter 5 Section 2
75Cattle Industry Spanish explorers intro cattle and horses to SW. “cowboy culture”: food, clothing, vocabGrowth of railroads helps with market of booming cattle industry.More beef demanded by city ppl= increase in cattle industry
76Cont. Changes needed in cattle frontier Cows cause over grazing and land is destroyedNow must stay in one area and have farms→ no more open lands.Barbed wire is huge invention that keeps cattle in one spot.
77Settling on the Great Plains Chapter 5 Section 3
78Settlers Flock Westward to Farm Transcontinental railroad:Central Pacific Co: Sacramento, CA to EastUnion Pacific Co: Omaha, NE to West1896 met in Promontory, UTMost of the work done by: Irish, Chinese immigrants & Af. Am and Mexican Am.By ,000 homesteaders settled the landNot families as much as cattlemen and miners
79Settlers & Challenges on the Plains ppl living west of Mississippi River grew from 1% to 30%.Ppl built soddys: homes that were dug into side of hills or made of sod.Isolation→ farming difficult= new inventionsSteel plow, wheat reaperMorrill Land Grants: established agricultural colleges→ new crops & growing techniques
80Farmers and the Populist Movement Chapter 5 Section 4
81Farmers Unite to Address Common Problems Serious econ problems: supply of $ ↓= makes each dollar in circulation worth moregood for consumersbad for farmers bc received less $ for crops.Farmers wanted ↑ in $ supply bc it increase price of goods. Gov’t says NO.Transportation also cost a lot of $, barely made $
82Cont.Wanted Reform!Oliver Kelly: starts organization: Grange→ place for farm families to discuss social and education issues.Others joined: Farmers’ Alliances: teachers, preachers, newspaper editors who sympathized with farmers.Traveled throughout Plains to educate farmers→ get lower interest rates, protest railroads
83The Rise and Fall of Populism 1892 Alliance leaders create Populist Party→ Populism: movement to gain more political and economic power for common ppl.Reforms: direct election of senators, secret ballotsGained power, not as much as 2 main partiesPanic of 1893: ppl borrowed too much $ and went bankruptTwo groups formed around election
84Cont.1st group: wanted paper money backed with gold “gold bugs”. Would give dollar higher value2nd: bimetallism: money backed by gold and silver→ exchange gold/silver for paper $Republicans: gold bugs→ William McKinleyDems and Populist: William Jennings BryanMcKinley won, Populism dies out. But many of their reforms happen in 20th Cent.