Wheres the food from? Cropland: produce mostly grains. 77% of worlds food Rangeland: produce meat (grazing livestock). 16% of worlds food Ocean fisheries: seafood products. 7% of worlds food
What feeds the world? 3 grain crops provide more than half the calories people consume. Corn Rice Wheat Annual crops (need replanted each year) 2/3 of the worlds people survive mostly on these grains and little to no meat.
Industrialized Agriculture AKA: high-input agriculture Uses large amounts of fossil fuel energy, water, commercial fertilizers, pesticides Produces monocultures (single crop) or livestock for sale to others Mostly in developed countries Think John Deere
Plantation Agriculture A form of industrialized agriculture Involves large monocultures of cash crops such as: Bananas Coffee Soybeans Sugarcane Cocoa Vegetables Mostly in tropical areas of developing countries Products usually exported to developed countries.
Traditional Agriculture Traditional subsistence agriculture: utilizes human labor, draft animals in order to produce enough food for family to eat Think: old work horse
Traditional Agriculture Traditional intensive agriculture: still human labor and animals, but also uses fertilizer, primitive irrigation to get higher yields. Enough to feed family and surplus to sell. Think: China
Centers of ancient intensive agriculture based civilizations
Industrialized agriculture Shifting cultivation Plantation agriculture Nomadic herding Intensive traditional agriculture No agriculture
14.2 Green RevolutionGreen Revolution (view time 5:05) Answer questions on sheet
14.3 Soil Erosion & Degradation
Soil Erosion Three main causes of soil erosion: –Water –Wind –People Land degradation: natural or human activity that decreases soils ability to support plants or living organisms. Soil erosion: movement of soil from one place to another. Typically from wind or water. Human activities that increase soil erosion: burning ditches, ATV use, logging, farming, overgrazing of livestock, monoculture, constructuion, etc.
Soil Erosion Causes damages to 1.Agriculture 2.Waterways (canals) 3.Infrastructures (dams) Interferes with 1.Wetland ecosystems 2.Reproductive cycles (as in salmon) 3.Oxygen capacity 4.pH of water. Common types 1.Sheet – soil moves off in horizontal layer 2.Rill – fast H20 cuts small channels in soil 3.Gully – more extreme version of rill
Learn from the past – Dust Bowl Dust bowl – occurred in 1930s (dirty thirties) Kansas, Oklahoma and Texas
Learn from the past – Dust Bowl Effect: dust storms killed livestock and wild animals, families left the area in search of jobs, 1935 Soil Conservation Service was established
Learn from the past – Dust Bowl (View time 1:03)
Law to Know 1935 Soil Erosion Act Established the Soil Conservation Service. Mandates the protection of the nations soil reserves. Deals with soil erosion problems, carries out soil survey, and does research on soil salinity.
Desertification Desertification: productive land that has lost its productivity due to human activity and natural climate change. Human causes: same as soil erosion – overgrazing, over tilling, destruction of natural grasses/plants, and surface mining. You should be able to give many examples if asked how it is caused. Consequences Causes Worsening drought Famine Economic losses Lower living standards Environmental refugees Overgrazing Deforestation Erosion Salinization Soil compaction Natural climate change
Solutions to desertification Low or no-till farming Rotate grazing animals Plant trees, native grasses Reduce amount of land cleared of trees Reduce harmful irrigation Wait to plow farm fields until spring
Bad News for Dirt UN survey: topsoil is eroding faster than it can be replaced in about 38% of worlds cropland. Putting a price on it: $375 billion dollars a year spent on damages. Good News for Dirt In the US soil erosion has been cut by 2/3 since US has government programs in place to continue to fight this problem. CRP land = government pays farmers to not farm land for years.
Salinization READ YOUR LAB HANDOUT!!! Salinization: gradual build up of salts in soil. Caused by irrigation How it happens: –groundwater naturally picks up various salts as it travels through rocks and mineral beds. –Plants are watered with this ground water through irrigation –These salts do not evaporate when the water does. –Salts build up in soil over time.
Figure Page 283 Reduce irrigation Switch to salt- tolerant crops (such as barley, cotton, sugar beet) Prevention Flushing soil (expensive and wastes water) Not growing crops for 2-5 years Installing under- ground drainage systems (expensive) Cleanup Solutions Soil Salinization
Waterlogging A problem with irrigation Water gets trapped under the surface, but cant percolate downward – less permeable layers of soil underneath Plant roots are then saturated with saline water Evaporation Transpiration Evaporation Waterlogging Less permeable clay layer
14.4 Soil Conservation Dont take notes for this section!
Soil conservation Conventional-tillage farming: frequently practiced in midwest. Plowing/disking of fields in fall so it is ready in the spring. Leaves topsoil vulnerable for months. Conservation-tillage farming: little or no plowing prior to planting. Leave past crop residue on fields, do not plow in fall. In 2004, 45% of farm fields utilized a form of conservation-tillage; USDA would like that number to grow to 80% of farm fields.
Terracing: change hillsides into steps. Slows water running off.
Contour farming: planting crops across the hill slope instead of up and down. Also slows water
Strip cropping: Planting alternating rows of cover crop with row crops. The cover crop traps the soil that erodes from row crop.
Alley cropping: AKA – agroforestry. Planting crops in alleys between rows of trees or shrubs. Holds soil and reduces evaporation
Cover crops: planting cover crops (alfalfa, clover, etc) immediately after harvest to hold soil in place over winter.
Chronic Undernutrition Marasmus: diet is low in both calories and protein. Typically breast feeding babies of malnourished mothers or those just weaned from nursing not getting enough to eat. Starvation.
Malnutrition A general term for the medical condition caused by an improper diet or poor food quality.
Kwashiorkor Kwashiorkor: severe protein deficiency. Can cause a bloated belly, discolored skin. Can happen when a 1-3 year old child is weaned from breast milk. They can get enough calories, but not enough protein. (not enough meat in diet or protein vegetables)
UNICEF and solutions Immunize children Encourage breast feeding and maternal nutrition Vitamin A capsule twice a year (75 cents) Spacing births more than 2 years apart Education for women on nutrition, child care, drinking water sterilization Most deficient nutrients: vitamin A, iodine, and iron
Over-nutrition Over-nutrition leads to overweight and obese adults. Health problems of over and under nutrition are very similar – lower life quality, lower life expectancy, susceptibility to disease. About 1 in 7 adults in developed countries is overweight. US is one of the worst. Go figure! Americans spend $40 billion a year on weight loss, but only $19 billion is spent worldwide on malnutrition.
14.6 Increasing Crop Production
How can we feed the world? Genetic engineering of crops – Change our eating habits – try new foods, cultivate new crops, use the 1,500 species of edible insects. YUM!!
How can we feed the world? Polycultures of perennial crops Reduce wasted food (70% of food is wasted through spoiling, poor processing, and plate waste)
14.7 Producing More Meat
Wheres the beef? It is more efficient to use land to produce grain for human consumption than to use it to produce meat for human consumption. WHY?? When raising livestock you need land for the animals and land for the food for the animals. It takes less energy to harvest grain than to process meat products.
Meat and potatoes for dinner? Moderate grazing is actually good for vegetation. Problem: most places use pastures where overgrazing occurs Production of meat requires more energy and land than production of grains Advantages to meat: high in protein, high in iron Disadvantages to meat: high in fat, too much can lead to heart disease, high blood pressure, etc.
Home on the range? Grazing on ranges can be very hard on the area. Grazing animals tend to overgraze and destroy riparian zones (located next to water) Animal waste can end up in water supply Grazing animals may only eat certain vegetation; other vegetation can then take over.
Developed countries US consumers spend only about 2% of their income on domestically produced food. (farm products have dropped in cost, they now cost about 1/3 of what they did in 1910.) 10 units of energy (input) to produce 1 unit of food product (output) for industrialized agriculture. Traditional subsistence agriculture: 1 unit energy input to 1 unit food output. Video clip (7:08)Video clip (7:08) Traditional intensive agriculture: 1 unit energy input to up to 10 units food output.
Increase in Meat Production Between , world meat production has increased five times. Per capita meat production has more than doubled. Remember affluenza!
14.8 Fishing Worksheet to come
14.9 Government Agricultural Policy Government assistance: –Price controls to keep food prices low –Subsidies and tax breaks to farmers to encourage food production –If above two are eliminated, market demand would control costs. –Danger in this: lower income families might have harder time paying food costs. Would need more financial assistance for these people.
14.10 Sustainable Agriculture What Can You Do?
High-yield polyculture Organic fertilizers Biological pest control Integrated pest management Irrigation efficiency Perennial crops Crop rotation Use of more water- efficient crops Soil conservation Subsidies for more sustainable farming and fishing Increase Soil erosion Soil salinization Aquifer depletion Overgrazing Overfishing Loss of biodiversity Loss of prime cropland Food waste Subsidies for unsustainable farming and fishing Population growth Poverty Decrease Solutions Sustainable Agriculture