3Where’s the food from?Cropland: produce mostly grains. 77% of world’s foodRangeland: produce meat (grazing livestock). 16% of world’s foodOcean fisheries: seafood products. 7% of world’s food
4What feeds the world?3 grain crops provide more than half the calories people consume.CornRiceWheatAnnual crops (need replanted each year)2/3 of the world’s people survive mostly on these grains and little to no meat.
5Industrialized Agriculture AKA: high-input agricultureUses large amounts of fossil fuel energy, water, commercial fertilizers, pesticidesProduces monocultures (single crop) or livestock for sale to othersMostly in developed countriesThink John Deere
6Plantation Agriculture A form of industrialized agricultureInvolves large monocultures of cash crops such as:BananasCoffeeSoybeansSugarcaneCocoaVegetablesMostly in tropical areas of developing countriesProducts usually exported to developed countries.
7Traditional Agriculture Traditional subsistence agriculture: utilizes human labor, draft animals in order to produce enough food for family to eatThink: old work horse
8Traditional Agriculture Traditional intensive agriculture: still human labor and animals, but also uses fertilizer, primitive irrigation to get higher yields. Enough to feed family and surplus to sell.Think: China
9Centers of ancient intensive agriculture based civilizations
10Industrialized agriculture Shifting cultivationPlantation agricultureNomadic herdingIntensive traditional agricultureNo agriculture
11(view time 5:05) Answer questions on sheet 14.2 Green Revolution(view time 5:05)Answer questions on sheet
13Soil Erosion Three main causes of soil erosion: WaterWindPeopleLand degradation: natural or human activity that decreases soils ability to support plants or living organisms.Soil erosion: movement of soil from one place to another. Typically from wind or water.Human activities that increase soil erosion: burning ditches, ATV use, logging, farming, overgrazing of livestock, monoculture, constructuion, etc.
14Soil Erosion Causes damages to Interferes with Common types AgricultureWaterways (canals)Infrastructures (dams)Interferes withWetland ecosystemsReproductive cycles (as in salmon)Oxygen capacitypH of water.Common typesSheet – soil moves off in horizontal layerRill – fast H20 cuts small channels in soilGully – more extreme version of rill
15Learn from the past – Dust Bowl Dust bowl – occurred in 1930’s (“dirty thirties”)Kansas,Oklahomaand Texas
16Learn from the past – Dust Bowl Effect: dust storms killed livestock and wild animals, families left the area in search of jobs, 1935 Soil Conservation Service was established
17Learn from the past – Dust Bowl (View time 1:03)
18Law to Know 1935 Soil Erosion Act Established the Soil Conservation Service. Mandates the protection of the nations soil reserves. Deals with soil erosion problems, carries out soil survey, and does research on soil salinity.
19DesertificationDesertification: productive land that has lost it’s productivity due to human activity and natural climate change.Human causes: same as soil erosion – overgrazing, over tilling, destruction of natural grasses/plants, and surface mining.You should be able to give many examples if asked how it is caused.ConsequencesCausesWorsening droughtFamineEconomic lossesLower livingstandardsEnvironmentalrefugeesOvergrazingDeforestationErosionSalinizationSoil compactionNatural climatechange
20Solutions to desertification Low or no-till farmingRotate grazing animalsPlant trees, native grassesReduce amount of land cleared of treesReduce harmful irrigationWait to plow farm fields until spring
21Bad News for Dirt Good News for Dirt UN survey: topsoil is eroding faster than it can be replaced in about 38% of world’s cropland.Putting a price on it: $375 billion dollars a year spent on damages.Good News for DirtIn the US soil erosion has been cut by 2/3 since 1987.US has government programs in place to continue to fight this problem. CRP land = government pays farmers to not farm land for years.
22Salinization READ YOUR LAB HANDOUT!!! Salinization: gradual build up of salts in soil. Caused by irrigationHow it happens:groundwater naturally picks up various salts as it travels through rocks and mineral beds.Plants are watered with this ground water through irrigationThese salts do not evaporate when the water does.Salts build up in soil over time.
24Waterlogging A problem with irrigation Water gets trapped under the surface, but can’t percolate downward – less permeable layers of soil underneathPlant roots are then saturated with saline waterEvaporationTranspirationWaterloggingLess permeableclay layer
25Don’t take notes for this section! 14.4 Soil ConservationDon’t take notes for this section!
26Soil conservationConventional-tillage farming: frequently practiced in midwest. Plowing/disking of fields in fall so it is “ready” in the spring. Leaves topsoil vulnerable for months.Conservation-tillage farming: little or no plowing prior to planting. Leave past crop residue on fields, do not plow in fall.In 2004, 45% of farm fields utilized a form of conservation-tillage; USDA would like that number to grow to 80% of farm fields.
27Terracing: change hillsides into “steps”. Slows water running off.
28Contour farming: planting crops across the hill slope instead of up and down. Also slows water
29Strip cropping: Planting alternating rows of cover crop with row crops Strip cropping: Planting alternating rows of cover crop with row crops. The cover crop traps the soil that erodes from row crop.
34Chronic Undernutrition Marasmus: diet is low in both calories and protein. Typically breast feeding babies of malnourished mothers or those just weaned from nursing not getting enough to eat. Starvation.
35MalnutritionA general term for the medical condition caused by an improper diet or poor food quality.
36KwashiorkorKwashiorkor: severe protein deficiency. Can cause a bloated belly, discolored skin. Can happen when a 1-3 year old child is weaned from breast milk. They can get enough calories, but not enough protein. (not enough meat in diet or protein vegetables)
37UNICEF and solutions Immunize children Encourage breast feeding and maternal nutritionVitamin A capsule twice a year (75 cents)Spacing births more than 2 years apartEducation for women on nutrition, child care, drinking water sterilizationMost deficient nutrients: vitamin A, iodine, and iron
38Over-nutrition Over-nutrition leads to overweight and obese adults. Health problems of over and under nutrition are very similar – lower life quality, lower life expectancy, susceptibility to disease.About 1 in 7 adults in developed countries is overweight. US is one of the worst. Go figure!Americans spend $40 billion a year on weight loss, but only $19 billion is spent worldwide on malnutrition.
43Where’s the beef?It is more efficient to use land to produce grain for human consumption than to use it to produce meat for human consumption.WHY??When raising livestock you need land for the animals and land for the food for the animals.It takes less energy to harvest grain than to process meat products.
44Meat and potatoes for dinner? Moderate grazing is actually good for vegetation.Problem: most places use pastures where overgrazing occursProduction of meat requires more energy and land than production of grainsAdvantages to meat: high in protein, high in ironDisadvantages to meat: high in fat, too much can lead to heart disease, high blood pressure, etc.
45Home on the range? Grazing on ranges can be very hard on the area. Grazing animals tend to overgraze and destroy riparian zones (located next to water)Animal waste can end up in water supplyGrazing animals may only eat certain vegetation; other vegetation can then take over.
46Developed countriesUS consumers spend only about 2% of their income on domestically produced food. (farm products have dropped in cost, they now cost about 1/3 of what they did in 1910.)10 units of energy (input) to produce 1 unit of food product (output) for industrialized agriculture.Traditional subsistence agriculture: 1 unit energy input to 1 unit food output. Video clip (7:08)Traditional intensive agriculture: 1 unit energy input to up to 10 units food output.
47Increase in Meat Production Between , world meat production has increased five times.Per capita meat production has more than doubled.Remember affluenza!
4914.9 Government Agricultural Policy Government assistance:Price controls to keep food prices lowSubsidies and tax breaks to farmers to encourage food productionIf above two are eliminated, market demand would control costs.Danger in this: lower income families might have harder time paying food costs. Would need more financial assistance for these people.
51Sustainable Agriculture SolutionsSustainable AgricultureIncreaseDecreaseHigh-yield polycultureOrganic fertilizersBiological pest controlIntegrated pestmanagementIrrigation efficiencyPerennial cropsCrop rotationUse of more water-efficient cropsSoil conservationSubsidies for more sustainable farming andfishingSoil erosionSoil salinizationAquifer depletionOvergrazingOverfishingLoss ofbiodiversityLoss of primecroplandFood wasteSubsidies for unsustainablefarming and fishingPopulation growthPoverty