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The Federal Reserve and Monetary Policy

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1 The Federal Reserve and Monetary Policy
Chapter 16

2 The Federal Reserve and Monetary Policy
What the Fed Does Monetary policy includes all the Federal Reserve actions that change the money supply in order to influence the economy. Its purpose is to curb inflation or to reduce economic stagnation or recession.

3 Section 1 - The Federal Reserve System
Creating the Fed Government struggled to stabilize economy until Federal Reserve Act Central bank—a nation’s monetary authority monetary means “relating to money” Federal Reserve System—central bank of the U.S., called the Fed independent organization within government; established 1913

4 Duties of a Central Bank
Most countries have a central bank- oversees banking system Holding Reserves: reserves set aside for loans from the banks funds Assuring Stability: in national banking and monetary system Control the way money is circulated Supervise banks Lending Money: unlike other banks it lends without the purpose of making money. To serve private banks rather than individuals.

5 The Duties of the Fed Fed uses regulation, oversight to protect bank customers, borrowers Banking services for private banks and government include holding deposits, transferring funds, making loans Helps finance wars, stabilize economy in national emergencies Regulates money supply; distributes currency— coins and paper money

6 The Structure of the Fed
Fed not a single national bank; has national and regional structure has some independence from political influence; accountable to Congress


8 The Structure of the Fed
Board of Governors—sets policy; supervises operations of the Fed chairman is most influential member and spokesperson Ben Bernanke 12 district banks carry out policy; serve as central bank for regions Member banks: all nationally-chartered banks; state banks may apply must buy district bank stock; cannot sell in open market


10 The Structure of the Fed
Federal Open Market Committee—supervises government security sales Federal Advisory Council—represents commercial banking industry Consumer Advisory Council—advises on consumer protection laws on borrowing Thrift Institutions Advisory Council—needs of savings institutions thrifts not regulated by Fed; must meet reserve requirements; may borrow


12 Questions What are the three duties of a central bank?
How is the Fed different from other central banks? What are the five elements of the Fed?

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