Presentation on theme: "Chapter 16 The Federal Reserve and Monetary Policy."— Presentation transcript:
Chapter 16 The Federal Reserve and Monetary Policy
What the Fed Does Monetary policy includes all the Federal Reserve actions that change the money supply in order to influence the economy. Its purpose is to curb inflation or to reduce economic stagnation or recession.
Creating the Fed Government struggled to stabilize economy until Federal Reserve Act Central banka nations monetary authority monetary means relating to money Federal Reserve Systemcentral bank of the U.S., called the Fed independent organization within government; established 1913 Section 1 - The Federal Reserve System
Duties of a Central Bank Most countries have a central bank- oversees banking system Holding Reserves: reserves set aside for loans from the banks funds Assuring Stability: in national banking and monetary system Control the way money is circulated Supervise banks Lending Money: unlike other banks it lends without the purpose of making money. To serve private banks rather than individuals.
The Duties of the Fed Fed uses regulation, oversight to protect bank customers, borrowers Banking services for private banks and government include holding deposits, transferring funds, making loans Helps finance wars, stabilize economy in national emergencies Regulates money supply; distributes currency coins and paper money
The Structure of the Fed Fed not a single national bank; has national and regional structure has some independence from political influence; accountable to Congress
The Structure of the Fed Board of Governorssets policy; supervises operations of the Fed chairman is most influential member and spokesperson Ben Bernanke 12 district banks carry out policy; serve as central bank for regions Member banks: all nationally-chartered banks; state banks may apply must buy district bank stock; cannot sell in open market
The Structure of the Fed Federal Open Market Committeesupervises government security sales Federal Advisory Councilrepresents commercial banking industry Consumer Advisory Counciladvises on consumer protection laws on borrowing Thrift Institutions Advisory Councilneeds of savings institutions thrifts not regulated by Fed; must meet reserve requirements; may borrow
Questions What are the three duties of a central bank? How is the Fed different from other central banks? What are the five elements of the Fed?