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Ottoman Empire Modern Middle East.

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Presentation on theme: "Ottoman Empire Modern Middle East."— Presentation transcript:

1 Ottoman Empire Modern Middle East

2 Where did the Ottomans come from?
Name came from “Osman,” a leader of a western Anatolian nomadic group who began expansionistic moves in the 14th century. Gradually these nomads took over Anatolia and became the border between Islam and Byzantine Christian


4 Sultan Mehmet II (1451-1481) Was one of the greatest Sultans
Called the Fatih (the Conqueror) During his rule all of Turkey/Anatolia was brought under his control and the Byzantine Empire was defeated

5 The Conquest of Constantinople = the Imperial phase of the Ottomans
Constantinople was renamed Istanbul Mehmet II cleaned up the city and began many building mosques, markets, water fountains, baths, and other public facilities

6 Topkapi Palace


8 The Sultan’s Bedchamber

9 Hamam

10 Mehmet II encouraged people to move to Istanbul
Bribed people from the Ottoman territories with homes and jobs The Grand Bazzar

11 Many Jewish people, who were cruelly oppressed in Western Europe (aka Reconquista), moved to Istanbul and found Turkey to be a “haven” = a mass migration of Jewish people soon followed

12 For the next 200 years the Ottomans will be a significant power in the Middle East
The Empire will continually expand

13 Suleiman the “Lawgiver”
Sultanic law codes Reformed the government Balanced the budget Reinforced Islamic law

14 Suleiman the “Magnificent”
Grandeur of his court Built palaces, mosques, schools, libraries, hospitals, roads, bridges, etc. Cultural explosion (pax Ottomanica) – literary, artistic, and scientific achievements Pasha Sinan – Suleiman’s Architect

15 “Blue” Mosque


17 Bridge on the Drina (Bosnia)

18 Mostar, BH

19 Conversion to Islam Millet system (non-Muslims formed small communities and were allowed to keep their faith (Jewish or Christian) as long as they paid the jitza (a tax). Local officials were replaced by Ottoman government officials

20 Ottoman infrastructure
Built roads and bridges

21 Devshirme Christian youths captured(sometimes given) by the Ottoman agents and recruited for the Imperial civil service and standing army Converted to Islam The brightest 10% entered the Palace school and were trained for civil service The others were sent to Turkish farms and were trained for toughness = Janissaries Janissaries were the elite army corps who were absolutely loyal to the Sultan

22 Turkish Coffeehouses During Ottoman times coffeehouses were places where men would come together and form public opinion. They first opened as a place for people to wait before going into the mosques for prayer and soon became a place where men would meet outside of the home.

23 Professional groups started having “their” own coffeehouse; where people in their society would go to discuss important decisions and ideas.

24 Coffee’s history in Turkey began in the 16th century and is traditionally made by boiling very fine coffee powder in a cezve. Traditionally served in small cups and drunk in one gulp.

25 Islam and Modesty Women resided in seclusion in the harem Purdah

26 Sacred place, sanctuary, place of honor, respect, and religious purity
Private quarters of the family – not visited by non-family members (female visitors were allowed, but not common) Boys remained with their mothers in the harem until the ages of 10-11 The Harem



29 Ottoman Decline was caused by

30 Weak leadership Selim II (aka the Sloth)
Selim II (aka the Sloth)

31 Corrupt government officials

32 Powerful janissaries and janissary revolts
Powerful janissaries and janissary revolts

33 Heavy taxes = revolts and unhappy peasantry

34 The Ottoman Empire was very diverse ethnically + nationalism = many groups wanting their freedom

35 New World silver flooding the market and causing silver to inflate = inflation

36 Trade routes changing to bypass the Middle East in favor of water routes

37 The Ottomans signed capitulations with the European countries = loss of revenue

38 Capitulations Foreign subjects now protected by their individual country’s laws They were no longer legally accountable in the Ottoman Empire. Possible for foreign governments to levy duties (taxes) on goods sold in Turkish ports Foreign powers were also able to set up banks, post offices, and commercial houses on Turkish soil that were exempt from Turkish taxes and were able to compete with local firms.

39 Loss of intellectualism = loss of innovation = fall behind the Europeans in technology

40 New Turkish Republic Modern Middle East

41 In the 18th Century more wars and losses resulted in reform attempts:
The Tulip Period ( ) = first borrowing of European art and culture

42 Ottomans continued to lose territory to the Russians and the Europeans

43 Tanzimat Period (1839-76) Reforms around a new concept of justice
Equality before the law Ottomanism = patriotism, but not yet nationalism Constitution and a Parliament formed The reforms failed; Sultan Abdulahemid put an end to the reforms while putting down rebellions

44 Departure of Mehmed VI, last Sultan of the Ottoman Empire, 1922.

45 Young Turks Constitutional, parliamentary government established
Growing sense of nationalism Ottomans entered WWI on the side of Germany = lost

46 Treaty of Versailles Empire partitioned
Kemal Ataturk (and others) fought for Independence = new Republic of Turkey and an end to the Ottoman Empire (1923).

47 The New Republic of Turkey
Secularism Ataturk’s reforms

48 Ataturk’s Reforms Six Arrows of Kemalism Aka Principals of Ataturk
republicanism, nationalism, populism, reformism, statism, and secularism

49 Ataturk’s Reforms cont.
Republicanism: Only one country of Turkey ; no more Ottoman Empire and no empires ever! New Constitution

50 Ataturk’s Reforms cont.
Populism: Social Reform – Allowed women to vote Required women to attend school Men limited to marrying only one wife (even though Islam allowed four) All Turks were required to have a surname (family name)

51 Ataturk’s Reforms cont.
Secularism: Separation of Church and State Weekends on Saturday and Sunday (did not match with Muslim Religious day on Friday) Closed Religious Schools Introduced Western Laws (instead of Muslim Laws)

52 Ataturk’s Reforms cont.
Reformism: Emphasized the radical ways Ataturk was changing Turkish Culture Meant to legitimize what he was doing

53 Ataturk’s Reforms cont.
Nationalism Established Turkish in Latin script (not traditional Arabic script) Call for prayer done in Turkish not Arabic (returned to Arabic in 1970s) Women forbidden from wearing veil Fez outlawed Only Western clothes allowed

54 Ataturk’s Reforms cont.
Statism: Government controlled economy; mixed economy Focus on Turkish investments in Turkey to keep foreigners out

55 Turkish Government Today
President elected to 4 year terms by the Grand National Assembly Unicameral body that is elected by the people every four years President chooses Prime Minister

56 Turkish Government Today
Republican People’s Party (RPP) Aka Kemalist Party, founded by Ataturk Justice and Development Party (AK Parti) Currently largest political party in Turkey Prime Minister is Recep Tayyip Erdogan Liberal Economy Muslim Conservative

57 Turkish Government Today
National Movement Party Pan-Turkic Causes including: the economic isolation and territorial integrity (mainly of Northern Cyrus, Armenia, but in other areas as well that were lost after Ottoman Empire)

58 Turkish Government Today
Turkey also has more than 100 political parties Includes: Turkish Communist Party Kurdistan Workers’ Party Kurdish Democratic Society Party (DTP) Both were closed by the Turks (DTP in 2009) because Turkish law prohibits political parties based on ethnic groups

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