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7-3: O THER M ARKET S TRUCTURES. C HARACTERISTICS OF M ONOPOLISTIC C OMPETITION Monopolistic competition: when many sellers offer similar, but not standardized.

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Presentation on theme: "7-3: O THER M ARKET S TRUCTURES. C HARACTERISTICS OF M ONOPOLISTIC C OMPETITION Monopolistic competition: when many sellers offer similar, but not standardized."— Presentation transcript:

1 7-3: O THER M ARKET S TRUCTURES

2 C HARACTERISTICS OF M ONOPOLISTIC C OMPETITION Monopolistic competition: when many sellers offer similar, but not standardized products

3 C HARACTERISTICS OF M ONOPOLISTIC C OMPETITION ( CONTINUED ) 2 features of monopolistic competition are product differentiation and nonprice competition Product differentiation: attempt to distinguish a product from similar products

4 C HARACTERISTICS OF M ONOPOLISTIC C OMPETITION ( CONTINUED ) Nonprice competition: using factors other than low price, such as style, service, advertising, or giveaways to convince consumers to buy their products

5 4 C HARACTERISTICS OF M ONOPOLISTIC C OMPETITION 1. Many sellers and many buyers Meaningful competition exists Example: there are many restaurants where you can buy a hamburger

6 4 C HARACTERISTICS OF M ONOPOLISTIC C OMPETITION ( CONTINUED ) 2. Similar but differentiated products Sellers try to convince consumers that their product is different from that of the competition

7 4 C HARACTERISTICS OF M ONOPOLISTIC C OMPETITION ( CONTINUED ) 3. Limited control of prices Product differentiation gives producers limited control over price Consumers will buy substitute goods if the price goes too high

8 4 C HARACTERISTICS OF M ONOPOLISTIC C OMPETITION ( CONTINUED ) 4. Freedom to enter or exit the market No huge barriers to enter a monopolistically competitive market When firms make a profit, other firms enter the market and increase competition

9 O LIGOPOLY Definition: market structure in which only a few sellers offer a similar product Few large firms have a large market share: percent of total sales in a market

10 O LIGOPOLY ( CONTINUED ) There are few firms in an oligopoly due to high start-up coststhe expenses that a new business faces when it enters a market

11 4 C HARACTERISTICS OF O LIGOPOLIES 1. Few sellers and many buyers Generally where the 4 largest firms control 40% of the market Example: breakfast cereal industry

12 4 C HARACTERISTICS OF O LIGOPOLIES ( CONTINUED ) 2. Standardized or differentiated products Products can be standard such as steel They try to differentiate themselves based on brand name, service, or location Or, products can be differentiated such as cereal and soft drinks They use marketing strategies to separate them from competitors

13 4 C HARACTERISTICS OF O LIGOPOLIES ( CONTINUED ) 3. More control of prices Each firm had a large enough share of the market that its decisions about price and supply affect one another

14 4 C HARACTERISTICS OF O LIGOPOLIES ( CONTINUED ) 4. Little freedom to enter or exit market Set-up costs are high Firms have established brands, making it hard for new firms to enter the market successfully

15 7-4: R EGULATION AND D EREGULATION T ODAY

16 R EGULATION Definition: set of rules or laws designed to control business behavior to promote competition and protect consumers

17 A NTITRUST L EGISLATION Definition: laws that define monopolies and give government the power to control them and break them up

18 T RUST Trust: when a group of firms are combined to reduce competition in an industry Example: Standard Oil Company

19 M ERGER Merger: when 2 firms join together to become 1 If a merger will eliminate competition it will be denied by the government

20 E NFORCING A NTITRUST L EGISLATION The FTC and the Department of Justice are responsible for enforcing antitrust laws

21 D EREGULATION Definition: reducing or removing government control of a business Results in lower prices for consumers and more competition Example: airline industry was deregulated in 1978

22 Q UESTIONS 1. In 2005, a major U.s. automaker announced a new discount plan for its cars for the month of June. It offered consumers the same price that its employees paid for new cars. When the automaker announced in early July that it was extending the plan for another month, the other 2 major U.S. automakers announced similar plans. What market structure is exhibited in this story and what specific characteristics of that market structure does it demonstrate?

23 2. Why do manufacturers of athletic shoes spend money to sign up professional athletes to wear and promote their shoes rather than differentiating their products strictly on the basis of physical characteristics such as design and comfort?

24 3. The Telecommunications Act of 1996 included provisions to deregulate the cable industry. In 2003, consumers complained that cable rates had increased by 45% since the law was passed. Only 5% of American homes had a choice of more than 1 cable provider in Those homes paid about 17% less than those with no choice of cable provider. How effective had deregulation been in the cable industry by 2003? Explain your reasoning.


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