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Chapter 3 States of Matter. Everything that has mass and volume is called matter.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 3 States of Matter. Everything that has mass and volume is called matter."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 3 States of Matter

2 Everything that has mass and volume is called matter.

3 3.1 Solid, Liquid and Gas 3.1 Solid, Liquid and Gas View videoSolid, Liquid and GasSolid, Liquid and Gas

4 All matter, regardless of state, undergoes physical and chemical changes. These changes can be microscopic or macroscopic. What type of change does matter undergo?

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6 Liquid A liquid will take the shape of whatever container it is in. A liquid will take the shape of whatever container it is in. MOLECULES are close together but they flow past one another. MOLECULES are close together but they flow past one another. Molecules ARE IN motion. Molecules ARE IN motion.

7 Solid MOLECULES have a strong bond (attraction) between them. MOLECULES have a strong bond (attraction) between them. Solids are usually hard because their molecules have been tightly packed together. Hold their shape. Solids are usually hard because their molecules have been tightly packed together. Hold their shape. Molecules ARE IN motion. Molecules ARE IN motion.

8 Gas Gas is everywhere in random groups of atoms. Gas is everywhere in random groups of atoms. Gases can fill a container of any size or shape. Liquids can only fill the bottom of the container while gases can fill it entirely. Gases can fill a container of any size or shape. Liquids can only fill the bottom of the container while gases can fill it entirely. Molecules ARE IN motion. Molecules ARE IN motion.

9 Plasma 99% of all matter in the universe is made of plasma. 99% of all matter in the universe is made of plasma. A plasma is an ionized gas. A plasma is an ionized gas. A plasma is a very good conductor of electricity and is affected by magnetic fields. A plasma is a very good conductor of electricity and is affected by magnetic fields. Plasma, like gases have an indefinite shape and an indefinite volume. Plasma, like gases have an indefinite shape and an indefinite volume.

10 Plasma Particles The negatively charged electrons (yellow) are freely streaming through the positively charged ions (blue). The negatively charged electrons (yellow) are freely streaming through the positively charged ions (blue).

11 Neon Lights Lightening Northern Lights Fluorescent Tube More Plasma!

12 Change in State Graph Change phase video clip Change phase video clip Change phase video clip Change phase video clip

13 Kinetic Theory The molecules are in constant, random motion and frequently collide with each other and with the walls of any container. The molecules are in constant, random motion and frequently collide with each other and with the walls of any container.

14 Basis of Classification of the Four Types Based upon particle arrangement Based upon particle arrangement Based upon energy of particles Based upon energy of particles Based upon distance between particles Based upon distance between particles If you can understand this concept, then you are in great shape!! If you can understand this concept, then you are in great shape!!

15 3.3 Phase Changes

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17 Phase Change A reversible physical change that occurs when a substance changes from one state of matter to another. A reversible physical change that occurs when a substance changes from one state of matter to another.

18 CHANGES CHANGES Water can change from one state to another by adding or subtracting heat. A solid changes to a liquid when heat is added. ENDOTHERMIC

19 A liquid changes to a solid when you take away heat, or it gets colder. EXOTHERMIC

20 Look at distance of particles

21 Review - Phase Change Notice as matter moves to the next phase energy is needed. Notice as matter moves to the next phase more energy is needed. What do you predict must happen to go in the other direction? What do you predict must happen to go in the other direction?

22 Heat of Fusion DEFINITION Amount of heat energy which must be absorbed or lost to turn a solid into a liquid. Another word for melting. EXAMPLE

23 Heat of Vaporization DEFINITION DEFINITION The amount of heat energy a liquid must absorb to be converted from a liquid to a gas. The opposite of condensation. EXAMPLE

24 Evaporation DEFINITION The phase change of a substance from a liquid to a gas at temperatures below its boiling point. EXAMPLE

25 Condensation DEFINITION The phase change of a substance from a gas or vapor to a liquid. EXAMPLE

26 Sublimation DEFINITION DEFINITION The phase change of state from a solid to gas or vapor. Note: It skips the liquid stage. EXAMPLE

27 Deposition DEFINITION DEFINITION The phase change of state from a gas or vapor to solid. Note: It skips the liquid stage. EXAMPLE

28 Upcoming Quiz!!! You will be given a blank piece of paper to draw…..

29 Calories are a form of energy

30 Why is there a flat line on the graph where the phase change occurs?

31 Notice the force between particles.

32 Key Concept!!!!! Description of Phase Change Term for Phase Change Heat Movement During Phase Change Temperature Change During Phase Change Solid to liquidMelting Heat goes into the solid as it melts. None Liquid to solidFreezing Heat leaves the liquid as it freezes. None Liquid to gas Vaporization, which includes boiling and evaporation Heat goes into the liquid as it vaporizes. None Gas to liquidCondensation Heat leaves the gas as it condenses. None Solid to gasSublimation Heat goes into the solid as it sublimates. None

33 This is the End of Todays Lecture

34 Identify the colored arrows


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