3Ways we Study the Brain Accidents Lesions EEG CAT Scan PET Scan MRI Functional MRI
4Accidents Phineas Gage Story Personality changed after the accident. What this this tell us?That different part of the brain control different aspects of who we are.
5Lesions Purposeful removal or destruction of some part of the brain. Frontal Lobotomy
6Electroencephalogram EEGDetects brain waves through their electrical output.Used mainly in sleep research.
7Computerized Axial Tomography CAT Scan3D X-Ray of the brain.Good for tumor locating, but tells us nothing about function.
8Magnetic Resonance Imaging MRIMore detailed picture of brain using magnetic field to knock electrons off axis.Takes many still pictures and turns images into a movie like production.Does not study function!
9Positron Emission Tomography PET ScanMeasures how much of a chemical the brain is using (usually glucose consumption).Good for studying function.
14Dr. Jones, a brain researcher, is investigating the connection between certain environmental stimuli and brain processes. Which types of brain scans is she most likely to use?A. MRI and CATB. CAT and EKGC. PET and fMRID. EKG and CATE. lesioning and MRIThe answer was C. The CAT and the MRI give insight into brain structure, not function.
15Brain Structures Hindbrain (brain stem) Midbrain Forebrain Cerebral Cortex is part of forebrain
16The brain was builtlike a house, bottomto top.The hindbrain controlsbasic functions like breathing.The forebrain is themost complex
17Hindbrain Medulla, Pons, Cerebellum Structures on top of our spinal cord.Controls basic biological structures.All animals have hindbrains!.
18Medulla Oblongata Located just above the spinal cord. Involved in control ofblood pressureheart ratebreathing. (basic stuff!)
19Pons Located just above the medulla. Connects hindbrain with midbrain and forebrain.Involved in facial expressions. (Pons = yawns)
20Cerebellum Bottom rear of the brain. Means “little brain” Coordinates fine muscle movements and balance.
21Midbrain Coordinates simple movements with sensory information. Most important structure in Midbrain is the Reticular Formation: controls arousal and ability to focus our attention.If Destroyed
22Forebrain Largest part of the brain. Made up of the Thalamus, Limbic System and Cerebral Cortex.
23The Limbic System deals with memory and emotions
24Thalamus Switchboard “relay station” of the brain. Receives sensory signals from the spinal cord and sends them to other parts of the forebrain.Every sense except smell.
25Hypothalamus Maybe most important structure in the brain. Controls and regulates the 4 F’sFightingFleeingFeedingFlirting (MatingControls the endocrine system)The most powerful structure in the brain.
26Rat with an Implanted Electrode in pleasure center of Hypothalamus
27The Ventromedial Nuclei gives a signal when to stop eating The Ventromedial Nuclei gives a signal when to stop eating. The lateral hypothalamus tell your body you’re full.
28Hippocampus Involved in the processing and storage of memories. Damage can cause amnesia
29AmygdalaInvolved in telling your body to produce norepinephrine (adrenaline)More involved in volatile emotions like anger and fearThe emotion of anger has not changed much throughout evolution.
30The hindbrain consists of the: A. endocrine stystem and the limbic system.B. reticular formationC. thalamus, hypothalamus, and cerebrumD. cerebellum, the medulla, and the pons
31The thalamus can be characterized as A. a regulatory mechanismB. the consciousness switch of the brainC. a relay systemD. a bridge between the 2 cerebral hemispheres
32The Cerebral CortexMade up of densely packed neurons we call “gray matter”Wrinkles are called fissures.If you lay brain out it would be as big as a large pizza.It’s divided into 2 hemispheres and 4 lobes!
43Occipital Lobes Think “optical”. Contains Visual Cortex: interprets messages from our eyes into images we can understand.
44Temporal Lobes Process sound sensed by our ears. Interpreted in Auditory Cortex.Contains Wernike's Area: interprets written and spoken speech.Wernike's Aphasia: unable to understand language: the syntax and grammar jumbled.
45What is the temporal lobe What is the temporal lobe? “near the temples” it contains Wernike’s area Deals with your hearing.What is Wernike’s area? Brain part in temporal lobe – deals with comprehension of language.What is Wernike’s aphasia? Inability to understand language.
46Broca’s area – production of speech think (boca) (left side of the frontal lobe). Think boca = brocaWernicke’s area deals with comprehension of language. (temporal lobe of left hemisphere)Which side of brain are we seeing?
48The Brain’s Plasticity The brain is sculpted by our genes but also by our experiences.Plasticity :The ability for our brains to form new connections after the neurons are damaged.The younger you are, the more plastic your brain is..OBJECTIVE 18| Discuss brain’s plasticity following injury or illness.
49Hemispheres Divided into to hemispheres. In general, Left Hemisphere: logic and sequential tasks. Language!Right Hemisphere: spatial and creative tasks. Reading emotions.
50The ______ lobe is to hearing as the occipital lobe is to vision A. frontalB. temporalC. parietalD. cerebellar
51Blindness could result from damage to which cortex and lobe of the brain? A. visual cortex in the frontal lobeB. visual cortex in the temporal lobeC. sensory cortex in the parietal lobeD. visual cortex in the occipital lobeE. cerebral cortex in the occipital lobe
52Brain Activity when Hearing, Seeing, and Speaking Words
53In most people, which one of the following is a specific function of the left hemisphere that is typically not controlled by the right hemisphere?A. producing speechB. control of the left handC. spatial reasoningD. hypothesis testingE. abstract reasoning
54When brain researchers refer to brain plasticity, they are talking about A. the brain’s ability to quickly regrow damaged neuronsB. the surface texture and appearance caused by the layer known as the cerebral cortexC. the brain’s versatility caused by the millions of neural connectionsD. our adaptability to different problems ranging from survival needs to abstract reasoningE. new connections forming in the brain to take over for damaged sections
55The Corpus Callosum Divides the 2 hemispheres. Divides the left from right sides.The corpus callosumis cut to prevent seizuresfrom spreading to the otherside of the brain.
56Split Brain PatientsThose who, due to epilepsy, have their corpus callosum cut or removed.
58Experiment #1 Split-brain patients Experimenter shows fork to left hemisphere (presents to the right side)Participant is asked what he saw…He states “fork”Experimenter shows spoon to right hemisphereParticipant is asked what he sawResponse: “I don’t know”Participant is asked to reach in a bag with left hand (right hemisphere) to retrieve what he sawHe pulls out a spoon…explain?
59Other weird issues with split-brain A split-brain patient was asked what he wanted to do with his life…Left hemisphere wrote: architectRight hemisphere wrote: race car driverSuicide case studyLeft hand (right hemisphere) kept trying to strangle herselfLeft hemisphere was unaware of why this was happening and had to defend herselfTumor was discovered on her corpus collosum
60Case study of lesioned corpus collosum Right hand (left hemisphere) chose conservative clothesLeft hand (right hemisphere) would unbutton shirts without the left hemisphere’s awarenessImplication: Are there two of us?
61"The great pleasure and feeling in my right brain is more than my left brain can find the words to tell you."Roger Sperry
62On the next slide, say the COLOR of the word without reading the word.
64Split brain patients are unable to: A. coordinate movements between their major and minor muscle groupsB. speak about information received exclusively in their right hemisphereC. speak about information received exclusively in their left hemisphereD. solve abstract problems involving integrating logical (left hemisphere) and spatial (right hemisphere) informationE. speak about information received exclusively through their left ear, left eye, or left side of their bodies
65The scientist who won a Nobel Prize for his work with split brain patients is A. Walter CannonB. Paul BrocaC. Roger SperryD. James OldsE. Cheech Marin
66A Tour Through The Brain: Split-Brain Research Severing the corpus callosum provides data regarding the functions of the brain’s two hemispheres.
67A Tour Through The Brain: Lateralization The left and right hemispheres of thebrain each specializein particular operations.