2Neuron StructureNeurons do NOT touch each other- the space in between is called synaptic cleft.
3Neural Bases of Psychology: The Structure of a Neuron
4How a Neuron Fires It is an electrochemical process Electrical inside the neuronChemical outside the neuron (in the synapse in the form of a neurotransmitter).The firing is call Action Potential.
5Neural Bases of Psychology: Neural Communication Within a neuron, communication occurs through an action potential (neural impulse that carries information along the axon of a neuron).
6Neural Bases of Psychology: Neural Communication Within a neuron, communication occurs through an action potential (neural impulse that carries information along the axon of a neuron).
7The All-or None Response The idea that either the neuron fires or it does not- no part way firing.Like a gun
8Steps of Action Potential Dendrites receive neurotransmitter from another neuron across the synapse.Reached its threshold- then fires based on the all-or-none response.Opens up a portal in axon, and lets in positive ions (Sodium) which mix with negative ions (Potassium) that is already inside the axon (thus Neurons at rest have a slightly negative charge).The mixing of + and – ions causes an electrical charge that opens up the next portal (letting in more K) while closing the original portal.Process continues down axon to the axon terminal.Terminal buttons turns electrical charge into chemical (neurotransmitter) and shoots message to next neuron across the synapse.
13Which sentence most closely describes neural transmissions? A. an electric charge is created in the neuron, the charge travels down the cell, and chemicals are released that cross the synapse to the next cellB. a chemical change occurs within the cell, the change causes an electric charge to be produced and the charge jumps the gap between the nerve cells.C. the electric charge produced chemically inside a group of neurons causes chemical changes in surrounding cellsD. neurotransmitters produced in the hindbrain are transmitted to the forebrain, causing electric
14NeurotransmittersChemical messengers released by terminal buttons through the synapse.We should know at least 6 types and what they do.
16Acetylcholine Its function is motor movement and maybe memory. To much and you will….Not enough and you will….Lack of ACH has been linked to Alzheimer’s disease.
17Dopamine Its function is motor movement and alertness. Lack of dopamine is associated with Parkinson’s disease.Overabundance is associated with schizophrenia.
18PET scan Parkinsons Before/After medicine www. Epub.org Muscle rigidityTremorsSpeech slurDifficult gaitBefore/After medicinewww. Epub.orgWhat type of scanIs this?
19Serotonin Function deals with mood control. Lack of serotonin has been linked to depression.
20Endorphins Function deals with pain control. We become addicted to endorphin causing feelings.
21What are agonists and antagonists? They are drugsAgonists mimic neurotransmitters. Example: Nicotine is an ACh agonistAntagonists block neurotransmitters:Ex: curare is an antagonist for ACh (paralyzes you)
23You eat some bad Chinese food and feel you are losing control of your muscles. The bacteria you ingested from the food most likely interferes with the use of:A. serotoninB. insulinC. acetylcholineD. ThorazineE. adrenaline
24What is reuptake? The mopping up of excess neurotransmitter. Excess neurotransmitters in the synapse are reabsorbed into the sending neurons.This process applies the brakes on neurotransmitter action.
25How does Prozac work?It is a serotonin reuptake inhibitor.
26How does Cocaine work?The white cocaine blocks the reuptake of dopamine.
27Types of NeuronsSensory NeuronsMotor NeuronsInter Neurons
28Interneuron Neuron (Unipolar) Kinds of NeuronsMotor Neurons carry outgoing information from the CNS to muscles and glands.Interneurons connect the two neurons.Sensory Neurons carry incoming information from the sense receptors to the CNS.Sensory Neuron(Bipolar)Motor Neuron(Multipolar)Interneuron Neuron (Unipolar)
29Divisions of the Nervous System “para” likeA parachute
30Peripheral Nervous System Somatic Nervous System:Controls voluntary muscle movement.Uses motor (efferent) neurons.Autonomic Nervous System:Controls the automatic functions of the body.The glands and musclesDivided into two categories…the sympathetic and the parasympatheticOBJECTIVE 8| Identify the subdivisions of the peripheral nervous system, and describe their functions.
31Autonomic Nervous System (ANS) Sympathetic Nervous System:Fight or Flight Response during stressful situations.Automatically accelerates heart rate, breathing, dilates pupils, slows down digestion.Parasympathetic Nervous System:calms the body, conserving its energy.Provides homeostasis homeo = same Homeostasis means same state you were in before you saw the dog!
32Think how the right side is different from the left side. Lie detector