Presentation on theme: "Chapter 4: Ecosystems The Living World Unit. Members of an Ecosystem Eukaryotic cells (have nucleus) Prokaryotic cells (no nucleus/bacteria) Different."— Presentation transcript:
Chapter 4: Ecosystems The Living World Unit
Members of an Ecosystem Eukaryotic cells (have nucleus) Prokaryotic cells (no nucleus/bacteria) Different Species Within a specific range/distribution Direct or indirect interactions among populations ALL ecosystems make up Earths Biosphere
Biosphere 2 Project 3.15 acre structure built in the 1980s in Arizona to see if a sealed, self-sustaining environment was possible. ($200 million; privately funded) –Unable to control temperature Contained: –Over 3,500 plant and animal species –5 biomes: desert, grassland, marsh, ocean, rainforest – 8 humans ( ) Outcome: –After 1 year, oxygen levels dropped too much and had to be pumped in –76% of vertebrate species went extinct –Ocean became too acidic –Air pollution –Is now owned by Columbia University
Vegetation and animals Soil Rock Biosphere Crust Core Mantle Lithosphere (crust, top of upper mantle) Hydrosphere (water) Atmosphere (air) Biosphere (Living and dead organisms) Crust (soil and rock) Spheres Oceanic crust Continental crust Lithosphere Upper mantle Asthenosphere Lower mantle
Biomes/Zones of Earth Terrestrial portions are called biomes –Forests (conifer, deciduous, rain forest) –Deserts –Grasslands Aquatic Life Zones –Freshwater (lakes, ponds, rivers, streams, wetlands) –Marine (coral reefs, coastal regions, deep ocean)
Solar radiation Energy in = Energy out Reflected by atmosphere (34%) UV radiation Absorbed by ozone Absorbed by the earth Visible light Lower stratosphere (ozone layer) Troposphere Heat Greenhouse effect Radiated by atmosphere as heat (66%) Earth Heat radiated by the earth It starts with the sun! 1 billionth of suns output reaches Earth Carbon dioxide, methane, NOx, H2O, O3: natural sources
Photosynthesis Formula: Carbon dioxide + water + sunlight glucose + oxygen CO 2 + H 2 O + solar Energy C 6 H 12 O 6 + O 2 Producers or autotrophs are capable of photosynthesis Chemosynthesis: photosynthesis without sunlight (specialized bacteria can do this) Autotrophs/producers are typically found at the bottom of the food chain
Who are you calling a Heterotroph? Scavengers –Nutrients from dead and decaying animal/meat Omnivores –Nutrients from both plant and animal matter Carnivores –Nutrients from animals/meat Herbivore –Nutrients from plant material Detritivore –Nutrients from dead organic matter (plant or animal) –Decomposers put nutrients back into ground
Mushroom Wood reduced to powder Long-horned beetle holes Bark beetle engraving Carpenter ant galleries Termite and carpenter ant work Dry rot fungus Detritus feedersDecomposers Time progression Powder broken down by decomposers into plant nutrients in soil Detritivores
Respiration is more than breathing? Aerobic respiration: making energy in the presence of oxygen Glucose + oxygen carbon dioxide + water + energy C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2 6CO 2 + H 2 O + energy Anaerobic respiration: energy gained in absence of oxygen. By products include methane gas, acetic acid This process was taking place in waste water treatment plant!
Variety is the Spice of Life Genetic diversity: variety of genetic material/traits within a population. Species diversity: the number of species present in an area. Ecological diversity: variety of ecosystems found in an area or on the Earth Functional diversity: Biological and chemical processes needed for survival
Heat First Trophic Level Second Trophic Level Third Trophic Level Fourth Trophic Level Solar energy Producers (plants) Primary consumers (herbivores) Tertiary consumers (top carnivores) Secondary consumers (carnivores) Detritivores (decomposers and detritus feeders) Heat Types of Consumers
Ecological Efficiency Ecological efficiency: useable energy that is passed along from one trophic level to the next. Typical is 10% efficient (90% of energy is lost) Top carnivores Carnivores Herbivores Producers 5,060 Decomposers/detritivores 20,810 3,
Heat First Trophic Level Second Trophic Level Third Trophic Level Fourth Trophic Level Solar energy Producers (plants) Primary consumers (herbivores) Tertiary consumers (top carnivores) Secondary consumers (carnivores) Detritivores (decomposers and detritus feeders) Heat Food Chains
Humans Blue whaleSperm whale Crabeater seal Killer whale Elephant seal Leopard seal Adélie penguins Petrel Fish Squid Carnivorous plankton Krill Phytoplankton Herbivorous zooplankton Emperor penguin Food Webs
The dirt on dirt Soil horizon: a horizontal layer with a distinct texture and composition. (soil triangle) Soil profile: cross section of horizons. Can use a sampling tube to see profile. Mature, undisturbed soils have at least 3 of the 4 horizons.
Soil Profiles We will complete soil profile pictures by using text. Feel free to view these slides from the website at a later time to understand each of the horizons that make up the various profiles. Viewing them in lecture would be quite boring.
O horizon Location: very top of ground to a few inches down Composition: undecomposed leaves, partially decomposed leaves, twigs, grasses, crop waste, animal waste, fungi Color: brown or black Additional information: not very deep; some biomes have very little O horizon (desert)
A Horizon Location: Just underneath O Horizon Composition: has partially decomposed organic matter (humus), inorganic nutrients. Also known as topsoil. Color: brown or dark brown (fertile), gray, yellow, reddish (not as fertile) Additional information: Depth will varying by biome/region. Lots of life (bugs, worms, bacteria, fungi) Bottom of A Horizon is the zone of Eluviation (or E horizon). Loss of minerals and nutrients here – were pushed downward.
E Horizon Location: Underneath A horizon (sometimes is included as just a part of the A horizon) Composition: Lacking in nutrients, leaching of nutrients into B horizon occurs here Color: lighter shade of the A horizon Additional information: E horizon may be included as a part of the A horizon and not listed. Mostly found in forested area soils.
B Horizon Location: Underneath E or A horizon Composition: More dense because of fine particles from upper zones leaching down. Also called subsoil Color: yellowish to brown Additional information: Typically a dense layer with more clay content. Depth of B horizon may vary by biome/region Cool animation of leaching.
C Horizon Location: Fairly deep – 3+ feet down Composition: Chunks of rock and parent material of the upper layer soil. Mostly inorganic Color: lighter – rock. Additional information: C horizon is also referred to as the Parent material and contains clay, sand, gravel.
R Horizon Location: Under the C horizon Composition: solid bedrock Color: lighter – rock. Additional information: R horizon is not considered soil. It is solid bedrock. May not be shown on all graphics/profiles.
Profiles O Horizon A Horizon E Horizon B Horizon C Horizon
Weak humus- mineral mixture Mosaic of closely packed pebbles, boulders Dry, brown to reddish-brown, with variable accumulations of clay, calcium carbonate, and soluble salts Desert Soil (hot, dry climate) Grassland Soil (semiarid climate) Alkaline, dark, and rich in humus Clay, calcium compounds Soil Profiles - Biomes A B C O A E B C R
Tropical Rain Forest Soil (humid, tropical climate) Deciduous Forest Soil (humid, mild climate) Coniferous Forest Soil (humid, cold climate) Soil Profiles - Biomes O A E B C R O A E B C R O B C R A/E
Figure 4-28 Page 76 Precipitation Transpiration from plants Runoff Surface runoff Evaporation from land Evaporation from ocean Precipitation Ocean Surface runoff Groundwater movement Condensation Infiltration and Percolation Water Cycle
Diffusion Carbon dioxide dissolved in ocean water Marine food webs Marine sediments, including formations with fossil fuels Combustion of fossil fuels sediments death, sedimentation uplifting over geologic time sedimentation photosynthesis aerobic respiration Carbon Cycle
photosynthesis aerobic respiration Terrestrial rocks Soil water (dissolved carbon) Land food webs Atmosphere Peat, fossil fuels combustion of wood sedimentation volcanic action death, burial, compaction over geologic time leaching runoff weathering Carbon Cycle Combustion of fossil fuels
Sulfur Ways sulfur gets INTO ground/atmosphere Ways phosphorous leaves ground: Fertilizer Volcanoes Hot springs Factory emissions Uptake by autotrophs Use in food chains and webs Sedimentation/rock cycle