2Members of an Ecosystem Eukaryotic cells (have nucleus)Prokaryotic cells (no nucleus/bacteria)Different SpeciesWithin a specific range/distributionDirect or indirect interactions among populationsALL ecosystems make up Earth’s Biosphere
3Biosphere 2 Project3.15 acre structure built in the 1980’s in Arizona to see if a sealed, self-sustaining environment was possible. ($200 million; privately funded)Unable to control temperatureContained:Over 3,500 plant and animal species5 biomes: desert, grassland, marsh, ocean, rainforest8 humans ( )Outcome:After 1 year, oxygen levels dropped too much and had to be pumped in76% of vertebrate species went extinctOcean became too acidicAir pollutionIs now owned by Columbia University
4(crust, top of upper mantle) Oceanic crustContinental crustVegetationand animalsBiosphereLithosphereUpper mantleSoilCrustAsthenosphereRockLower mantle“Spheres”CoreMantleCrust(soil and rock)Biosphere(Living and deadorganisms)Atmosphere(air)Lithosphere(crust, top of upper mantle)Hydrosphere(water)
5Biomes/Zones of Earth Terrestrial portions are called biomes Forests (conifer, deciduous, rain forest)DesertsGrasslandsAquatic Life ZonesFreshwater (lakes, ponds, rivers, streams, wetlands)Marine (coral reefs, coastal regions, deep ocean)
6It starts with the sun! 1 billionth of sun’s output reaches Earth SolarradiationEnergy in = Energy outReflected byatmosphere (34%)1 billionth of sun’s output reaches EarthUV radiationRadiated byatmosphereas heat (66%)Lower stratosphere(ozone layer)VisiblelightGreenhouseeffectCarbon dioxide, methane, NOx, H2O, O3: natural sourcesAbsorbedby ozoneTroposphereHeatAbsorbedby the earthHeat radiatedby the earthEarth
7Photosynthesis Formula: Carbon dioxide + water + sunlight glucose + oxygenCO2 + H2O + solar Energy C6H12O6 + O2Producers or autotrophs are capable of photosynthesisChemosynthesis: photosynthesis without sunlight (specialized bacteria can do this)Autotrophs/producers are typically found at the bottom of the “food chain”
8Who are you calling a Heterotroph? ScavengersNutrients from dead and decaying animal/meatOmnivoresNutrients from both plant and animal matterCarnivoresNutrients from animals/meatHerbivoreNutrients from plant materialDetritivoreNutrients from dead organic matter (plant or animal)Decomposers put nutrients back into ground
9Powder broken down by decomposers into plant nutrients in soil Detritus feedersDecomposersBark beetleengravingCarpenterantgalleriesTermite andcarpenterantworkLong-hornedbeetle holesDry rot fungusWoodreducedto powderMushroomPowder broken down by decomposersinto plant nutrients in soilTime progressionDetritivores
10Respiration is more than breathing? Aerobic respiration: making energy in the presence of oxygenGlucose + oxygen carbon dioxide + water + energyC6H12O6 + 6O2 6CO2 + H2O + energyAnaerobic respiration: energy gained in absence of oxygen. By products include methane gas, acetic acidThis process was taking place in waste water treatment plant!
11Variety is the Spice of Life Genetic diversity: variety of genetic material/traits within a population.Species diversity: the number of species present in an area.Ecological diversity: variety of ecosystems found in an area or on the EarthFunctional diversity: Biological and chemical processes needed for survival
12(decomposers and detritus feeders) First TrophicLevelSecond TrophicLevelThird TrophicLevelFourth TrophicLevelProducers(plants)Primaryconsumers(herbivores)Secondaryconsumers(carnivores)Tertiaryconsumers(top carnivores)HeatHeatHeatHeatSolarenergyHeatHeatHeatHeatHeatDetritivores(decomposers and detritus feeders)Types of Consumers
13Ecological Efficiency Ecological efficiency: useable energy that is passed along from one trophic level to the next. Typical is 10% efficient (90% of energy is lost)Top carnivoresCarnivoresHerbivoresProducers5,060Decomposers/detritivores20,8103,36838321
14(decomposers and detritus feeders) First TrophicLevelSecond TrophicLevelThird TrophicLevelFourth TrophicLevelProducers(plants)Primaryconsumers(herbivores)Secondaryconsumers(carnivores)Tertiaryconsumers(top carnivores)HeatHeatHeatHeatSolarenergyHeatHeatHeatHeatHeatDetritivores(decomposers and detritus feeders)Food Chains
15Food Webs Humans Blue whale Sperm whale Killer whale Elephant seal Crabeater sealLeopardsealEmperorpenguinAdéliepenguinsPetrelSquidFishCarnivorous planktonHerbivorouszooplanktonKrillPhytoplankton
16The dirt on dirtSoil horizon: a horizontal layer with a distinct texture and composition. (soil triangle)Soil profile: cross section of horizons. Can use a sampling tube to see profile. Mature, undisturbed soils have at least 3 of the 4 horizons.
17Soil ProfilesWe will complete soil profile pictures by using text. Feel free to view these slides from the website at a later time to understand each of the horizons that make up the various profiles.Viewing them in lecture would be quite boring.
18O horizon Location: very top of ground to a few inches down Composition: undecomposed leaves, partially decomposed leaves, twigs, grasses, crop waste, animal waste, fungiColor: brown or blackAdditional information: not very deep; some biomes have very little O horizon (desert)
19A Horizon Location: Just underneath O Horizon Composition: has partially decomposed organic matter (humus), inorganic nutrients. Also known as topsoil.Color: brown or dark brown (fertile), gray, yellow, reddish (not as fertile)Additional information: Depth will varying by biome/region. Lots of life (bugs, worms, bacteria, fungi)Bottom of A Horizon is the zone of Eluviation (or E horizon). Loss of minerals and nutrients here – were pushed downward.
20E HorizonLocation: Underneath A horizon (sometimes is included as just a part of the A horizon)Composition: Lacking in nutrients, leaching of nutrients into B horizon occurs hereColor: lighter shade of the A horizonAdditional information: E horizon may be included as a part of the A horizon and not listed. Mostly found in forested area soils.
21B Horizon Location: Underneath E or A horizon Composition: More dense because of fine particles from upper zones leaching down. Also called subsoilColor: yellowish to brownAdditional information: Typically a dense layer with more clay content. Depth of B horizon may vary by biome/regionCool animation of leaching.
22C Horizon Location: Fairly deep – 3+ feet down Composition: Chunks of rock and parent material of the upper layer soil. Mostly inorganicColor: lighter – rock.Additional information: C horizon is also referred to as the Parent material and contains clay, sand, gravel.
23R Horizon Location: Under the C horizon Composition: solid bedrock Color: lighter – rock.Additional information: R horizon is not considered soil. It is solid bedrock. May not be shown on all graphics/profiles.
25Soil Profiles - Biomes O A A E B B C C R Mosaic of closely packed pebbles,bouldersOAAAlkaline,dark, and richin humusWeak humus-mineral mixtureEBDry, brown toreddish-brown, withvariable accumulationsof clay, calciumcarbonate, andsoluble saltsBClay, calciumcompoundsCCRDesert Soil(hot, dry climate)Grassland Soil(semiarid climate)
26Soil Profiles - Biomes O O O A A A/E E E B B B C C C R R R Tropical Rain Forest Soil(humid, tropical climate)Deciduous Forest Soil(humid, mild climate)Coniferous Forest Soil(humid, cold climate)
33Nitrogen Ways nitrogen gets INTO ground Ways nitrogen leaves ground: LighteningDecompositionNitrification (legumes)FertilizerLeachingDenitrificationUse by autotrophsHarvesting/removal of crops
34Phosphorous Cycle mining FERTILIZER excretion GUANO agriculture weatheringuptake by autotrophsuptake by autotrophsMARINE FOOD WEBSDISSOLVED IN OCEAN WATERleaching, runoffDISSOLVED IN SOIL WATER, LAKES, RIVERSLAND FOOD WEBSdeath, decompositiondeath, decompositionsedimentationsettling outweatheringuplifting over geologic timeROCKSMARINE SEDIMENTSPhosphorous Cycle
35Phosphorous Ways phosphorous gets INTO ground Ways phosphorous leaves ground:GuanoPhosphate saltsFertilizerDecompositionsweatheringUptake by autotrophsUse in food chains and websSedimentation/rock cycle
36Acidic fog and precipitation WaterAcidic fog and precipitationSulfur trioxideSulfuric acidAmmoniaAmmonium sulfateOxygenSulfur dioxideHydrogen sulfidePlantsVolcanoDimethyl sulfideIndustriesAnimalsOceanSulfate saltsDeath, decayMetallicsulfide depositsSulfurHydrogen sulfideSulfur Cycle
37Sulfur Ways sulfur gets INTO ground/atmosphere Ways phosphorous leaves ground:FertilizerVolcanoesHot springsFactory emissionsUptake by autotrophsUse in food chains and websSedimentation/rock cycle