2The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) Founded in 1932Abdul Aziz ibn Saud (aka Ibn Saud)Government:Absolute Monarchy7,000 Princes200 Princes with the most power in the form on government offices, such as ministriesThe UlemaReligious Leaders & JuristsShare some powers in government
3King Abdullah bin Abdul al-Saud Current King of the KSA6th King of the countryCame to power in when older brother died.
4Sultan bin Abdul Aziz Al Saud Was the Former Crown PrinceDied, October, 2011New Crown Prince is HRH Prince NayefLine of Succession very different from most countriesMakes it difficult in future.
5Sons of Abdul Aziz ibn Sa'ud Bandar bin Abdul Aziz (1923-)Musa'id bin Abdul Aziz (1923-)Mishaal bin Abdul Aziz (1926-)Crown Prince Sultan bin Abdul-Aziz (1926-)Abd al-Rahman bin Abdul Aziz (1931-)Mutaib bin Abdul Aziz (1931-)Talal bin Abdul Aziz (1931-)Badr bin Abdul Aziz (1933-Nawwaf bin Abdul Aziz (1933-)Turki bin Abdul Aziz (1934-) .Abdulilah bin Abdul Aziz (1935-)Salman bin Abdul Aziz (1936-)Ahmed bin Abdul Aziz (1940-)Mamdouh bin Abdul Aziz (1940-)Sattam bin Abdul Aziz (1943-)Muqran bin Abdul Aziz (1945-)
6Grandsons of Abdul Aziz ibn Sa'ud Muhammed bin Saud (1934-)Abdallah al-Khalid(1935-)Mohammed al Faisal (1937-)Khalid al Faisal (1941-)Saud al Faisal (1941-)Mutaib bin Abdullah (1943-)Faisal bin Bandar (1943-)Turki al Faisal (1945-)Saud bin Abdul Mohsin (1947-)Khalid bin Sultan (1949-)Mohammed bin Fahd (1950-)Bandar bin Sultan (1950-)Mohammed bin Nawwaf (1953-)Al-Walid ibn Talal (1955-)Saud bin Nayef (1956-)Sultan bin Salman (1956-)Mohammed bin Nayef (1959-Faisal bin Salman (1960-)Abdulaziz bin Fahd (1973-)
7Democracy in KSA? KSA has only had an absolute monarchy Most citizens although very educated have never votedPolitical Parties not legal until 2005Makes democracy very difficult
8Economics Young Population 25% of World Oil Reserves 46% under age 14Jobs are an increasing issueLarge gap between rich and poor25% of World Oil ReservesLargest Exporter of Petroleum90% of KSA reserves exportedMost businesses are government ownedTrying to privatizeOther industriesReligious items, chemicals, polymers, fertilizers, construction
9Economics cont.Riyadh – Capital (Left)Jeddah – (Above)
10Economics Cont. Design of King Abdullah Economic City Projected to create 1.5 million new jobs
12Human Rights Punishments Public Executions Beheadings Stoning Flogging Fire Squads345 executions between
13Human Rights Women Women Cannot Drive Read “The Movement for Social Reform in Saudi Arabia”Men first voted in 2005Only time anyone in KSA has votedWomen to vote in elections for 1st timeMunicipal ElectionsHalf of municipals (finance, health, education, agriculture) are princes, other half elected.Women Cannot DriveMany still do in rural areasAre allowed to fly planesCannot Travel without male guardianNeed written permission from male relative to travel outside the country
14Human Rights cont. Minorities Foreigners are allowed to travel, live and work in Saudi ArabiaNot allowed to practice religion openlyHoly sites are off limits to “non-Muslims”Not allowed to be buried inside Saudi soil
15Muttawa (Religious Police) Enforce religious rules in public placesApprox: 3,500 plus thousands of volunteersIn many cases this means:Order/remind women to keep heads coveredBan single men from entering malls on weekends to allow women to shopForce men to evacuate shops to go to the mosque and prayInform non-Muslims to stop shopping until prayer times are over.HOWEVER, many conservative Saudis favor these laws as a way of preserving traditional values.
17Saudi Arabia & USA Military Small population = small military = make difference up with big guns$25-40 Billion Annually, most purchased from USALargest purchaser of U.S. weaponsAlso receives US weapons and defense training in KSA and abroad in exchange for military bases and unrestricted oil tradeMilitary has been used to defend against Saddam Hussein, Israeli threats, and terrorismCongress agreed to sell $60 Billion in arms in 2010 – largest arms sale in US history
18Saudi Arabia & USAEvery president since FDR has recommitted US ties to Saudi ArabiaRelations importantEconomicallyPoliticallyMilitarily
20Reform in KSA? Will Women Vote? Opposition to Royal Family Claim is 20152005 King appointed first female ministersOpposition to Royal FamilyPolitical parties (liberal, Sunni Islamic, Shia & Hejaz tribes)Protesting is strictly forbiddenSpurred by Arab revolutions in other Arab countries