3 Psychodynamic Originated: Sigmund Freud. Emphasizes the role of the unconscious mind, early childhood experiences, and interpersonal relationships to explain human behavior and to treat people suffering from mental illnesses.
4 Our personality is a conflict between our unconscious Id and our superego (our moral sense) and our ego (our sense of reality).
6 PsychoanalysisPsychoanalysis is the form of treating psychological disorders, invented by Freud.It is famous for the couch.
7 A. What are Psychoanalytic methods of therapy (4 of them): 1. Free Association – patient reports anything that comes to his/her mind.The psychoanalyst listens for links & themes that might tie the patient’s fragmentary thoughts or remarks together.
8 B. Dream analysis:Dreams have two types of content:Manifest content- actual events in dream.Latent content – hidden message in dream.Freud thought that each dream represents a form of wish fulfillment. The wish may be disguised, but it is always there.
9 C. TransferenceFeelings of love or other emotions (hatred) are expressed toward the therapist.These feelings are actually unconsciously felt toward others; the patient is projecting these feelings onto the therapist.This provides clues about the client’s feelings about these other people.
10 Hypnosis Hypnosis is a psychoanalytic therapeutic technique. Supposedly reaches into the unconscious
11 Personality assessment Psychoanalysts use projective tests like the Rorschach Ink Blot test or the TAT test
12 Assessing achievement motivation The TAT Thematic Apperception Test
13 Criticisms of Freud’s theory: 1. Freud had no scientific data to support his theories.2. Freud’s theories (unconscious, libido, etc.) cannot be observed.3. Theory explains behavior (post-hoc) after the fact.4. Observations not representative of population (very sexist and not multicultural).
14 Pros of Freud’s theory1. Argued that childhood experiences are important in personality development.2. Information outside of awareness does influence us.3. Defense mechanisms—good descriptions of some of our behaviors.
16 Behaviorism By the 1950s, Psychoanalysis seemed very unscientific. Behaviorists will bring science back into psychology, even if they overdo it a little.Behaviorism is NOT interested in the unconscious mind since it cannot be observed in a laboratory.
17 Very telling quote!!Give me a dozen healthy infants, well-formed, and my own specified world to bring them up in and I’ll guarantee to take any one at random and train him to become any type of specialist I might select -- doctor, lawyer, artist, merchant-chief and, yes, even beggar-man and thief, regardless of his talents, penchants, tendencies, abilities, vocations, and race of his ancestors. --John Watson, Behaviorism, 1930
18 “Law of effect” Edward Thorndike Basically, he was Skinner “lite.”Responses closely followed by satisfaction will become firmly attached to the situation and therefore more likely to reoccur when the situation is repeated.Conversely, if the situation is followed by discomfort, the connections to the situation will become weaker and the behavior of response is less likely to occur when the situation is repeated.
19 Ivan Pavlov Discovered classical conditioning. Classical conditioning is associative learning.He trained a dog to drool to a bell.
21 B.F. Skinner The most famous of the Behaviorists. operant conditioning (aka shaping)learning through reinforcements (rewards) and punishments.
22 BehaviorismAlbert Bandura did a famous experiment that said our behavior does not have to be classically conditioned or operant conditioned.We can simply observe behavior and copy it.
23 BehaviorismThe behavioral perspective can explain why people get addicted to gambling (positive reinforcement)
24 Behavioral TherapyFocuses on maladaptive behaviors (mal means bad) and changing them.Token economy uses positive reinforcement to get large groups of students or mental ward patients or employees to do something like clean up or attend group therapy.(ex: pizza party if you all pass your test)
25 Behavioral therapySystematic desensitization – treatment of phobias and anxiety. Treat the behavior of not freaking out over spiders (or pickles).
26 Behavioral therapyAversive conditioning – There is a drug called Antabuse. When mixed with alcohol, it makes you sick. Motivated alcoholics will take this pill and begin to associate the sickness with alcohol and possibly stop drinking.
27 Behaviorism SummaryBehaviorism says we do what we do because of classical conditioning, operant conditioning or we simply learn the behavior from watching or copying it.In its extreme, they think we are simply rats in a cage pressing buttons. WE HAVE NO FREE WILL!
29 Humanistic In the 1960s in reaction to psychoanalysis and behaviorism. Focused on each individual’s potential and stressed the importance of growth and self-actualization.The fundamental belief of humanistic psychology was that people are innately good.We are not rats in a cage! We are not id-driven animals! We are humans with free will.
30 HumanismAbraham Maslow said we have a hierarchy of needs
31 Humanism Carl Rogers revolutionized talk therapy. Therapy is client-centered, where the client has all the answers instead of the therapist.Therapists: positive regard (no judgments).Group therapy comes from Humanism.
33 Fully-Functioning Individual Congruence!Open to experiencesFreedom from societyCreativityCarl Rogers’ fully functioning Individual
34 Humanism summary Touchy-feely Rogers and Maslow put the “human” element back into psychology and therapy.Their philosophy: We are all humans striving to maximize our potential. A therapist’s job is to remove obstacles to self-actualization.Positive psychology comes from Humanism
36 Cognitive Perspective It is the study of how people perceive, remember, think, speak, and solve problems.Cognitive therapy is about changing the maladaptive thoughts of a person.
37 Cognitive Psychologists Jean Piaget studied cognitive development in children.
38 Cognitive perspective on depression We are depressed because we are irrational. Our expectations are too high and misplaced. We want everyone to love us and accept us. We want every thing to go our way. We stay angry about stuff that happened a long time ago.WE MUST CHANGE THE WAY WE THINK TO BE HAPPY AND SUCCESSFUL.
39 Cognitive TherapyCognitive therapy is about changing the maladaptive (bad) thoughts.Albert Ellis, Aaron Beck and William Glasser are famous for reality therapy.They challenged his patients to ask, “Are my thoughts realistic or rational?”Cognitive therapy also “educates” the client, teaches him/her proper behaviors/thoughts
40 Evolutionary Psychology Evolutionary psychology examines psychological traits — such as memory, perception, or languageIt seeks to identify which human psychological traits are evolved adaptations.functional products of natural selection or sexual selectionAttractiveness
41 Evolutionary Psychology Why do women spend so much money on a weekly basis but men will surprise their wives with a brand new car (without asking her)?Evolutionary psychologists try to explain this behavior with comparisons to hunter-gather cultures.Why do women have more bug phobias?
42 Biological Perspective Most respected right now.They focus on our brain, nervous system, neurotransmitters and hormones to explain our behaviors.
43 Biological Perspective “I don’t know why you are depressed or anxious. But here is some medicine!”
44 SurgeriesThe Lobotomy damages your frontal lobe to relieve you of anxiety.Cut the corpus callosum to keep seizures from spreading to other side of brain.
46 Common medicinesProzac – antidepressant – blocks reuptake of serotonin.Xanax – anti-anxiety (side effect of drowsiness)Thorazine – replaced the lobotomy
47 Social-Cultural Perspective Says that much of your behavior and your feelings are dictated by the culture you live in.Some cultures kiss each other when greeting, some just bow.Does your culture place value on individual or the group?
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