Presentation on theme: "Memory The persistence of learning over time through the storage and retrieval of information. http://www.positscience.com/test-your-brain/memory/working-memory-word-list-recall."— Presentation transcript:
1MemoryThe persistence of learning over time through the storage and retrieval of information.
2Take out a piece of paper….. Name the seven dwarves…..Now name them…..
3Was it easy or hard? It depends on several things…. If you like Disney movies?When was the last time you have seen the movie?Are people around you being loud pain in the butts so you cannot concentrate?
4Recall Versus Recognition you must retrieve the information from your memoryfill-in-the blank or essay testsyou must identify the target from possible targetsmultiple-choice tests
5With celebrity yearbook photos! Recall vs. RecognitionWith celebrity yearbook photos!
6InstructionsI will show you an old school photo of a celebrity and ask you to identify who it is with no hints.This is testing your recall – I am asking you to recall all of the celebrities you’ve ever seen that could possibly fit your impression of the picture. You’ll find that this is probably pretty tough.Next, I will offer you a list of possible celebrities to choose from that might belong to that photo (like a multiple choice test).This is testing your recognition – by asking you to choose the answer from a list of possibilities, you will probably find that when you have the opportunity to recognize the individual in question, it is easier to come up with a match.Ready?
14Recognition A. Madonna B. Katy Perry C. Jenna Elfman D. Jennifer Aniston
15So which do you think is easier? Recall or Recognition? Why?Ryan Seacrest, Eminem, Fergie, Katy Perry
16The Memory Process Three step process…. Encoding: The processing of information into the memory system.Storage: The retention of encoded material over time.Retrieval: The process of getting the information out of memory storage.
18Automatic processing Effortful processing +Time Spent +Spacing effect +Overlearning-Next in line-Seconds before sleep-During sleepSerial Positioning Effect
19Describe “A” or “B” on a piece of paper (in words)
20Encoding ExerciseThe Ways we can encode…Visual Encoding: the encoding of picture imagesAcoustic Encoding: the encoding of sound, especially the sounds of words.Semantic Encoding: the encoding of meaning.
21Encoding Meaning “Whale” Structural Encoding Shallow Phonemic Encoding Q: Did the word beginwith a capital letter?StructuralEncodingShallowQ: Did the word rhymewith the word“weight”?PhonemicEncodingIntermediateOBJECTIVE 5| Compare the benefits of visual, acoustic, and semantic encoding in remembering verbal information, and describe a memory-enhancing strategy related to the self-referent effect.Q: Would the word fitin the sentence?He met a __________in the street.SemanticEncodingDeepCraik and Lockhart (1972)
22Reproduce figures A and B (image) Recall of the figure given a verbal label will be significantly more accurate, because it was encoded both semantically and visually.
25Sensory MemoryA split second holding tank for ALL sensory information.Sperling’s research on Iconic MemoryEchoic Memory
26Short Term Memory The stuff we encode from the sensory goes to STM. Events are encoded visually, acoustically or semantically.Holds about 7 (plus or minus 2) items for about 20 seconds.We recall digits better than letters.Short Term Memory Activity
27Ways to remember things in STM…so they go to LTM Chunking: Organizing items into familiar, manageable units.Mnemonic devicesRehearsalHierarchy"Mary Very Easily Makes Jam Saturday Unless No Plums."
28Term Keyword Meaning Your Mental Picture 1. Broca’s area broken directs muscles Imagine breaking a talking doll.for speech If it gets broken (Broca),production it won’t talk (speech) anymore.2. parietal lobe parent sense of touch Imagine that a parent (parietal) is touchinghis or her baby’s forehead to feel if thebaby has a temperature.3. hypothalamus hypochondriac hunger and thirst Imagine a hypochondriac (hypothalamus)thinking they’re hungry and thirsty whenthey’re not!4. cerebral cortex cereal court judgment You and a friend have a dispute over a boxof cereal. So, you go to cereal court(cerebral cortex) and face a judge(judgment).5. amygdala Armageddon aggression and fear In the Bible, Armageddon (amygdala) isthe final battle between good and evil.Battles are full of aggression and fear.6. frontal front impulse control Imagine a student losing patience andassociation areas crowding to the front (frontal) of the line.He has lost impulse control.7. corpus callosum corpse connects the two Imagine a tiny corpse (corpus) lying acrosscerebral hemispheres (connecting) the two cerebral hemispheres.8. left hemisphere left field handles language Imagine a ballplayer in left field talking(language) continuously during a game (forexample, “swing batter, swing batter,” etc.)9. temporal lobes tempera hearing Imagine someone painting tempera paintspaints (temporal) all over their ears (hearing)“These ears aren’t painted on,” she says!10. hippocampus hippo memories Imagine a hippo (hippocampus) wearing anelephant trunk as a Halloween costume. “It helps my memory!” he says.
29Long Term Memory Unlimited storehouse of information. Explicit (declarative) memoriesImplicit (non-declarative) memories
32Storing Implicit & Explicit Memories OBJECTIVE 13| Distinguish between implicit and explicit memory, and identify the main brain structure associated with each.
33Anterograde AmnesiaAfter losing his hippocampus in surgery, patient Henry M. (HM) remembered everything before the operation but cannot make new memories. We call this anterograde amnesia.AnterogradeAmnesia(HM)Memory IntactNo New MemoriesSurgery
34Take out a piece of paper and name all the Presidents…
37The Context: Kite Flying A seashore is a better place than the street. At first it is better to run than to walk. You may have to try several times. It takes some skill but is easy to learn. Even young children can enjoy it. Once successful, complications are minimal. Birds seldom get too close. Rain, however, soaks in very fast. Too many people doing the same thing can also cause problems. One needs lots of room. If there are no complications, it can be very peaceful. A rock will serve as an anchor. If things break loose from it, however, you will not get a second chance.The Context: Kite Flying
38The notes were sour because the seams split The voyage wasn’t delayed because the bottle shatteredKnowing the context makes the information more meaningful and will be remembered significantly moreRecall is easier when it is meaningfulBagpipeShip christening
41ForgettingGetting a new bus number and forgetting old bus number.Retroactive Interference: new information blocks out old information.Proactive Interference: old information blocks out new information.Calling your new girlfriend by old girlfriends name.
42Remember PORNProactive remembers OldRetroactive remembers New
43Stress Hormones & Memory Heightened emotions (stress-related or otherwise) make for stronger memories. Continued stress may disrupt memory.OBJECTIVE 12| Discuss some ways stress hormones can affect memory.Scott Barbour/ Getty Images
44Motivated ForgettingMotivated Forgetting: People unknowingly revise their memories.Repression: A defense mechanism that banishes anxiety-arousing thoughts, feelings, and memories from consciousness.OBJECTIVE 22| Summarize Freud's concept of repression, and state whether this view is reflected in current memory research.Culver PicturesSigmund Freud
45Constructive Memory Memories are not always what they seem. Elizabeth LoftusA constructed memory is a created memory.Misinformation effect
58How many remembers the word…? -Aardvark -SleepDéjà VuAssociations can cause a person to feel that an event has occurred when it really has not.A fully processed perceptual experience that matches a minimally processed impression received moments earlier could produce a strong feeling of familiarity.Inattentional blindnessExample: lamp