Presentation on theme: "Memory The persistence of learning over time through the storage and retrieval of information. brain/memory/working-memory-word-list-recall."— Presentation transcript:
Memory The persistence of learning over time through the storage and retrieval of information. brain/memory/working-memory-word-list-recall
Take out a piece of paper….. Name the seven dwarves….. Now name them…..
Was it easy or hard? It depends on several things…. If you like Disney movies? When was the last time you have seen the movie? Are people around you being loud pain in the butts so you cannot concentrate?
Recall Versus Recognition Recall you must retrieve the information from your memory fill-in-the blank or essay tests Recognition you must identify the target from possible targets multiple-choice tests
Recall vs. Recognition With celebrity yearbook photos!
Instructions I will show you an old school photo of a celebrity and ask you to identify who it is with no hints. – This is testing your recall – I am asking you to recall all of the celebrities youve ever seen that could possibly fit your impression of the picture. Youll find that this is probably pretty tough. Next, I will offer you a list of possible celebrities to choose from that might belong to that photo (like a multiple choice test). – This is testing your recognition – by asking you to choose the answer from a list of possibilities, you will probably find that when you have the opportunity to recognize the individual in question, it is easier to come up with a match. Ready?
Recall Who is this handsome fellow?
Recognition A. Brad Pitt B. Gordon Ramsay C. Ryan Seacrest D. Mike The Situation Sorentino
Recall Who is this fine young man?
Recognition A. Eminem B. David Schwimmer C. Johnny Knoxville D. Taylor Lautner
Recall Who is this gorgeous gal?
Recognition A. Jennifer Lopez B. Eva Longoria C. Fergie D. Nicole "Snooki" Polizzi
Recall Who is this sweet-looking girl?
Recognition A. Madonna B. Katy Perry C. Jenna Elfman D. Jennifer Aniston
So which do you think is easier? Recall or Recognition? Why? Ryan Seacrest, Eminem, Fergie, Katy Perry
The Memory Process Three step process…. 1.Encoding: The processing of information into the memory system. 2.Storage: The retention of encoded material over time. 3.Retrieval: The process of getting the information out of memory storage.
Automatic processing Effortful processing +Time Spent +Spacing effect +Overlearning -Next in line -Seconds before sleep -During sleep Serial Positioning Effect
Describe A or B on a piece of paper (in words)
The Ways we can encode… Visual Encoding: the encoding of picture images Acoustic Encoding: the encoding of sound, especially the sounds of words. Semantic Encoding: the encoding of meaning. Encoding Exercise
21 Encoding Meaning Q: Did the word begin with a capital letter? Structural Encoding Q: Did the word rhyme with the word weight? Q: Would the word fit in the sentence? He met a __________ in the street. Phonemic Encoding Semantic Encoding Whale Craik and Lockhart (1972) Intermediate Deep Shallow
Reproduce figures A and B (image) Recall of the figure given a verbal label will be significantly more accurate, because it was encoded both semantically and visually.
Three Box Model of Memory
Sensory Memory A split second holding tank for ALL sensory information. Sperlings research on Iconic Memory Echoic Memory
Short Term Memory The stuff we encode from the sensory goes to STM. Events are encoded visually, acoustically or semantically. Holds about 7 (plus or minus 2) items for about 20 seconds. We recall digits better than letters. Short Term Memory Activity
Ways to remember things in STM…so they go to LTM Chunking: Organizing items into familiar, manageable units. Mnemonic devices Rehearsal Hierarchy "Mary Very Easily Makes Jam Saturday Unless No Plums."
Term Keyword Meaning Your Mental Picture 1. Brocas area broken directs muscles Imagine breaking a talking doll. for speech If it gets broken (Broca), production it wont talk (speech) anymore. 2. parietal lobe parent sense of touch Imagine that a parent (parietal) is touching his or her babys forehead to feel if the baby has a temperature. 3. hypothalamus hypochondriac hunger and thirst Imagine a hypochondriac (hypothalamus) thinking theyre hungry and thirsty when theyre not! 4. cerebral cortex cereal court judgment You and a friend have a dispute over a box of cereal. So, you go to cereal court (cerebral cortex) and face a judge (judgment). 5. amygdala Armageddon aggression and fear In the Bible, Armageddon (amygdala) is the final battle between good and evil. Battles are full of aggression and fear. 6. frontal front impulse control Imagine a student losing patience and association areas crowding to the front (frontal) of the line. He has lost impulse control. 7. corpus callosum corpse connects the two Imagine a tiny corpse (corpus) lying across cerebral hemispheres (connecting) the two cerebral hemispheres. 8. left hemisphere left field handles language Imagine a ballplayer in left field talking (language) continuously during a game (for example, swing batter, swing batter, etc.) 9. temporal lobes tempera hearing Imagine someone painting tempera paints paints (temporal) all over their ears (hearing) These ears arent painted on, she says! 10. hippocampus hippo memories Imagine a hippo (hippocampus) wearing an elephant trunk as a Halloween costume. It helps my memory! he says.
Long Term Memory Unlimited storehouse of information. Explicit (declarative) memories Implicit (non- declarative) memories
33 No New Memories Anterograde Amnesia Anterograde Amnesia (HM) Surgery After losing his hippocampus in surgery, patient Henry M. (HM) remembered everything before the operation but cannot make new memories. We call this anterograde amnesia. Memory Intact
Take out a piece of paper and name all the Presidents…
35 Memory Stores Feature Sensory Memory Working Memory LTM EncodingCopyPhonemicSemantic CapacityUnlimited7±2 ChunksVery Large Duration0.25 sec.20 sec.Years
THE CONTEXT: KITE FLYING A seashore is a better place than the street. At first it is better to run than to walk. You may have to try several times. It takes some skill but is easy to learn. Even young children can enjoy it. Once successful, complications are minimal. Birds seldom get too close. Rain, however, soaks in very fast. Too many people doing the same thing can also cause problems. One needs lots of room. If there are no complications, it can be very peaceful. A rock will serve as an anchor. If things break loose from it, however, you will not get a second chance.
1.The notes were sour because the seams split 2.The voyage wasnt delayed because the bottle shattered Knowing the context makes the information more meaningful and will be remembered significantly more Recall is easier when it is meaningful Bagpipe Ship christening
The Context Matters!!! Flashbulb Memories Mood Congruent Memory State Dependent Memory
Retroactive Interference: new information blocks out old information. Proactive Interference: old information blocks out new information. Calling your new girlfriend by old girlfriends name. Getting a new bus number and forgetting old bus number.
PORN Remember PORN P roactive remembers O ld R etroactive remembers N ew
43 Stress Hormones & Memory Heightened emotions (stress-related or otherwise) make for stronger memories. Continued stress may disrupt memory. Scott Barbour/ Getty Images
44 Motivated Forgetting Motivated Forgetting: People unknowingly revise their memories. Repression: A defense mechanism that banishes anxiety-arousing thoughts, feelings, and memories from consciousness. Sigmund Freud Culver Pictures
Constructive Memory Memories are not always what they seem. Elizabeth Loftus A constructed memory is a created memory. Misinformation effect
How many remembers the word…? -Aardvark - Sleep Déjà Vu Associations can cause a person to feel that an event has occurred when it really has not. A fully processed perceptual experience that matches a minimally processed impression received moments earlier could produce a strong feeling of familiarity. Inattentional blindness Example: lamp