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Memory The persistence of learning over time through the storage and retrieval of information.

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Presentation on theme: "Memory The persistence of learning over time through the storage and retrieval of information."— Presentation transcript:

1 Memory The persistence of learning over time through the storage and retrieval of information.

2 Take out a piece of paper…..
Name the seven dwarves….. Now name them…..

3 Was it easy or hard? It depends on several things….
If you like Disney movies? When was the last time you have seen the movie? Are people around you being loud pain in the butts so you cannot concentrate?

4 Recall Versus Recognition
you must retrieve the information from your memory fill-in-the blank or essay tests you must identify the target from possible targets multiple-choice tests

5 With celebrity yearbook photos!
Recall vs. Recognition With celebrity yearbook photos!

6 Instructions I will show you an old school photo of a celebrity and ask you to identify who it is with no hints. This is testing your recall – I am asking you to recall all of the celebrities you’ve ever seen that could possibly fit your impression of the picture. You’ll find that this is probably pretty tough. Next, I will offer you a list of possible celebrities to choose from that might belong to that photo (like a multiple choice test). This is testing your recognition – by asking you to choose the answer from a list of possibilities, you will probably find that when you have the opportunity to recognize the individual in question, it is easier to come up with a match. Ready? 

7 Recall Who is this handsome fellow?

8 Recognition A. Brad Pitt B. Gordon Ramsay C. Ryan Seacrest
D. Mike “The Situation” Sorentino

9 Recall Who is this fine young man?

10 Recognition A. Eminem B. David Schwimmer C. Johnny Knoxville
D. Taylor Lautner

11 Recall Who is this gorgeous gal?

12 Recognition A. Jennifer Lopez B. Eva Longoria C. Fergie
D. Nicole "Snooki" Polizzi

13 Recall Who is this sweet-looking girl?

14 Recognition A. Madonna B. Katy Perry C. Jenna Elfman
D. Jennifer Aniston

15 So which do you think is easier? Recall or Recognition?
Why? Ryan Seacrest, Eminem, Fergie, Katy Perry

16 The Memory Process Three step process….
Encoding: The processing of information into the memory system. Storage: The retention of encoded material over time. Retrieval: The process of getting the information out of memory storage.

17 #1 Encoding

18 Automatic processing Effortful processing +Time Spent +Spacing effect
+Overlearning -Next in line -Seconds before sleep -During sleep Serial Positioning Effect

19 Describe “A” or “B” on a piece of paper (in words)

20 Encoding Exercise The Ways we can encode… Visual Encoding: the encoding of picture images Acoustic Encoding: the encoding of sound, especially the sounds of words. Semantic Encoding: the encoding of meaning.

21 Encoding Meaning “Whale” Structural Encoding Shallow Phonemic Encoding
Q: Did the word begin with a capital letter? Structural Encoding Shallow Q: Did the word rhyme with the word “weight”? Phonemic Encoding Intermediate OBJECTIVE 5| Compare the benefits of visual, acoustic, and semantic encoding in remembering verbal information, and describe a memory-enhancing strategy related to the self-referent effect. Q: Would the word fit in the sentence? He met a __________ in the street. Semantic Encoding Deep Craik and Lockhart (1972)

22 Reproduce figures A and B (image)
Recall of the figure given a verbal label will be significantly more accurate, because it was encoded both semantically and visually.

23 #2 Storage

24 Three Box Model of Memory

25 Sensory Memory A split second holding tank for ALL sensory information. Sperling’s research on Iconic Memory Echoic Memory

26 Short Term Memory The stuff we encode from the sensory goes to STM.
Events are encoded visually, acoustically or semantically. Holds about 7 (plus or minus 2) items for about 20 seconds. We recall digits better than letters. Short Term Memory Activity

27 Ways to remember things in STM…so they go to LTM
Chunking: Organizing items into familiar, manageable units. Mnemonic devices Rehearsal Hierarchy "Mary Very Easily Makes Jam Saturday Unless No Plums."

28 Term Keyword Meaning Your Mental Picture
1. Broca’s area broken directs muscles Imagine breaking a talking doll. for speech If it gets broken (Broca), production it won’t talk (speech) anymore. 2. parietal lobe parent sense of touch Imagine that a parent (parietal) is touching his or her baby’s forehead to feel if the baby has a temperature. 3. hypothalamus hypochondriac hunger and thirst Imagine a hypochondriac (hypothalamus) thinking they’re hungry and thirsty when they’re not! 4. cerebral cortex cereal court judgment You and a friend have a dispute over a box of cereal. So, you go to cereal court (cerebral cortex) and face a judge (judgment). 5. amygdala Armageddon aggression and fear In the Bible, Armageddon (amygdala) is the final battle between good and evil. Battles are full of aggression and fear. 6. frontal front impulse control Imagine a student losing patience and association areas crowding to the front (frontal) of the line. He has lost impulse control. 7. corpus callosum corpse connects the two Imagine a tiny corpse (corpus) lying across cerebral hemispheres (connecting) the two cerebral hemispheres. 8. left hemisphere left field handles language Imagine a ballplayer in left field talking (language) continuously during a game (for example, “swing batter, swing batter,” etc.) 9. temporal lobes tempera hearing Imagine someone painting tempera paints paints (temporal) all over their ears (hearing) “These ears aren’t painted on,” she says! 10. hippocampus hippo memories Imagine a hippo (hippocampus) wearing an elephant trunk as a Halloween costume. “It helps my memory!” he says.

29 Long Term Memory Unlimited storehouse of information.
Explicit (declarative) memories Implicit (non-declarative) memories

30 Explicit Memories Episodic Memories Semantic Memories

31 Implicit Memories Procedural Memories Conditioned Memories

32 Storing Implicit & Explicit Memories
OBJECTIVE 13| Distinguish between implicit and explicit memory, and identify the main brain structure associated with each.

33 Anterograde Amnesia After losing his hippocampus in surgery, patient Henry M. (HM) remembered everything before the operation but cannot make new memories. We call this anterograde amnesia. Anterograde Amnesia (HM) Memory Intact No New Memories Surgery

34 Take out a piece of paper and name all the Presidents…

35 Memory Stores Feature Sensory Memory Working Memory LTM Encoding Copy
Phonemic Semantic Capacity Unlimited 7±2 Chunks Very Large Duration 0.25 sec. 20 sec. Years

36 #3 Retrieval

37 The Context: Kite Flying
A seashore is a better place than the street. At first it is better to run than to walk. You may have to try several times. It takes some skill but is easy to learn. Even young children can enjoy it. Once successful, complications are minimal. Birds seldom get too close. Rain, however, soaks in very fast. Too many people doing the same thing can also cause problems. One needs lots of room. If there are no complications, it can be very peaceful. A rock will serve as an anchor. If things break loose from it, however, you will not get a second chance. The Context: Kite Flying

38 The notes were sour because the seams split
The voyage wasn’t delayed because the bottle shattered Knowing the context makes the information more meaningful and will be remembered significantly more Recall is easier when it is meaningful Bagpipe Ship christening

39 The Context Matters!!! Flashbulb Memories Mood Congruent Memory
State Dependent Memory

40 Forgetting

41 Forgetting Getting a new bus number and forgetting old bus number. Retroactive Interference: new information blocks out old information. Proactive Interference: old information blocks out new information. Calling your new girlfriend by old girlfriends name.

42 Remember PORN Proactive remembers Old Retroactive remembers New

43 Stress Hormones & Memory
Heightened emotions (stress-related or otherwise) make for stronger memories. Continued stress may disrupt memory. OBJECTIVE 12| Discuss some ways stress hormones can affect memory. Scott Barbour/ Getty Images

44 Motivated Forgetting Motivated Forgetting: People unknowingly revise their memories. Repression: A defense mechanism that banishes anxiety-arousing thoughts, feelings, and memories from consciousness. OBJECTIVE 22| Summarize Freud's concept of repression, and state whether this view is reflected in current memory research. Culver Pictures Sigmund Freud

45 Constructive Memory Memories are not always what they seem.
Elizabeth Loftus A constructed memory is a created memory. Misinformation effect

46 Rest

47 Snore

48 Sound

49 Tired

50 Bed

51 Comfort

52 Awake

53 Eat

54 Wake

55 Dream

56 Slumber

57 Night

58 How many remembers the word…? -Aardvark
-Sleep Déjà Vu Associations can cause a person to feel that an event has occurred when it really has not. A fully processed perceptual experience that matches a minimally processed impression received moments earlier could produce a strong feeling of familiarity. Inattentional blindness Example: lamp

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