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1 Welcome to Presentation Plus!
Presentation Plus! The American Vision Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Developed by FSCreations, Inc., Cincinnati, Ohio Send all inquiries to: GLENCOE DIVISION Glencoe/McGraw-Hill 8787 Orion Place Columbus, Ohio Welcome to Presentation Plus!

2 Splash Screen

3 Click on a hyperlink to view the corresponding slides.
Chapter Introduction Section 1 Stalemate in Washington Section 2 Populism Section 3 The Rise of Segregation Chapter Summary Chapter Assessment Click on a hyperlink to view the corresponding slides. Contents

4 Click the Speaker button to listen to the audio again.
Intro 1

5 Chapter Objectives Section 1: Stalemate in Washington
Explain why the Republicans and Democrats were so evenly matched during this period.  Cite the economic problems of the period and the basic viewpoints of each political party. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Intro 2

6 Chapter Objectives Section 2: Populism
Explain why farmers wanted a greenback currency and why the adoption of the gold standard led to the Farmers’ Alliance.  Describe who joined the Populist Party and what the party’s goals were. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Intro 3

7 Chapter Objectives Section 3: The Rise of Segregation
Discuss how African Americans in the South were disfranchised and how segregation was legalized.  Describe three major African American leaders’ responses to discrimination. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Intro 4

8 Why It Matters During this period, political parties often focused on party competition rather than on important issues. Rural Americans were suffering economically, and they began to organize to obtain relief. Many states passed laws segregating African Americans and limiting their voting rights. Intro 5

9 The Impact Today Events of this period remain significant today. 
To ensure fair hiring, a federal civil service system was created.  Segregation created problems that Americans are still working to overcome. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Intro 6

10 continued on next slide
Intro 7

11 Intro 8

12 End of Intro

13 Guide to Reading Main Idea Key Terms and Names
From 1877 to 1896, the Republicans and Democrats were so evenly matched that only a few reforms were possible at the national level.  Key Terms and Names patronage  rebate  Interstate Commerce Commission Stalwart  Pendleton Act  Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 1-1

14 Guide to Reading (cont.)
Reading Strategy Organizing As you read about the electoral politics of the 1880s, complete a graphic organizer similar to the one on page 492 of your textbook by filling in the ideals of each Republican Party faction listed.  Reading Objectives Explain why the Republicans and Democrats were so evenly matched during this period.  Cite the economic problems of the period and the basic viewpoints of each political party. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 1-2

15 Guide to Reading (cont.)
Section Theme Continuity and Change Political parties relied on support from different groups and regions of the country. Section 1-3

16 Click the Speaker button to listen to the audio again.
Section 1-4

17 A Campaign to Clean Up Politics
Under the spoils system, or patronage, government jobs went to supporters of the winning party in an election.  By the late 1870s, many Americans believed that patronage corrupted those who worked for the government.  They began a movement to reform the civil service.  President Rutherford B. Hayes attacked the practice of patronage. (pages 492–493) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 1-5

18 A Campaign to Clean Up Politics
(cont.) The “Stalwarts”–a group of Republican machine politicians who strongly opposed civil service reform–accused Hayes of backing civil service reform to create openings for his own supporters.  Civil service reformers were called “Halfbreeds.”  The Republican candidates for the election of 1880 were a Halfbreed, James Garfield for president, and the Stalwart, Chester Arthur for vice president.  They won the election. (pages 492–493) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 1-6

19 A Campaign to Clean Up Politics
(cont.) President Garfield was assassinated a few months into his presidency.  He was killed by a Stalwart who wanted a civil service job through the spoils system.  In 1883 Congress passed the Pendleton Act.  This civil service reform act allowed the president to decide which federal jobs would be filled according to rules set up by a bipartisan Civil Service Commission. (pages 492–493) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 1-7

20 A Campaign to Clean Up Politics
(cont.) Candidates competed for federal jobs through examinations.  Appointments could be made only from the list of those who took the exams.  Once appointed to a job, a civil service official could not be removed for political reasons. (pages 492–493) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 1-8

21 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
A Campaign to Clean Up Politics (cont.) How did the Pendleton Act help reform the civil service? This civil service reform act allowed the president to decide which federal jobs would be filled according to rules set up by a bipartisan Civil Service Commission. Candidates competed for federal jobs through examinations. Appointments could be made only from the list of those who took the exams. Once appointed to a job, a civil service official could not be removed for political reasons. (pages 492–493) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Section 1-9

22 Two Parties, Neck and Neck
A major reason that few new policies were introduced in the 1870s and 1880s was because the Democrats had control of the House of Representatives and the Republicans had the control of the Senate.  Both the Republicans and the Democrats were well organized in the late 1800s.  The presidential elections were won with narrow margins between 1876 and 1896. (pages 493–494) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 1-10

23 Two Parties, Neck and Neck (cont.)
In 1876 and 1888, the presidential candidate lost the popular vote but won the electoral vote and the election.  The Republicans won four of the six presidential elections between and  The Democrats controlled the House of Representatives, however, and the Senate was controlled by Republicans who did not necessarily agree with the president on issues. (pages 493–494) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 1-11

24 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
Two Parties, Neck and Neck (cont.) Why were few new policies introduced in the 1870s and 1880s? (pages 493–494) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Section 1-12

25 Two Parties, Neck and Neck (cont.)
Both the Republicans and the Democrats were well organized in the late 1800s. The presidential elections were won with narrow margins between 1876 and The Republicans won four of the six presidential elections between 1876 and The Democrats controlled the House of Representatives, however, and the Senate was controlled by Republicans who did not necessarily agree with the president on issues. This created a nearly even division of power between Republicans and Democrats that produced political deadlock at the federal level. (pages 493–494) Section 1-13

26 Democrats Reclaim the White House
In the presidential election of 1884, Republicans remained divided over reform.  Democrats nominated Governor Grover Cleveland of New York, a reformer who opposed Tammany Hall.  Republicans nominated James G. Blaine, a former Speaker of the House of Representatives.  Blaine was popular among Republican Party workers. (pages 494–495) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 1-14

27 Democrats Reclaim the White House (cont.)
A major issue in the campaign was corruption in American government.  Voters focused on the morals of each candidate.  Some Republican reformers, called “Mugwumps,” disliked Blaine so much that they left the party to support the Democratic candidate Grover Cleveland.  The Mugwumps did not like Blaine’s connection with the Crédit Mobilier scandal. (pages 494–495) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 1-15

28 Democrats Reclaim the White House (cont.)
Cleveland admitted to having fathered a child ten years earlier and retained the support of the Mugwumps for his honesty.  Blaine tried to persuade Roman Catholics to vote Republican because his mother was an Irish Catholic.  His tactic failed, and Cleveland was elected president. (pages 494–495) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 1-16

29 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
Democrats Reclaim the White House (cont.) Why did Grover Cleveland win the presidential election of 1884? Some Republican reformers, called Mugwumps, disliked Blaine and supported Grover Cleveland instead. They disliked Blaine because they did not like his personal morals and his connection with the Crédit Mobilier scandal. (pages 494–495) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Section 1-17

30 A President Besieged by Problems
Many supporters of President Grover Cleveland sought patronage jobs after his election to office.  Many strikes occurred during Cleveland’s administration.  Police and paid guards sometimes attacked the strikers.  A bomb exploded at a labor demonstration in Haymarket Square in Chicago. (pages 495–496) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 1-18

31 A President Besieged by Problems
(cont.) Small businesses and farmers became angry at railroads because they paid high rates for shipping goods, but large corporations were given rebates, or partial refunds, and lower rates for shipping goods.  Both Democrats and Republicans believed that government should not interfere with corporations’ property rights. (pages 495–496) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 1-19

32 A President Besieged by Problems
(cont.) In 1886 the Supreme Court ruled in the case of Wabash v. Illinois that the state of Illinois could not restrict the rates that the Wabash Railroad charged for traffic between states because only the federal government could regulate interstate commerce.  In 1887 Cleveland signed the Interstate Commerce Act, which created the Interstate Commerce Commission. This was the first law to regulate interstate commerce.  (pages 495–496) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 1-20

33 A President Besieged by Problems
(cont.) Many Americans wanted to do away with high tariffs because they felt that large American companies could compete internationally.  They wanted Congress to cut tariffs because these taxes caused an increase in the price of manufactured goods.  President Cleveland proposed lowering tariffs, but Congress was deadlocked over the issue.  Tariff reduction became a major issue in the election of 1888. (pages 495–496) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 1-21

34 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
A President Besieged by Problems (cont.) What was the purpose of the Interstate Commerce Commission? The commission was created to regulate interstate commerce. The commission limited railroad rates to what was “reasonable and just,” forbade rebates to high-volume users, and made it illegal to charge higher rates for shorter hauls. (pages 495–496) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Section 1-22

35 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
Republicans Regain Power The Republican candidate in the 1888 election was Benjamin Harrison.  His campaign was given large contributions by industrialists who wanted tariff protection.  The Democratic candidate was Cleveland.  He was against high tariff rates.  Harrison won the election by winning the electoral vote, but not the popular vote. (pages 496–497) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Section 1-23

36 Republicans Regain Power (cont.)
As a result of the election of 1888, Republicans gained control of both houses of Congress and the White House.  The Republicans were able to pass legislation on issues of national concern.  The McKinley Tariff cut tariff rates on some goods, but increased the rates of others.  It lowered federal revenue and left the nation with a budget deficit. (pages 496–497) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 1-24

37 Republicans Regain Power (cont.)
A new pension law passed in 1890 for veterans furthered worsened the federal deficit.  The Sherman Antitrust Act of 1890 made trusts illegal, although the courts did little to enforce the law. (pages 496–497) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 1-25

38 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
Republicans Regain Power (cont.) What were the results of the Sherman Antitrust Act? The courts did little to enforce the Sherman Antitrust Act. The legislative act was important for establishing a precedent in the regulation of big business. (pages 496–497) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Section 1-26

39 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers.
Checking for Understanding Define Match the terms on the right with their definitions on the left. __ 1. a partial refund to lower the rate of a good or commodity __ 2. another name for the spoils system, in which government jobs or favors are given out to political allies and friends B A. patronage B. rebate A Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers. Section 1-27

40 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
Checking for Understanding (cont.) Explain how the Pendleton Act created civil service reform. Certain federal jobs were filled according to newly created Civil Service Commission rules. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Section 1-28

41 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
Reviewing Themes Describe the events leading to the establishment of the Interstate Commerce Commission. Worker and consumer unrest, fear of powerful corporations and industry, and anger at railroads led to the establishment of the Interstate Commerce Commission. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Section 1-29

42 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
Critical Thinking Continuity and Coverage What groups and regions were strongholds for Republicans and Democrats in the 1880s? Where is their support today? Big business, Great Plains farmers, and Protestants were strong holds for Republicans in the 1880s. Their support today comes from the Midwest, South, and rural areas. Catholics and immigrants were the strongholds for Democrats in the 1880s. Their support today comes from urban areas. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Section 1-30

43 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
Critical Thinking (cont.) Interpreting Why was the Sherman Antitrust Act ineffective? The enforcing courts judged the legislation language too vague to rule against big companies. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Section 1-31

44 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
Analyzing Visuals Examining Photographs Study the photograph on page 496. What similarities do you see between Cleveland’s inauguration ceremony and the ones we have today? Do you see any differences between the ceremonies then and now? There is a similar setup of inaugurations. The differences are the clothing and the presence of more women today. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Section 1-32

45 Close Cite the economic problems of the period and the basic viewpoints of each political party. Section 1-33

46 End of Section 1

47 Guide to Reading Main Idea Key Terms and Names
In the 1890s an independent political movement called populism emerged to challenge the two major parties.  Key Terms and Names populism  People’s Party  graduated income tax  goldbug  silverite  William Jennings Bryan greenback  inflation  deflation  Grange  cooperative  Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 2-1

48 Guide to Reading (cont.)
Reading Strategy Taking Notes As you read about the emergence of populism in the 1890s, use the major headings of the section to create an outline similar to the one on page 500 of your textbook.  Reading Objectives Explain why farmers wanted a greenback currency and why the adoption of the gold standard led to the Farmers’ Alliance.  Describe who joined the Populist Party and what the party’s goals were. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 2-2

49 Guide to Reading (cont.)
Section Theme Economic Factors Currency and credit problems led to the rise of the Populist movement. Section 2-3

50 Click the Speaker button to listen to the audio again.
Section 2-4

51 Unrest in Rural America
In the 1890s, a political movement called Populism emerged to increase the political power of farmers and to work for legislation for farmers’ interests.  The nation’s money supply concerned farmers.  To help finance the Union in the Civil War, the government issued millions of dollars in greenbacks, or paper currency that could not be exchanged for gold or silver coins. (pages 500–502) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 2-5

52 Unrest in Rural America (cont.)
This rapid increase in the money supply without a rapid increase in goods for sale caused inflation–a decline in the value of money.  The prices of goods greatly increased.  To get inflation under control, the federal government stopped printing greenbacks and started paying off bonds.  Congress also stopped making silver into coins. (pages 500–502) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 2-6

53 Unrest in Rural America (cont.)
As a result, the country did not have a large enough money supply to meet the needs of the growing economy.  This led to deflation–or an increase in the value of money and a decrease in the general level of prices.  Deflation forced most farmers to borrow money to plant their crops.  The short supply of money caused an increase in interest rates that the farmers owed. (pages 500–502) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 2-7

54 Unrest in Rural America (cont.)
Some farmers wanted more greenbacks printed to expand the money supply.  Others wanted the government to mint silver coins.  The Grange was a national farm organization founded for social and educational purposes.  When the country experienced a recession, large numbers of farmers joined the Grange for help.  The Grange changed its focus to respond to the plight of farmers. (pages 500–502) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 2-8

55 Unrest in Rural America (cont.)
Grangers put their money together and created cooperatives–marketing organizations that worked to help its members.  The cooperatives pooled members’ crops and held them off the market to force the prices to rise.  Cooperatives could negotiate better shipping rates from railroads. (pages 500–502) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 2-9

56 Unrest in Rural America (cont.)
The Grange was unable to improve the economic conditions of farmers.  By the late 1870s, many farmers left the Grange and joined other organizations that offered to help them solve their problems. (pages 500–502) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 2-10

57 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
Unrest in Rural America (cont.) How did the Grange try to help farmers? Some Grangers pressured state legislatures to regulate railroad and warehouse rates. Others joined the Independent National Party, or Greenback Party, to pressure the government into printing more greenbacks to increase the money supply. Grangers also formed cooperatives to help farmers market their crops for higher prices and negotiate better shipping rates. (pages 500–502) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Section 2-11

58 The Farmers’ Alliance The Farmers’ Alliance was formed in 1877. 
By 1890 it had between 1.5 and 3 million members with strength in the South and on the Great Plains.  The Alliance organized large cooperatives called exchanges for the purpose of forcing farm prices up and making loans to farmers at low interest rates.  These exchanges mostly failed. (pages 502–503) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 2-12

59 The Farmers’ Alliance (cont.)
Many exchanges overextended themselves by loaning too much money at low interest rates that were not repaid.  Wholesalers, manufacturers, railroads, and bankers discriminated against the exchanges.  The exchanges were too small to dramatically affect world prices for farm products. (pages 502–503) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 2-13

60 The Farmers’ Alliance (cont.)
Members of the Kansas Alliance formed the People’s Party, or Populists, to push for political reforms that would help farmers solve their problems.  Most Southern leaders of the Alliance opposed the People’s Party because they wanted the Democrats to retain control of the South.  One Southern leader, Charles Macune, came up with a subtreasury plan to set up warehouses where farmers could store their crops to force prices up. (pages 502–503) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 2-14

61 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
The Farmers’ Alliance (cont.) Why did the exchanges set up by the Farmers’ Alliance fail? Many exchanges overextended themselves by loaning too much money at low interest rates that were not repaid. Wholesalers, manufacturers, railroads, and bankers discriminated against the exchanges. The exchanges were too small to dramatically affect world prices for farm products. (pages 502–503) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Section 2-15

62 The Rise of Populism In 1890 the Farmers’ Alliance issued the Ocala Demands to help farmers choose candidates in the 1890 elections.  The demands included the adoption of the subtreasury plan, the free coinage of silver, an end to protective tariffs and national banks, tighter regulation of the railroads, and direct election of senators by voters.  Many pro-Alliance Democrats were elected to office in the South. (pages 503–506) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 2-16

63 The Rise of Populism (cont.)
By early 1892, Southern members of the Alliance began to realize that Democrats were not going to keep their promises to the Alliance and they were ready to leave the Democratic Party and join the People’s Party.  In July 1892, the People’s Party held its first national convention where it nominated James B. Weaver to run for president. (pages 503–506) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 2-17

64 The Rise of Populism (cont.)
The People’s Party platform called for unlimited coinage of silver, federal ownership of railroads, and a graduated income tax, one that taxes higher earnings more heavily.  It also called for an eight-hour workday, restriction of immigration, and denounced the use of strikebreakers.  Democrats nominated New Yorker Grover Cleveland for the 1892 presidential election.  Cleveland won the election. (pages 503–506) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 2-18

65 The Rise of Populism (cont.)
The Panic of 1893 was caused by the bankruptcy of the Philadelphia and Reading Railroads.  It resulted in the stock market crash and the closing of many banks.  By 1894 the country was in a deep depression. (pages 503–506) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 2-19

66 The Rise of Populism (cont.)
President Cleveland wanted to stop the flow of gold and make it the sole basis for the country’s currency, so he had Congress repeal of the Sherman Silver Purchase Act.  This caused the Democratic Party to split into the goldbugs and the silverites.  Goldbugs believed the American currency should be based only on gold.  Silverites believed coining silver in unlimited amounts was the answer to the nation’s economic crisis. (pages 503–506) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 2-20

67 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
The Rise of Populism (cont.) What was the People’s Party platform in the election of 1892? The People’s Party platform called for unlimited coinage of silver, federal ownership of railroads, and a graduated income tax, or one that taxes higher earnings more heavily. It also called for an eight-hour workday, restriction of immigration, and denounced the use of strikebreakers. (pages 503–506) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Section 2-21

68 The Election of 1896 The Democrats nominated William Jennings Bryan for the presidential election of  He strongly supported the unlimited coinage of silver.  Populists also supported Bryan for president.  The Republicans nominated William McKinley of Ohio for president.  He promised workers a “full dinner pail.” (pages 506–507) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 2-22

69 The Election of 1896 (cont.) Most business leaders liked McKinley because they thought that unlimited silver coinage would ruin the country’s economy.  McKinley won the election of  New gold strikes in Alaska and Canada’s Yukon Territory and in other parts of the world increased the money supply without needing to use silver.  As the silver issue died out, so did the Populist Party. (pages 506–507) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 2-23

70 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
The Election of 1896 (cont.) Why did William McKinley appeal to workers and business leaders? McKinley promised workers a “full dinner pail.” Most business leaders liked him because they thought that unlimited silver coinage would ruin the country’s economy. (pages 506–507) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Section 2-24

71 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers.
Checking for Understanding Define Match the terms on the right with their definitions on the left. __ 1. the loss of value of money __ 2. a piece of U.S. paper money first issued by the North during the Civil War __ 3. a person who believes that American currency should be based on a gold standard __ 4. a decline in the volume of available money or credit that results in lower prices, and, therefore, increases the buying power of money __ 5. a person who believes that coining silver in unlimited quantities would solve the nation’s economic crisis C A. deflation B. greenback C. inflation D. goldbug E. silverite B D A E Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers. Section 2-25

72 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
Checking for Understanding (cont.) List the issues that the Democrats endorsed in the 1896 presidential election. Democrats supported farmers and silver as a monetary base. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Section 2-26

73 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
Reviewing Themes Economic Factors What economic problems caused farmers to support populism? Deflation, falling farm prices, high tariffs, and high rail shipping rates caused farmers to support populism. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Section 2-27

74 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
Critical Thinking Analyzing How did the Farmers’ Alliance contribute to the rise of a new political party? Some Alliance members wanted to form a new party to get their programs passed. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Section 2-28

75 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
Analyzing Visuals Analyzing Photographs Examine the photograph of David Hilton and his family on page 505, showing them with an organ they rescued from a collapsed sod house. Why do you think it was so important for them to rescue the organ? The organ was one of the few sources of entertainment for the family. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Section 2-29

76 Close Describe who joined the Populist Party and what the party’s goals were. Section 2-30

77 End of Section 2

78 Guide to Reading Main Idea Key Terms and Names
In the late 1800s, Southern states passed laws that denied African Americans the right to vote and imposed segregation on them.  Key Terms and Names sharecropper  Jim Crow laws  lynching  Ida B. Wells  W.E.B. Du Bois poll tax  grandfather clause  segregation  Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 3-1

79 Guide to Reading (cont.)
Reading Strategy Organizing As you read about the South in the 1890s, complete a web diagram like the one on page 508 of your textbook by listing ways that states disfranchised African Americans and legalized discrimination.  Reading Objectives Discuss how African Americans in the South were disfranchised and how segregation was legalized.  Describe three major African American leaders’ responses to discrimination. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 3-2

80 Guide to Reading (cont.)
Section Theme Individual Action African Americans stood up to fight against discrimination in the United States. Section 3-3

81 Click the Speaker button to listen to the audio again.
Section 3-4

82 Resistance and Repression
After Reconstruction, most African Americans were sharecroppers, or landless farmers who had to give the landlord a large share of their crops to cover their costs for rent and farming supplies.  In 1879 Benjamin “Pap” Singleton organized a mass migration of African Americans, called Exodusters, from the rural South to Kansas. (pages 508–509) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 3-5

83 Resistance and Repression (cont.)
Some African Americans that stayed in the South formed the Colored Farmers’ National Alliance.  The organization worked to help its members set up cooperatives.  Many African Americans joined the Populist Party.  Threatened by the power of the Populist Party, Democratic leaders began using racism to try to win back the poor white vote in the South. (pages 508–509) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 3-6

84 Resistance and Repression (cont.)
By 1890 election officials in the South began using methods to make it difficult for African Americans to vote. (pages 508–509) Section 3-7

85 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
Resistance and Repression (cont.) What did African Americans do to try to improve their conditions in the South after Reconstruction? Exodusters left the rural South and migrated to Kansas. African Americans who stayed in the South joined organizations such as the Colored Farmers’ National Alliance and the Populist Party. (pages 508–509) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Section 3-8

86 Disfranchising African Americans
Southern states used loopholes in the Fifteenth Amendment and began to impose restrictions that barred almost all African Americans from voting.  In 1890 Mississippi required all citizens registering to vote to pay a poll tax, which most African Americans could not afford to pay. (page 510) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 3-9

87 Disfranchising African Americans
(cont.) The state also required all prospective voters to take a literacy test.  Most African Americans had no education and failed the test.  Other Southern states adopted similar restrictions.  The number of African Americans and poor whites registered to vote fell dramatically in the South. (page 510) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 3-10

88 Disfranchising African Americans
(cont.) To allow poor whites to vote, some Southern states had a grandfather clause in their voting restrictions.  This clause allowed any man to vote if he had an ancestor on the voting rolls in 1867. (page 510) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 3-11

89 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
Disfranchising African Americans (cont.) What methods did Southern states use to disenfranchise African Americans? Southern states imposed restrictions such as a poll tax and literacy tests. (page 510) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Section 3-12

90 Legalizing Segregation
In the late 1800s, both the North and the South discriminated against African Americans.  In the South, segregation, or separation of the races, was enforced by laws known as Jim Crow laws.  In 1883 the Supreme Court overturned the Civil Rights Act of  The ruling meant that private organizations or businesses were free to practice segregation. (pages 510–511) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 3-13

91 Legalizing Segregation (cont.)
Southern states passed a series of laws that enforced segregation in almost all public places.  The Supreme Court ruling in Plessy v. Ferguson endorsed “separate but equal” facilities for African Americans.  This ruling established the legal basis for discrimination in the South for over 50 years. (pages 510–511) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 3-14

92 Legalizing Segregation (cont.)
In the late 1800s, mob violence increased in the United States, particularly in the South.  Between 1890 and 1899, hundreds of lynchings–executions without proper court proceedings–took place.  Most lynchings were in the South, and the victims were mostly African Americans. (pages 510–511) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 3-15

93 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
Legalizing Segregation (cont.) What was the result of the Supreme Court case Plessy v. Ferguson? The Supreme Court ruling in Plessy v. Ferguson endorsed “separate but equal” facilities for African Americans. This ruling established the legal basis for discrimination in the South for over 50 years. (pages 510–511) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Section 3-16

94 The African American Response
In 1892 Ida B. Wells, an African American from Tennessee, began a crusade against lynching.  She wrote newspaper articles and a book denouncing lynchings and mob violence against African Americans. (pages 511–512) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 3-17

95 The African American Response
(cont.) Booker T. Washington, an African American educator, urged fellow African Americans to concentrate on achieving economic goals rather than legal or political ones.  He explained his views in a speech known as the Atlanta Compromise. (pages 511–512) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 3-18

96 The African American Response
(cont.) The Atlanta Compromise was challenged by W.E.B. Du Bois, the leader of African American activists born after the Civil War.  Du Bois said that white Southerners continued to take away the civil rights of African Americans, even though they were making progress in education and vocational training.  He believed that African Americans had to demand their rights, especially voting rights, to gain full equality. (pages 511–512) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 3-19

97 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
The African American Response (cont.) How did the viewpoints on solving discrimination differ between Booker T. Washington and W.E.B. Du Bois? (pages 511–512) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Section 3-20

98 The African American Response
(cont.) Booker T. Washington urged fellow African Americans to concentrate on achieving economic goals rather than legal or political ones. Washington said African Americans should prepare themselves educationally and vocationally for full equality. Du Bois said that white Southerners continued to take away the civil rights of African Americans, even though they were making progress in education and vocational training. He believed that African Americans had to demand their rights, especially voting rights, to gain full equality. (pages 511–512) Section 3-21

99 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers.
Checking for Understanding Define Match the terms on the right with their definitions on the left. __ 1. farmer who works land for an owner who provides equipment and seed and receives a share of the crop __ 2. the separation or isolation of a race, class, or group __ 3. an execution performed without lawful approval __ 4. statutes or laws created to enforce segregation __ 5. a tax of a fixed amount per person that had to be paid before the person could vote A A. sharecropper B. poll tax C. segregation D. Jim Crow laws E. lynching C E D B Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers. Section 3-22

100 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
Checking for Understanding (cont.) Explain what happened to Ida B. Wells after she began campaigning against lynching. She was driven out of town and moved to Chicago to continue her campaign. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Section 3-23

101 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
Reviewing Themes Individual Action Why did Homer Plessy challenge a Louisiana law in 1892, and what was the significance of his action? He argued that the law that forced him to ride in a separate railroad car from whites was unconstitutional; his challenge led to the “separate but equal” doctrine. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Section 3-24

102 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
Critical Thinking Examining After Reconstruction Why did many African Americans in the South live in conditions that were little better than slavery? They owned no property and worked as sharecroppers. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Section 3-25

103 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
Analyzing Visuals Analyzing Photographs Examine the photograph of an “Exoduster” family on page 509 of your textbook. Pose questions about the photograph to your classmates in a quiz and then have them answer the questions. Quizzes will vary. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Section 3-26

104 Close Describe three major African American leasers’ responses to discrimination. Section 3-27

105 End of Section 3

106 Chapter Summary 1

107 End of Chapter Summary

108 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers.
Reviewing Key Terms Define Match the terms on the right with their definitions on the left. __ 1. person who believes that American currency should be based on a gold standard __ 2. the separation or isolation of a race, class, or group __ 3. store where farmers bought products from each other; an enterprise owned and operated by those who use its services __ 4. the loss of value of money __ 5. an execution performed without lawful approval E A. rebate B. greenback C. inflation D. cooperative E. goldbug F. silverite G. poll tax H. segregation I. Jim Crow laws J. lynching H D C J Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers. Chapter Assessment 1

109 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers.
Reviewing Key Terms (cont.) Define Match the terms on the right with their definitions on the left. __ 6. person who believes that coining silver currency in unlimited quantities will eliminate economic crisis __ 7. statues or laws created to enforce segregation __ 8. a partial refund to lower the rate of a good or commodity __ 9. a tax of a fixed amount per person that had to be paid before the person could vote __ 10. a piece of U.S. paper money first issued by the North during the Civil War F A. rebate B. greenback C. inflation D. cooperative E. goldbug F. silverite G. poll tax H. segregation I. Jim Crow laws J. lynching I A G B Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers. Chapter Assessment 2

110 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
Reviewing Key Facts What contributed to political deadlock at the federal level between 1876 and 1896? There was a nearly even division of power between the Democrats and Republicans. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Chapter Assessment 3

111 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
Reviewing Key Facts (cont.) What economic problems did the United States face during the administration of President Cleveland? Problems included labor strikes, price gouging by railroads, and high tariffs. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Chapter Assessment 4

112 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
Reviewing Key Facts (cont.) How did the Grange attempt to solve farmers’ problems in the late 1800s? It pooled resources to create cooperatives, pressured legislatures to regulate railroad and warehouse rates, and encouraged the government to print more money. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Chapter Assessment 5

113 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
Reviewing Key Facts (cont.) What was the significance of the Supreme Court’s ruling in Plessy v. Ferguson? Plessy’s challenge of a state law forcing him to ride in a separate railroad car led to the Supreme Court decision establishing the “separate but equal” doctrine and continuing social segregation. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Chapter Assessment 6

114 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
Critical Thinking Analyzing Themes: Economic Factors Why was the type of currency used in the United States an important issue to farmers in the late 1800s? Without greenbacks and silver coins, the money supply could not meet the needs of the growing economy. The value of money increased, and crop prices began to fall. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Chapter Assessment 7

115 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
Critical Thinking (cont.) Comparing How did Booker T. Washington’s answer to racial discrimination compare to that of W.E.B. Du Bois? Washington wanted to postpone the fight for voting rights and focus on educational and job training, while Du Bois pushed for voting rights. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Chapter Assessment 8

116 Economics and History The graph below shows farm prices in the United States between 1860 and Study the graph and answer the questions on the following slides. Chapter Assessment 9

117 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
Economics and History (cont.) Analyzing Graphs What happened to prices of crops between 1865 and 1895? The trend for wheat and corn is downward. The price of cotton remained relatively constant during the period after an initial fluctuation. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Chapter Assessment 10

118 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
Economics and History (cont.) Understanding Cause and Effect What factors might have contributed to this situation? Abundant crops, flat demand, high tariffs, or increased competition may have contributed to this situation. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Chapter Assessment 11

119 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
Directions: Choose the best answer to the following question. The Sherman Antitrust Act of 1890 declared illegal “any combination in restraint of trade or commerce.” What combination was it originally intended to prevent? A labor unions B business mergers C transcontinental railroads D Farmers’ Alliances Test-Taking Tip Make sure your answer reflects the original goal of the Antitrust Act. Only one answer reflects the reason Congress passed the law. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Chapter Assessment 12

120 End of Chapter Assessment

121 Explore online information about the topics introduced in this chapter.
Click on the Connect button to launch your browser and go to The American Vision Web site. At this site, you will find interactive activities, current events information, and Web sites correlated with the chapters and units in the textbook. When you finish exploring, exit the browser program to return to this presentation. If you experience difficulty connecting to the Web site, manually launch your Web browser and go to History Online

122 Click on a hyperlink to view the corresponding slide.
Thomas Nast Interstate Commerce Commission Click on a hyperlink to view the corresponding slide. FYI Contents 1

123 Thomas Nast was responsible for creating the symbols of both the Democratic and Republican parties. To this day, the donkey symbolizes Democrats, and the elephant symbolized Republicans. FYI 1-1a

124 The Interstate Commerce Commission no longer exists
The Interstate Commerce Commission no longer exists. It was terminated in 1995. FYI 1-2b

125 Click on a hyperlink to view the corresponding slide.
Economics Government Click on a hyperlink to view the corresponding slide. CC Contents 2

126 Economics To quiet demands for a larger money supply, the government passed the Bland-Allison Act of The act authorized the U.S. Treasury to purchase silver and issue silver certificates for the first time. Silver certificates could be exchanged for silver dollars. The Treasury continued to exchange silver certificates for silver dollars until Silver certificates remain a legal form of currency in the United States. CC 2-1a

127 Government The Populist Party had an impact on politics and government far beyond its showing in national elections. Minor parties have often served as vehicles for reform by taking clear-cut stands on controversial issues and proposing bold and original solutions. Among the Populist proposals that were adopted and are still in place today are the federal income tax (Sixteenth Amendment, 1913), direct election of U.S. senators (Seventeenth Amendment, 1913), the secret ballot (late 1890s), and primary elections (Wisconsin, 1903). CC 2-1b

128 Click on a hyperlink to view the corresponding slide.
The Grange William Jennings Bryan Click on a hyperlink to view the corresponding slide. FYI Contents 2

129 Farmers in 37 states belong to the Grange today
Farmers in 37 states belong to the Grange today. The organization still pursues its original goals of providing educational and social support to farmers and their families. FYI 2-1a

130 After William Jennings Bryan delivered his speech at the Democratic convention in 1896, people were crying and rejoicing for an hour. FYI 2-2b

131 Click the Speaker button to listen to the audio again.
Moment in History 2

132 Click on a hyperlink to view the corresponding slide.
Rural Lingo Bimetallists Click on a hyperlink to view the corresponding slide. You Don’t Say Contents 2

133 Rural Lingo Grange comes from the Middle Latin word granica, which is from the Latin granum, or “grain.” At one time the grange was the farm of a monastery, where grain was stored. You Don’t Say 2-1a

134 Bimetallists People who supported using both gold and silver as currency were known as bimetallists.
You Don’t Say 2-2b

135 Interpreting Points of View
Suppose you want to see a new movie, but your friends’ opinions range from “terrific” to “boring.” People often have different opinions about the same people, events, or issues because they look at them from different points of view. Click the Speaker button to listen to the audio again. CT Skill Builder 1

136 Interpreting Points of View
Learning the Skill A point of view results from one’s own beliefs and values. Many factors affect an individual’s point of view, including age, gender, racial or ethnic background, economic class, and religion. To judge the accuracy or the objectivity of an argument, you must first identify the speaker’s point of view. CT Skill Builder 2

137 Interpreting Points of View
Learning the Skill (cont.) To interpret point of view in written material, gather background information on the author that might reveal his or her point of view. Identify aspects of the topic that the author chooses to emphasize or exclude. Look for emotionally charged words such as charming, vicious, heartwarming, and drastic. Also notice metaphors and analogies that imply an opinion, such as, “If this budget can work, then pigs can fly.” CT Skill Builder 3

138 Interpreting Points of View
Practicing the Skill Read the following excerpts from William Jennings Bryan’s “Cross of Gold” speech. Then answer the questions on the following slides.  The humblest citizen in all the land, when clad in the armor of a righteous cause, is stronger than all the hosts of error. I come to speak to you in defense of a cause as holy as the cause of liberty–the cause of humanity… Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. CT Skill Builder 4

139 Interpreting Points of View
Practicing the Skill When you come before us and tell us that we are about to disturb your business interest, we reply that you have disturbed our business interests by your course….We say not one word against those who live upon the Atlantic coast, but the hardy pioneers who have braved all the dangers of the wilderness, who have made the desert to blossom as the rose…it is for these that we speak…. If they ask us why it is that we say more on the money question than we say upon the tariff question, I reply that, if protection has slain its thousands, the gold standard has slain its tens of thousands…. CT Skill Builder 5

140 Interpreting Points of View
Practicing the Skill Having behind us the producing masses of this nation and the world, supported by the commercial interest, the laboring interests, and the toilers everywhere, we will answer their demand for a gold standard by saying to them: You shall not press down upon the brow of labor this crown of thorns, you shall not crucify mankind upon a cross of gold. CT Skill Builder 6

141 Interpreting Points of View
Practicing the Skill (cont.) 1. What subject is Bryan addressing? What group is he speaking for? 2. What is Bryan’s point of view? Bryan is speaking about money. He is speaking for farmers. He is against the gold standard. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers. CT Skill Builder 7

142 Interpreting Points of View
Practicing the Skill (cont.) 3. What emotionally charged words and phrases does Bryan use in his speech? How does this language help reveal his point of view? “Hardy pioneers” expresses his view of the people for whom he speaks; references to biblical language attempt to connect his cause to righteous action. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. CT Skill Builder 8

143 The 1893 Chicago World’s Fair
Objectives After viewing “The 1893 Chicago World’s Fair,” you should:  Be aware that in 1893 many new inventions were revolutionizing the world.  Know that the World’s Fair gave people a chance to experience culture from all over the world–in a time before instant communication.  Realize that besides technological and cultural advances, the Fair contained many amusements and “fun exhibits.” Click in the small window above o show a preview of The American Vision video. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. TAV Video 1

144 The 1893 Chicago World’s Fair
Discussion Questions What were some of the inventions on display at the 1983 Chicago World’s Fair? The newest inventions on display included the phonograph, moveable sidewalk, ferris wheel, sewing machine, and kinescope. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. TAV Video 2

145 The 1893 Chicago World’s Fair
Discussion Questions What were some of the “fun exhibits” to be found at the fair? Among the “just for fun” exhibits were a map of the U.S. made of pickles, a 22,000-pound cheese from Wisconsin, and a replica of the Liberty Bell made of oranges. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. TAV Video 3

146 M/C 1-1

147 Why It Matters Transparency

148 Daily Focus Skills Transparency 1
Republican Party Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Daily Focus Skills Transparency 1

149 Daily Focus Skills Transparency 2
Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Daily Focus Skills Transparency 2

150 Daily Focus Skills Transparency 3
Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Daily Focus Skills Transparency 3

151 End of Custom Shows WARNING! Do Not Remove
This slide is intentionally blank and is set to auto-advance to end custom shows and return to the main presentation. End of Custom Shows

152 End of Slide Show


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