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1 Welcome to Presentation Plus!
Presentation Plus! The American Vision Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Developed by FSCreations, Inc., Cincinnati, Ohio Send all inquiries to: GLENCOE DIVISION Glencoe/McGraw-Hill 8787 Orion Place Columbus, Ohio Welcome to Presentation Plus!

2 Splash Screen

3 Click on a hyperlink to view the corresponding slides.
Chapter Introduction Section 1 Causes of the Depression Section 2 Life During the Depression Section 3 Hoover Responds Chapter Summary Chapter Assessment Click on a hyperlink to view the corresponding slides. Contents

4 Click the Speaker button to listen to the audio again.
Intro 1

5 Chapter Objectives Section 1: Causes of the Depression
Describe the characteristics of the 1920s stock market.  Identify the causes of the Great Depression. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Intro 2

6 Chapter Objectives Section 2: Life During the Depression
Describe how the Great Depression affected American families.  Discuss how artists portrayed the effects of the Depression. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Intro 3

7 Chapter Objectives Section 3: Hoover Responds
Evaluate President Hoover’s attempts to revive the economy.  Analyze the limitations of Hoover’s recovery plans. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Intro 4

8 Why It Matters Prosperity in the United States seemed limitless before the Great Depression struck. Overproduction and agricultural problems contributed to the economic catastrophe. President Hoover looked to voluntary business action and limited government relief as solutions, but these efforts failed. Meanwhile, millions of Americans lost their jobs and life savings. Artists and writers depicted this suffering, and many people turned to lighthearted films to escape their difficult lives. Intro 5

9 The Impact Today Events of this period remain important. 
Hoover’s model of business-government cooperation is still influential.  John Steinbeck’s novel The Grapes of Wrath and Grant Wood’s painting American Gothic are permanent artistic legacies. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Intro 6

10 continued on next slide
Intro 7

11 Intro 8

12 End of Intro

13 Guide to Reading Main Idea Key Terms and Names
Inflated stock prices, overproduction, high tariffs, and mistakes by the Federal Reserve led to the Great Depression.  Key Terms and Names Alfred E. Smith  speculation  Black Tuesday  installment  Hawley-Smoot Tariff stock market  bull market  margin  margin call  Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 1-1

14 Guide to Reading (cont.)
Reading Strategy Categorizing As you read about the election of 1928, complete a graphic organizer similar to the one on page 656 of your textbook comparing the backgrounds and issues of the presidential candidates.  Reading Objectives Describe the characteristics of the 1920s stock market.  Identify the causes of the Great Depression. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 1-2

15 Guide to Reading (cont.)
Section Theme Economic Factors The Great Depression was caused by a combination of various economic problems and government policies. Section 1-3

16 Click the Speaker button to listen to the audio again.
Section 1-4

17 The Election of 1928 The 1928 election placed former head of the Food Administration and secretary of commerce, Herbert Hoover, on the Republican ticket against Democratic candidate, Alfred E. Smith, a four-time governor of New York and the first Roman Catholic to be nominated for president.  The issue of Prohibition played a major role in the campaign.  Hoover favored a ban on liquor sales.  Smith opposed the ban. (pages 656–657) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 1-5

18 The Election of 1928 (cont.) Religious differences between the candidates had a major effect on the campaign.  The Catholic issue led to a smear campaign against Smith.  The Republicans took full credit for the prosperity of the 1920s, and Herbert Hoover easily won the 1928 election by a landslide. (pages 656–657) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 1-6

19 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
The Election of 1928 (cont.) What were the major campaign issues in the election of 1928? The issue of Prohibition played a major role in the campaign. Hoover favored a ban on liquor sales. Smith opposed the ban. Religious differences between the candidates had a major effect on the campaign. The Catholic issue led to a smear campaign against Smith. The Republicans took full credit for the prosperity of the 1920s. (pages 656–657) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Section 1-7

20 The Long Bull Market The stock market was established as a system for buying and selling shares of companies.  A long period of rising stock prices is known as a bull market.  Prosperous times during the 1920s caused many Americans to invest heavily in the stock market. (pages 657–658) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 1-8

21 The Long Bull Market (cont.)
As the bull market continued to go up, many investors bought stocks on margin, making a small cash down payment.  This was considered safe as long as stock prices continued to rise.  If the stock began to fall, the broker could issue a margin call demanding that the investor repay the loan immediately. (pages 657–658) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 1-9

22 The Long Bull Market (cont.)
In the late 1920s, new investors bid prices up without looking at a company’s earnings and profits.  Speculation occurred when investors bet on the market climbing and sold whatever stock they had in an effort to make a quick profit. (pages 657–658) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 1-10

23 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
The Long Bull Market (cont.) Why were stock market investors in the 1920s sensitive to any fall in stock prices? Investors were uneasy about any fall in the price of stocks because it meant they might be unable to make money quickly to repay their loans. (pages 657–658) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Section 1-11

24 The Great Crash By late 1929, a lack of new investors in the stock market caused stock prices to drop and the bull market to end.  As stockbrokers advised their customers of margin calls, customers responded by placing their stocks up for sale, causing the stock market to plummet further.  Stock prices fell drastically on October 29, 1929, Black Tuesday, resulting in a $10 to $15 billion loss in value. (pages 658–659) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 1-12

25 The Great Crash (cont.) While this did not cause the Great Depression, it did undermine the economy’s ability to hold out against its other weaknesses.  The stock market crash weakened the nation’s banks.  Banks lost money on their investments, and speculators defaulted on loans.  Because the government did not insure bank deposits, customers lost their money if a bank closed. (pages 658–659) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 1-13

26 The Great Crash (cont.) Bank runs resulted as many bank customers withdrew their money at the same time, causing the bank to collapse. (pages 658–659) Section 1-14

27 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
The Great Crash (cont.) How did the stock market crash weaken the nation’s banks? The stock market crash caused the banks to lose money on their investments, and speculators defaulted on bank loans. Because the government did not insure bank deposits, customers lost their money if a bank closed. Bank runs resulted as many bank customers withdrew their money at the same time, causing the bank to collapse. (pages 658–659) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Section 1-15

28 The Roots of the Great Depression
Efficient machinery led to overproduction, and Americans could not afford to buy all the goods produced.  The uneven distribution of wealth in the United States added to the country’s economic problems.  In 1929 the top 5 percent of American households earned 30 percent of the country’s income.  More than two-thirds of the nation’s families earned less than $2,500 a year. (pages 659–660) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 1-16

29 The Roots of the Great Depression (cont.)
Low consumption added to the economic problems.  Worker’s wages did not increase fast enough to keep up with the quick production of goods.  As sales decreased, workers were laid off, resulting in a chain reaction that further hurt the economy. (pages 659–660) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 1-17

30 The Roots of the Great Depression (cont.)
Many Americans bought on the installment plan, making a down payment and paying the rest in monthly installments.  Paying off installment debts left little money to purchase other goods.  The Hawley-Smoot Tariff intensified the Depression by raising the tax on imports.  Americans purchased less from abroad because of the high cost. (pages 659–660) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 1-18

31 The Roots of the Great Depression (cont.)
In return, foreign countries raised their tariffs on American products, causing fewer to be sold overseas.  Instead of raising interest rates to stop speculation, the Federal Reserve Board made the mistake of lowering the rates.  This encouraged banks to make risky loans and misled business owners into thinking the economy was still expanding. (pages 659–660) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 1-19

32 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
The Roots of the Great Depression (cont.) How did the Federal Reserve Board help cause the Depression? Lowering the interest rate instead of raising it helped cause the Depression in two ways. First, it encouraged banks to make risky loans. Second, it made it appear as if the economy was still thriving, which caused businesses to borrow money to further expand their production. (pages 659–660) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Section 1-20

33 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers.
Checking for Understanding Define Match the terms on the right with their definitions on the left. __ 1. a system for buying and selling stocks in corporations __ 2. buying bought at great risk with the anticipation that the price will rise __ 3. buying a stock by paying only a fraction of the stock price and borrowing the rest __ 4. a long period of rising stock prices __ 5. demand by a broker that investors pay back loans made for stocks purchased on margin A A. stock market B. bull market C. margin D. margin call E. speculation E C B D Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers. Section 1-21

34 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
Checking for Understanding (cont.) Explain the significance of the year 1929. The Great Depression began. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Section 1-22

35 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
Reviewing Themes Economic Factors How did the practices of buying on margin and speculation cause the stock market to rise? Speculation drove up market prices beyond the stock’s value. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Section 1-23

36 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
Critical Thinking Determining Cause and Effect Why did the stock market crash cause banks to fail? Banks had lent money to stock speculators and had invested depositors’ money in stocks. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Section 1-24

37 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
Analyzing Visuals Analyzing Graphs Study the graphs on page 658 of your textbook. Note that decreased demand for automobiles ultimately led to layoffs. These layoffs further decreased the demand for automobiles. What do you think might have ended this cycle? Answers will vary. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Section 1-25

38 Close List the causes of the Great Depression. Section 1-26

39 End of Section 1

40 Guide to Reading Main Idea Key Terms and Names
Many people were impoverished during the Great Depression, but some found ways to cope with the hard times.  Key Terms and Names bailiff  Walt Disney  soap opera  Grant Wood  John Steinbeck  William Faulkner shantytown  Hooverville  hobo  Dust Bowl  Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 2-1

41 Guide to Reading (cont.)
Reading Strategy Taking Notes As you read about life in the United States during the Great Depression, use the major headings of the section to create an outline similar to the one on page 661 of your textbook.  Reading Objectives Describe how the Great Depression affected American families.  Discuss how artists portrayed the effects of the Depression. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 2-2

42 Guide to Reading (cont.)
Section Theme Culture and Traditions Radio and motion pictures provided ways to escape the worries that plagued people during the Depression’s early years. Section 2-3

43 Click the Speaker button to listen to the audio again.
Section 2-4

44 The Depression Worsens
By 1933 thousands of banks had closed and millions of American workers were unemployed.  Unemployed workers often stood at bread lines to receive free food or at soup kitchens where private charities gave a free meal to the poor.  Americans unable to pay their mortgage or rent lost their homes. (pages 661–663) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 2-5

45 The Depression Worsens (cont.)
Those unable or unwilling to move had a court-ordered eviction notice delivered by a court officer or bailiff who forced nonpaying tenants out onto the street.  Many of the homeless built shacks in shantytowns, which they referred to as “Hoovervilles” because they blamed the president for their financial trouble.  Hobos, or homeless Americans who wandered around hitching rides on railroad cars, searched for work and a better life. (pages 661–663) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 2-6

46 The Depression Worsens (cont.)
As crop prices dropped in the 1920s, many American farmers left their fields uncultivated.  A terrible drought in the Great Plains, beginning in 1932, caused the region to become a “Dust Bowl.”  Many Midwestern farmers and Great Plains farmers lost their farms.  Many families moved west to California hoping to find a better life, but most still faced poverty and homelessness. (pages 661–663) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 2-7

47 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
The Depression Worsens (cont.) What happened to unemployed workers and Midwestern and Great Plains farmers during the Depression? (pages 661–663) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Section 2-8

48 The Depression Worsens (cont.)
Unemployed workers often went to bread lines or soup kitchens to receive free food. Americans unable to pay their mortgage or rent lost their homes. Many of the homeless built shacks in shantytowns. Hobos wandered around hitching rides on railroad cars, searching for work and a better life. As crop prices dropped in the 1920s, many American farmers left their fields uncultivated. A terrible drought in the Great Plains, beginning in 1932, caused the region to become a “Dust Bowl.” Many Midwestern farmers and Great Plains farmers lost their farms. Many families moved west to California hoping to find a better life, but most of them still faced poverty and homelessness. (pages 661–663) Section 2-9

49 Escaping the Depression
Americans escaped the hardships of the Depression by going to the movies and listening to radio broadcasts.  Stories tended to be about overcoming hardships and achieving success.  Walt Disney produced the first feature-length animated film, Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs, in  Other films, like The Wizard of Oz, Mr. Smith Goes to Washington, and Gone with the Wind, contained stories of triumph over adversity and visions of a better life. (pages 663–664) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 2-10

50 Escaping the Depression (cont.)
Families gathered around the radio daily to hear news or listen to comedians like George Burns or a dramatic series like the Lone Ranger.  Melodramas, called soap operas, became very popular with housewives.  Soap operas received their name because makers of laundry soaps often sponsored them. (pages 663–664) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 2-11

51 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
Escaping the Depression (cont.) Why were movies and radio programs important during the Depression? Movies and radio programs allowed Americans to escape their own lives and use their imagination. (pages 663–664) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Section 2-12

52 The Depression in Art Homeless and unemployed Americans were the subjects of art and literature during the 1930s.  Artists and writers tried to capture the real life drama of the Depression.  Thomas Hart Benton and Grant Wood emphasized traditional American values in their art. (pages 664–665) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 2-13

53 The Depression in Art (cont.)
John Steinbeck’s 1939 novel The Grapes of Wrath told the story of an Oklahoma family fleeing the Dust Bowl to find a new life in California.  Steinbeck, like many writers of this time, wrote of poverty, misfortune, and social injustice. (pages 664–665) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 2-14

54 The Depression in Art (cont.)
Novelist William Faulkner’s literary technique, stream of consciousness, revealed characters’ thoughts and feelings before they spoke–thoughts they dared not reveal.  In his novels, he exposed hidden attitudes of Southern whites and African Americans in a fictional Mississippi county. (pages 664–665) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 2-15

55 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
The Depression in Art (cont.) What was emphasized in the work of Thomas Hart Benton and Grant Wood? The two artists were a part of the regionalist school, which focused on traditional American values, particularly those of the rural Midwest and South. (pages 664–665) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Section 2-16

56 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers.
Checking for Understanding Define Match the terms on the right with their definitions on the left. __ 1. minor officer of the courts __ 2. name given to the area of southern Great Plains severely damaged by droughts and dust storms during the 1930s __ 3. nickname given to shantytowns in the United States during the Depression __ 4. a poor section of town consisting of crudely built dwellings usually made of wood __ 5. a homeless and usually penniless wanderer A A. bailiff B. shantytown C. Hooverville D. hobo E. Dust Bowl E C B D Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers. Section 2-17

57 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
Checking for Understanding (cont.) Explain what caused the Dust Bowl conditions on the Great Plains. Uncultivated fields, depletion of grasslands protecting soil, and drought caused the conditions. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Section 2-18

58 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
Reviewing Themes Culture and Traditions In what ways did people seek to forget about the Depression? Americans looked to radio and motion pictures as an escape. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Section 2-19

59 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
Critical Thinking Making Inferences Why do you think Life magazine was so popular during the 1930s? Its photos provided a powerful commentary on American life. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Section 2-20

60 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
Analyzing Visuals Analyzing Photos Study the photograph on page 662 of your textbook. Think of three adjectives that you would use to describe the people in the photograph. Using these objectives, write a paragraph describing the family pictured. Answers will vary. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Section 2-21

61 Close Discuss how artists captured the effects of the Depression.
Section 2-22

62 End of Section 2

63 Guide to Reading Main Idea Key Terms and Names
President Hoover’s philosophy of government guided his response to the Depression.  Key Terms and Names public works  relief  foreclose  Bonus Army Reconstruction Finance Corporation  Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 3-1

64 Guide to Reading (cont.)
Reading Strategy Categorizing As you read about Hoover’s response to the Depression, complete a graphic organizer by listing his major initiatives and their results.  Reading Objectives Evaluate President Hoover’s attempts to revive the economy.  Analyze the limitations of Hoover’s recovery plans. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 3-2

65 Guide to Reading (cont.)
Section Theme Groups and Institutions President Hoover began using new government agencies to improve the nation’s slumping economy. Section 3-3

66 Click the Speaker button to listen to the audio again.
Section 3-4

67 Promoting Recovery In an effort to promote economic recovery, President Herbert Hoover held a series of conferences bringing together the heads of banks, railroads, big business, labor, and government.  Hoover received a pledge from industry to keep factories open and stop cutting wages.  After the pledge failed, Hoover increased public works–government-financed building projects. (pages 668–670) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 3-5

68 Promoting Recovery (cont.)
Hoover asked the nation’s governors and mayors to increase public works spending.  At the same time, however, Hoover refused to increase government spending or taxes. He feared that deficit spending would actually delay an economic recovery.  Americans blamed the Republican Party for the Depression. (pages 668–670) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 3-6

69 Promoting Recovery (cont.)
As a result, in the midterm congressional elections of 1930, the Republicans lost 49 seats and their majority in the House of Representatives. (pages 668–670) Section 3-7

70 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
Promoting Recovery (cont.) How did Hoover promote economic recovery? (pages 668–670) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Section 3-8

71 Promoting Recovery (cont.)
President Herbert Hoover held a series of conferences bringing together the heads of banks, railroads, big business, labor, and government. Hoover received a pledge from industry to keep factories open and stop cutting wages. After the pledge failed, Hoover increased public works to replace some construction jobs. Hoover asked the nation’s governors and mayors to increase public works spending. At the same time, however, Hoover refused to increase government spending or taxes. He feared that deficit spending would actually delay an economic recovery. (pages 668–670) Section 3-9

72 Pumping Money Into the Economy
President Hoover tried to persuade the Federal Reserve Board to put more currency into circulation, but the Board refused.  Hoover set up the National Credit Corporation (NCC), which created a pool of money to rescue banks, but it was not enough to help. (page 670) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 3-10

73 Pumping Money Into the Economy
(cont.) By 1932 Hoover felt the government had to provide funding for borrowers.  He asked Congress to set up the Reconstruction Finance Corporation (RFC) to make loans to banks, railroads, and agricultural institutions.  The economy continued to decline when the RFC was too cautious in its loan amounts. (page 670) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 3-11

74 Pumping Money Into the Economy
(cont.) Hoover opposed the federal government’s participation in relief–money that went directly to very poor families.  He felt relief was the responsibility of state and local governments.  In July 1932, Congress passed the Emergency Relief and Construction Act to get money for public works and for loans to the states for direct relief. (page 670) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 3-12

75 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
Pumping Money Into the Economy (cont.) What actions did President Hoover take to try to pump money back into the American economy? (page 670) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Section 3-13

76 Pumping Money Into the Economy
(cont.) Hoover tried to persuade the Federal Reserve Board to put more currency into circulation, but the Board refused. Hoover set up the National Credit Corporation (NCC), which created a pool of money to rescue banks, but it was not enough to help. Hoover asked Congress to set up the Reconstruction Finance Corporation to make loans to banks, railroads, and agricultural institutions. The economy continued to decline when the RFC was too cautious in its loan amounts. (page 670) Section 3-14

77 In an Angry Mood By 1931 discontent over the economy led to violence.  Looting, rallies, and hunger marches began.  During a hunger march at the nation’s capital, police denied protestors food, water, and medical treatment.  Congress intervened, stressing the marchers’ right to petition their government.  Congress permitted them to march on to Capitol Hill. (pages 670–672) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 3-15

78 In an Angry Mood (cont.) Between 1930 and 1934, creditors foreclosed, or took possession of, almost a million farms.  Some farmers destroyed their crops, hoping the reduction in supply would cause the prices to go up.  In 1924 Congress enacted a $1,000 bonus to be paid to veterans in  In 1931 a bill was introduced in the House that authorized early payment of the bonus. (pages 670–672) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 3-16

79 In an Angry Mood (cont.) In 1932 the “Bonus Army” marched to Washington, D.C., to ask Congress to approve the legislation.  After Hoover refused to meet with the Bonus Army and the Senate voted the new bonus bill down, some of the marchers left.  Some marchers stayed, moving into deserted buildings in Washington, D.C.  When Hoover ordered the buildings cleared, disputes between the remaining people and the police (and later the army) resulted in several deaths. (pages 670–672) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 3-17

80 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
In an Angry Mood (cont.) What positive things did Hoover do as president? Hoover did more to expand the role of the federal government than any previous president. His authorization of the Reconstruction Finance Corporation was the first time an American president had used federal power to intervene in the economy during peacetime. (pages 670–672) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Section 3-18

81 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers.
Checking for Understanding Define Match the terms on the right with their definitions on the left. __ 1. projects such as highways, parks, and libraries built with public funds for public use __ 2. to take possession of a property from a mortgagor because of defaults on payments __ 3. aid for the needy, welfare A A. public works B. relief C. foreclose C B Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers. Section 3-19

82 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
Checking for Understanding (cont.) Summarize three major initiatives taken by Hoover to improve the economy and the results of each. Funding from the National Credit Corporation and the Reconstruction Finance Corporation were insufficient. Emergency Relief and Construction funds came too late. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Section 3-20

83 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
Reviewing Themes Groups and Institutions What did business leaders promise Hoover they would do to help the economy? Did they keep their promises? They promised to keep factories open and stop slashing wages. They did not keep their promises. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Section 3-21

84 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
Critical Thinking Interpreting How did President Hoover’s philosophy of government guide his response to the Depression? Belief in volunteerism and loans, rather than direct relief, restricted his actions. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Section 3-22

85 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
Analyzing Visuals Picturing History Study the photographs on page 671 of your textbook. The farmers shown would rather dump their milk than sell it. What did they hope to achieve by their actions? The farmers hoped to drive up prices by limiting supply. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Section 3-23

86 Close Analyze the limitations of Hoover’s recovery plans. Section 3-24

87 End of Section 3

88 Chapter Summary 1

89 End of Chapter Summary

90 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers.
Reviewing Key Terms Define Match the terms on the right with their definitions on the left. __ 1. a long period of rising stock prices __ 2. a poor section of town consisting of crudely built dwellings usually made of wood __ 3. demand by broker that investors pay back loans made for stocks purchased on margin __ 4. nickname given to shantytowns in the United States during the Depression __ 5. projects such as highways, parks, and libraries built with public funds for public use A A. bull market B. margin C. margin call D. installment E. bailiff F. shantytown G. Hooverville H. Dust Bowl I. public works J. foreclose F C G I Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers. Chapter Assessment 1

91 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers.
Reviewing Key Terms (cont.) Define Match the terms on the right with their definitions on the left. __ 6. buying an item on credit with a monthly plan to pay off the value of the good __ 7. buying stock by paying only a fraction of the stock price and borrowing the rest __ 8. name given to the area of the southern Great Plains severely damaged by droughts and dust storms during the 1930s __ 9. to take possession of a property from a mortgagor because of defaults on payments __ 10. minor officer of the courts D A. bull market B. margin C. margin call D. installment E. bailiff F. shantytown G. Hooverville H. Dust Bowl I. public works J. foreclose B H J E Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers. Chapter Assessment 2

92 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
Reviewing Key Facts What was the character of the stock market in the late 1920s, and what caused it to crash? It was a bull market that crashed because stocks were overvalued and many people had purchased stocks on margin. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Chapter Assessment 3

93 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
Reviewing Key Facts (cont.) How did artists and writers capture the effects of the Great Depression? They focused on pictures and stories of the homeless and unemployed. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Chapter Assessment 4

94 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
Reviewing Key Facts (cont.) Why did “Okies” migrate to California during the Great Depression, and what happened to them once they got there? They migrated searching for work. Many ended up working as homeless migrant laborers. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Chapter Assessment 5

95 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
Reviewing Key Facts (cont.) What three major initiatives did President Hoover take to try to help the economy of the United States? Hoover initiated the National Credit Corporation, the Reconstruction Finance Corporation, and the Emergency Relief and Construction Act. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Chapter Assessment 6

96 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
Reviewing Key Facts (cont.) What did World War I veterans do to try to get their service bonuses early? They marched to Washington to petition Congress and then became squatters in unoccupied buildings. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Chapter Assessment 7

97 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
Critical Thinking Analyzing Themes: Culture and Traditions Many people in the United States were impoverished during the Depression, yet 60 to 90 million weekly viewers paid to see movies. Why do you think movies were so popular? Movies gave people an escape from their own lives. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Chapter Assessment 8

98 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
Critical Thinking (cont.) Evaluating Do you think President Hoover could have done more to end the Great Depression? Why or why not? Answers will vary. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Chapter Assessment 9

99 Economics and History The graph below shows changes in crop prices from 1910 to Study the graph and answer the questions on the following slides. Chapter Assessment 10

100 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
Economics and History (cont.) Interpreting Graphs What trend does this graph show about wheat and corn prices in the 1930s? They declined sharply in the early 1930s, then rose steadily. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Chapter Assessment 11

101 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
Economics and History (cont.) Analyzing Between which 10-year span did the greatest increase and decrease in farm prices occur? The ten-year period in which there was the greatest overall difference in farm prices was between 1910 and This was found by adding the price points of all three crops and figuring the difference. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Chapter Assessment 12

102 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
Directions: Choose the phrase that best completes the following sentence. A major reason for the collapse of the American economy after 1929 was A high interest rates. B decreased farm production. C low tariffs at home and abroad. D overproduction of consumer goods. Test-Taking Tip If you are not sure of the answer, use the process of elimination. For example, farmers were not prosperous in the 1920s because their huge crops forced down agricultural prices. Therefore, answer B is incorrect. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Chapter Assessment 13

103 End of Chapter Assessment

104 Explore online information about the topics introduced in this chapter.
Click on the Connect button to launch your browser and go to The American Vision Web site. At this site, you will find interactive activities, current events information, and Web sites correlated with the chapters and units in the textbook. When you finish exploring, exit the browser program to return to this presentation. If you experience difficulty connecting to the Web site, manually launch your Web browser and go to History Online

105 Economics The growing gap between the rich and poor in the 1920s revels that many business leaders had forgotten Henry Ford’s insight into the importance of paying workers enough so that they could buy the products they were making. CC 1-1

106 Music The music of Woody Guthrie gave an uplifting voice to people who struggled through the Depression. Unlike swing or big-band songs. Guthrie’s lyrics told of rough living and fighting back. The guitarist drew upon the traditional times of farmers and workers to write the workers’ anthems for decades to come. CC 3-1

107 Hobo Signs The hundreds of thousands of hobos who roamed the country developed intricate symbols that they wrote on trees, fences, or buildings to warn or inform other hobos. Many became a part of American folklore. At the height of the Great Depression there may have been as many as 250,000 teenage hobos. F/F/F 2-Folklore

108 Click on a hyperlink to view the corresponding slide.
Manufacturing Output Financiers and the Panic Click on a hyperlink to view the corresponding slide. FYI Contents 1

109 By 1932 the nation’s manufacturing output stood at 47 percent of its 1929 level.
FYI 1-1a

110 Some of the country’s leading financiers had tried to avert the crash by pumping money into the market, but others wanted to profit from the panic. The president of Chase National Bank sold 42,506 shares of his own bank’s stock, bought them back later in the year at a lower price, and made a profit of $4 million. FYI 1-2b

111 Click on a hyperlink to view the corresponding slide.
Monopoly Rockefeller Center Click on a hyperlink to view the corresponding slide. FYI Contents 3

112 Ironically the board game Monopoly was invented during the Depression
Ironically the board game Monopoly was invented during the Depression. Charles Darrow was an unemployed Pennsylvania engineer when he designed the famous game in the early 1930s. FYI 3-1a

113 In 1931 a Christmas tree was placed amid the rubble from some demolished buildings. Workers who still had jobs decorated the tree with tin cans and paper. A few years later at the same site, the official Rockefeller Center tree tradition was inaugurated. FYI 3-2b

114 Click the Speaker button to listen to the audio again.
Moment in History 2

115 Click the Speaker button to listen to the audio again.
Building a Database Do you have a collection of sports cards, CDs, or DVDs? Have you ever kept a list of the names, addresses, and phone numbers of friends and relatives? If you have collected information and kept it in a list or file, then you have created a database. Click the Speaker button to listen to the audio again. TECH Skill Builder 1

116 Building a Database Learning the Skill
An electronic database is a collection of facts that are stored in a file on a computer. The information is organized in fields.  A database can be organized and recognized in any way that is useful to you. By using a database management system (DBMS)–special software developed for record keeping–you can easily add, delete, change, or update information. You give commands to the computer that tell it what to do with the information, and it follows these commands. When you want to retrieve information, the computer searches through the file, finds the information, and displays it on the screen. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. TECH Skill Builder 2

117 Building a Database Practicing the Skill
The Great Depression is a well-known period in American history. Follow the steps on the following slides to build a database containing the events that led to the Great Depression and its effects on the country. TECH Skill Builder 3

118 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers.
Building a Database Practicing the Skill (cont.) 1. Determine what facts you want to include in your database. 2. Follow instructions to set up fields in the DBMS that you are using. Then enter each item of data in its assigned field. Facts should surround the events of the Great Depression. Identify fields that will fit with the facts you have gathered. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers. TECH Skill Builder 4

119 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers.
Building a Database Practicing the Skill (cont.) 3. Determine how you want to organize the facts in the database–chronologically by the date of the event, or alphabetically by the name of the event. 4. Follow the instructions in your computer program to place the information in the order you selected. Data can be sorted in various ways. You are encouraged to experiment with different choices. Data can be sorted in various ways. You are encouraged to experiment with different choices. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers. TECH Skill Builder 5

120 Brother, Can You Spare a Dime?
Objectives After viewing “Brother, Can You Spare a Dime?,” you should:  Recognize how difficult the Depression was for ordinary people.  Understand that the stock market crash led to the closing of banks and factories, which in turn led to the unemployment of millions.  Know that programs such as the WPA and CCC and the distribution of basic necessities attempted to help people. Click in the small window above to show a preview of The American Vision video. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. TAV Video 1

121 Brother, Can You Spare a Dime?
Discussion Questions What were some of the economic institutions that faltered, which lead to the Great Depression? The stock market and the banks failed. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. TAV Video 2

122 Brother, Can You Spare a Dime?
Discussion Questions What were some sources of food for hungry people? Bread lines provided food for many, and the government passed out basic necessities such as sugar and flour. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. TAV Video 3

123 Cause

124 Causes Cyclical Effect Stock Prices, 1920–1932 M/C 1-1

125 M/C 1-1a

126 M/C 1-2a

127 M/C 1-3a

128 M/C 2-1

129 Why It Matters Transparency

130 Daily Focus Skills Transparency 1
Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Daily Focus Skills Transparency 1

131 Daily Focus Skills Transparency 2
Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Daily Focus Skills Transparency 2

132 Daily Focus Skills Transparency 3
Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Daily Focus Skills Transparency 3

133 End of Custom Shows WARNING! Do Not Remove
This slide is intentionally blank and is set to auto-advance to end custom shows and return to the main presentation. End of Custom Shows

134 End of Slide Show


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