7Drug MisuseThe improper use of medicines—either prescription or over-the-counter drugs—is called drug misuse.Examples of drug misuse includeTaking more than the prescribed amount of a drugNot taking a drug for the correct period of time
8Drug Abuse and the Brain A mood-altering drug, also called a psychoactive drug, is a chemical that affects brain activity..Addictionthe compulsive use of a drug, despite any cost to health, family, or social standing.Addiction is a disease that changes the structure and chemistry of the brain.
9WithdrawalIf a person who is dependent on a psychoactive drug stops taking the drug, that person will experience withdrawal symptoms.Withdrawal symptoms includenausea or vomitingheadaches or dizzinessfeverdigestion problemsparanoia or panictremors, seizures, or death
10The “Reward Pathway”Many psychoactive drugs trigger activity along a pathway of cells in the brain called the “reward pathway.”Brain cells along the activated reward pathway release a chemical called dopamine (DOH puh meen).The extra dopamine released during drug use can cause the user to ignore the harmful effects of the drug and want to continue using it.Flooding the reward pathway with dopamine may lead to intense cravings for the drug.After a time, drug abuse can dull the brain’s reactions to natural levels of dopamine.
11How Drugs Affect the Brain Area of the brain’s“reward pathway”
12How Drugs Affect the Brain Area of the brain’s“reward pathway”
13ImpuritiesMany illegal drugs are contaminated with chemicals that may themselves be harmful or cause dangerous drug interactions.Illegal drugs may vary widely from batch to batch in the concentration of psychoactive chemicals they contain.
14Other Health RisksHepatitis and HIV If drug users share needles to inject drugs, contaminated blood left in the needle can carry disease-causing viruses from user to user.Risks to Fetus and Newborn Drug abuse by a pregnant woman places her baby at risk for a broad range of developmental problems.
15Legal RisksPenalties for individuals who produce, possess, transport, or sell illegal drugs include long prison terms and heavy fines.A criminal record makes it difficult to get a job or to be admitted into schools and the military.Many drug abusers commit other crimes to support their drug addiction.
16Effects on Family and Friends A drug abuser may:have unpredictable mood swingsbecome violentwithdraw from relationships and responsibilitiesThe interests and activities that helped bind the person with family and friends may no longer exist.
17Costs to Society Significant financial resources go toward drug abuse The United States government has spent billions of dollars in efforts to stop illegal drug manufacture and sales.Significant financial resources go toward drug abusepreventioneducationtreatmentrehabilitation programsThe cost of incarcerating thousands of people for drug-related crimes
18MethamphetamineMethamphetamine is a white, odorless, bitter-tasting crystalline powder that easily dissolves in water or alcohol and is taken orally, snorting, by needle injection, or by smokingBut, after the rush wears off, the user may becomeconfusedshakyirritableanxiousviolent
19Effects of MarijuanaMarijuana is one of the most frequently abused psychoactive drugs.Its main ingredient changes the way information reaches and is acted upon by the brain.Side effects of marijuana use includedistorted perceptionsdifficulties with thinking and problem solvingloss of motor coordinationincreased heart ratefeelings of anxiety or paranoiamake it difficult to judge distances and react quickly to signals and sounds on the road.
20A Gateway to Other Drugs Marijuana use is often a gateway to using other “harder” drugs, such as cocaine.As marijuana users build up tolerance, they may seek out other drugs to experience the “high” they first got from marijuana.Other gateway drugs: Alcohol, Smoking, and Inhalants
21Acknowledge the Problem Many abusers deny their behavior; others deny the underlying problems that led them to drug abuse.Signs of Possible Drug Abuse
22Explore Treatment Options Treatment options for drug abusers includedetoxificationtherapeutic communitiessupervised medicationPrograms exist for family members trying to understand their loved one’s drug problem.Some drug treatment programs are available at little or no cost.
23Seeking HelpIf you decide that the stresses and problems in your life are too much to manage, find someone to talk to.parentsteachersfriendssiblingsschool counselorsschool nursesmembers of the clergyA second option is to call a national drug-abuse hotline.
24Alternatives to DrugsEngage in physical activity. Physical activity boosts your mood and relieves the negative effects of stress.Volunteer. Helping other people can give you a good feeling about yourself, too.Join a youth group. Participating in a youth group can give you a sense of belonging and a connection to others.List 10 other alternatives