Presentation on theme: "Lesson 3, Part 1 95 Problems But the Pope Aint 1 The Protestant Reformation American Pageant, Chapter 3."— Presentation transcript:
Lesson 3, Part 1 95 Problems But the Pope Aint 1 The Protestant Reformation American Pageant, Chapter 3
Protestant Reformation The Catholic Church had lots of problems that it just did not deal with - Selling forgiveness Martin Luther became the spokesman for those who were upset about Church problems. He wrote down 95 things wrong, the 95 Theses, and nailed them to the door of the Wittenberg Cathedral. Luther had several explosive ideas including… The Bible alone was the source of Gods word People are saved simply by faith in Christ alone
Other Protestors/Protestants John Calvin preached Calvinism which stressedpredestination (those going to Heaven have been pre- determined by God). He wrote his ideas in a book, Institutes of the Christian Religion. People are sinful and must give signs that they were one of the predestined, and lead sanctified lives. Protestant Work Ethic which involved working a lot would prove their worthiness.
Purifying the Church in England Henry VIII created the Anglican Church, but it was not very different at all from the Catholic Church in practice. Puritans, wanted to purify the Church of England of Catholic practices. Only visible saints should be admitted to church membership. Separatists vowed to break away from the Church of England because the saints would have to sit with the damned. These folks became the Pilgrims.
Lesson 3, Part 2 A City on a Hill and a Place for all the Rejects Massachusetts Bay Colony American Pageant, Chapter 3
Pilgrims Separate from England King James I, father of the beheaded Charles I, harassed the Separatists out of England because he thought loyalty to religion = loyalty to King Pilgrims or Separatists first tried living in Holland. They thought their children were losing their English heritage They asked for a colony in the New World, The Massachusetts Bay Colony Upon landing, they wrote the Mayflower Compact, a set of laws and plan for self government.
Massachusetts Bay Colony Characteristics William Bradford, chosen governor of Plymouth 30 times in the annual elections Trade goods: fur, fish, and lumber. John Winthrop was elected governor or deputy governor for 19 years Right the Vote was extended to all freemen, who were church members (2/5 of people) John Cotton, a prominent clergy member who was educated at Cambridge Strict lifestyle of no dancing, no smoking, no theaters... Quakers and Non-Church members were fined, flogged, and/or banished. Squanto was a Wampanoag Indian who served as translator
MBC Rejects Anne Hutchinson was a very intelligent, strong-willed, talkative woman who claimed that a holy life was no sure sign of salvation (antinomianism). Brought to trial in 1638, Anne boasted that her beliefs were directly from God. She was banished from the colony and eventually made her way to Rhode Island. She died in New York after an attack by Indians.
MBC Rejects Roger Williams wanted to make a clean and complete break with the Church of England. He said government SHOULD NOT govern religious behavior. He also said the government should not take the Indians land He was banished in 1635, and led the way for the Rhode Island colony.
Lesson 3, Part 3 Whose House is It? New Colonies and Challenges to the English American Pageant, Chapter 3
Rhode Island and Connecticut Rhode Island Nicknames: Little Rhody, Rogues Island Connecticut Reverend Thomas Hooker led an energetic group of Puritans west into Connecticut. Fundamental Orders. It was basically a modern constitution written by Connecticut
Indian Relations Pequot War: In 1637, conflicts over land in New England led to this war Ended when the English set fire to a Pequot village on Connecticuts Mystic River, bringing 40 years of peace King Philips War Metacom (called King Philip by the English) united neighboring Indians in a last-ditched attack on New England towns. Effects of King Philips War: slowed the colonial western march, but Metacom was beheaded, and the march went on
Navigation Acts to Control Trade Navigation Acts. The acts forbade American trade with countries other than Britain to keep Britain wealthy. Charles II took away MBCs charter because they did not cooperate with the Nav Acts. He sent a governor, Sir Edumund Andros - curbed town meetings, restricted the courts and the press, and taxed the people, revoked all land titles.
Andros on the Run James II became King of England - Not well liked, Catholic - Had a child late in life which meant ANOTHER Catholic King - Englishmen invited next person in line to take over, William and Mary. James ran for his life to France. Glorious Revolution, instating William and Mary to the crown with out violence. Results of Glorious Revolution: -Andros was run out of town -Massachusetts got a new charter in 1691 allowing all males to vote
Lesson 3, Part 4 Dutch and Swedish Woes and Quaker Nos American Pageant, Chapter 3
Dutch Get In on the Colonial Race Henry Hudson claimed Delaware and New York Bay for the Netherlands. Dutch East India Company was established, with an army of 10,000 men and a fleet of 190 ships (including 40 men-of-war). The Dutch East and West India Companies often raided rather than traded (Pirates of the Caribbean). Manhattan Island bought from natives (22,000 acres of the most valuable land in the world today). New Amsterdam, New York was a company town, run by and for the Dutch company and in the interests of stockholders. The Dutch gave patroonships (large areas of land) to promoters who agreed to settle at least 50 people on them.
The End of the Swedes The Swedes started New Sweden on the Delaware River. In 1655, the Dutch sent one-legged Peter Stuyvesant to besiege the main Swedish fort, and he won driving the Swedes out of the New World
The End of the Dutch In 1664, Charles II granted the area of modern-day New York to his brother, the Duke of York, and that year, British troops landed and defeated the Dutch, kicking them out, without much violence. New Amsterdam was renamed New York. The Dutch Legacy Dutch names of cities remained, like Harlem, Brooklyn, Wall Street, and Hell Gate. The Dutch also gave us Easter eggs, Santa Claus, waffles, etc.
Quakers Make a Colony William Penn, a well-born Englishman, embraced the Quaker faith and founded Pennsylvania By 1700, only Virginia was more populous and richer. Quaker YessQuaker Nos Freedom of worship except for Jews and Catholics No Slavery. No Death penalty except for murder and treason. No oaths.
Middle Colonies New York, New Jersey, Delaware, and Pennsylvania Characteristics of the Middle Colonies: All had fertile soil Exported lots of grain Gentle Rivers Landholdings were middle size More ethnically mixed About 75% of English immigrants were indentured servants Some 40% of indentured servants died before their seven years were over