7What are the Essential Components? Phonemic AwarenessPhonicsVocabulary developmentReading fluencyReading comprehensionThe Fab Five!
8Classroom organization Matching pupils and textsAccess to interesting texts, choice, and collaborationWriting and reading
9What are the Major Findings? Most children need explicit instruction in decoding and comprehension.While fluency isn’t sufficient for comprehension, it is absolutely necessary for good comprehension.Assessment and instruction are inextricably linked.Writing, spelling, and reading are highly related, especially in the early stages of learning to read.Children should spend more time independently reading and writing.Children not reaching benchmarks benefit from daily intensive instruction.
12Changing Emphasis of Big Ideas K123Phonological AwarenessAlphabetic PrincipleAutomaticity and Fluency with the CodeVocabularyComprehensionLetter Sounds& CombinationsMultisyllablesListeningReadingListeningReading
13The Effects of Weaknesses in Oral Language on Reading Growth/Academic Achievement 1615141312111098765High Oral Language in Kindergarten5.2 years differenceReading Age LevelLow Oral Language in Kindergarten(Hirsch, 1996)Chronological Age
14Children must become accurate readers as a first step toward becoming fluent readers.
17The Reading Gap Target Actual Target: % of students can handle grade level material.Actual: Where schools say they are.The difference between the Target and Actual levels is the Reading Gap that can only be closed by comprehensive literacy strategies at the school level.
19Importance of Independent Reading Percentile RankMinutes/Day(Books, Magazines, Newspapers)Words/Year98th67.34,733,00090th33.42,357,00070th16.91,168,00050th9.2601,00030th4.3251,00010th1.051,0002nd0.0--
20Reading rate is strongly correlated with comprehension.
21Reading rate (fluency) is causally related to reading comprehension.
22Reading rate is correlated with many other student characteristics that also influence reading comprehension.Vocabulary = .99% F/R Lunch = .97% Minority = .97% ELL = .96
23How much fluency (rate) is enough to facilitate good reading comprehension? DIBELS NormsH & T NormsAimsweb Norms1st45 wpm43 wpm2nd91 wpm79 wpm85 wpm3rd110 wpm96 wpm102 wpm
24Oral Reading Fluency Goals Grades 1 – 22-3 words per weekGrades 3 – 51½-2 words per week
25The role of vocabulary becomes increasingly important as students progress in school.
26Kindergarten vocabulary (PPVT) is closely related to later reading comprehension End of Grade OneEnd of Grade FourEnd of Grade SevenThe relationship of vocabulary to reading comprehension gets stronger as texts become more complex (Snow, 2002)
27Comprehensive Vocabulary Development Wide readingDirect teaching of important wordsTeaching word learning strategiesFostering word consciousness
28Magic Number = 1,000,000 words read per year For a child who reads words per minute, reading 20 minutes per day will yield 1,000,000 words read in a year.Anticipated vocabulary growth:1,000 – 4,000 new words learned
29Tier One:The most basic wordsRarely require instruction in schoolExamples: happy, bed, school
30Tier Two:High-frequency words for mature language usersInstruction adds productivity to an individual’s language abilityExamples: coincidence, absurd, industrious
31Tier Three:Words whose frequency of use is quite low, often limited to specific domainsBest learned when needed in a content areaExamples: isotope, lathe, peninsula
32Better than I.Q. for predicting success on inferential comprehension. Prior Knowledge . . .Better than I.Q. for predicting success on inferential comprehension.
33Types of Prior Knowledge Topic knowledgeText structure and organizationVocabulary
34The punter kicked the ball. The baby kicked the ball.The golfer kicked the ball.How did the ball change?
35Mary Lou’s heart was pounding as she stood on the highest portion of the platform, flanked by a Japanese and a Rumanian. The last two years had been worth it!
36Today’s CricketThe batsmen were merciless against the bowlers. The bowlers placed their men in slips and covers, but to no avail. The batsmen hit one foul after another with an occasional six. Not once did a ball look like it would hit their stumps or be caught.
37Proficient comprehension of text is influenced by: Accurate and fluent word reading skillsOral language skillsExtent of conceptual and factual knowledgeKnowledge and skill in use of cognitive strategies to improve comprehension or repair it when it breaks down.Reasoning and inferential skillsMotivation to understand and interest in task and materials
38Three Major Strategies to Teach Comprehension Reading a lotStrategic readingDeep discussions about books or articles
42The effectiveness of instruction in comprehension strategies depends critically on how they are taught, supported, and practiced.
43An explicit description of the strategy and when and how it should be used. Teacher and/or student modeling of the strategy in action.Collaborative use of the strategy in action to construct meaning of text.Guided practice using the strategy with gradual release of responsibility – scaffolding by the teacher.Independent use of the strategy.
44Engaged ReadersMeaningful conceptual content in reading instruction increases motivation for reading and text comprehension.Giving students choices of texts, responses, or partners during instruction.Have an abundance of interesting texts available at the right reading level for every student.Allow students the opportunity to work collaboratively with ample opportunities for discussion, questioning, and sharing.