Action Research Deployment Teams May Agenda Pulling it all together! Pulling it all together! Best Practices/Improvement Theories Best Practices/Improvement.
Presentation on theme: "TEACHING READING REALLY IS ROCKET SCIENCE. Donald N. Langenberg, Chair National Reading Panel Chancellor, University of Maryland IT IS AN ENORMOUSLY- COMPLEX."— Presentation transcript:
TEACHING READING REALLY IS ROCKET SCIENCE. Donald N. Langenberg, Chair National Reading Panel Chancellor, University of Maryland IT IS AN ENORMOUSLY- COMPLEX ACT.
Speaking and listening come first. But learning to read is, without question, the top priority in elementary education. Boyer, 1995, p.69
Yes, parents may have the greatest impact on how their children come to us. But we have the greatest impact on how they leave us. Superintendent, North Carolina
High Home Support Low Home Support Consistent High Quality Classroom Support Instruction100% Mixed Classroom Support100%25% Consistent Low Classroom Support60%0%
The Simple View of Reading R = D x C (Phil Gough)
Fluency Word Recognition & Comprehension
What are the Essential Components? Phonemic Awareness Phonics Vocabulary development Reading fluency Reading comprehension The Fab Five!
Classroom organization Matching pupils and texts Access to interesting texts, choice, and collaboration Writing and reading
What are the Major Findings? Most children need explicit instruction in decoding and comprehension. While fluency isnt sufficient for comprehension, it is absolutely necessary for good comprehension. Assessment and instruction are inextricably linked. Writing, spelling, and reading are highly related, especially in the early stages of learning to read. Children should spend more time independently reading and writing. Children not reaching benchmarks benefit from daily intensive instruction.
Challs Stages of Reading Development
Changing Emphasis of Big Ideas K123 Phonological Awareness Alphabetic Principle Automaticity and Fluency with the Code Vocabulary Comprehension Letter Sounds & Combinations Listening Reading Multisyllables
The Effects of Weaknesses in Oral Language on Reading Growth/Academic Achievement Reading Age Level Chronological Age Low Oral Language in Kindergarten High Oral Language in Kindergarten 5.2 years difference (Hirsch, 1996)
Children must become accurate readers as a first step toward becoming fluent readers.
An accurate, fluent reader will read more.
The Failure Cycle
The Reading Gap Target: 85-90% of students can handle grade level material. Actual: Where schools say they are. The difference between the Target and Actual levels is the Reading Gap that can only be closed by comprehensive literacy strategies at the school level. Target Actual
Reading rate is strongly correlated with comprehension.
Reading rate (fluency) is causally related to reading comprehension.
Reading rate is correlated with many other student characteristics that also influence reading comprehension. Vocabulary =.99 % F/R Lunch =.97 % Minority =.97 % ELL =.96
How much fluency (rate) is enough to facilitate good reading comprehension? DIBELS Norms H & T Norms Aimsweb Norms 1 st 45 wpm43 wpm45 wpm 2 nd 91 wpm79 wpm85 wpm 3 rd 110 wpm96 wpm102 wpm
Grades 1 – 2 Oral Reading Fluency Goals Grades 3 – words per week 1½-2 words per week
The role of vocabulary becomes increasingly important as students progress in school.
End of Grade One End of Grade Four End of Grade Seven Kindergarten vocabulary (PPVT) is closely related to later reading comprehension The relationship of vocabulary to reading comprehension gets stronger as texts become more complex. (Snow, 2002)
Comprehensive Vocabulary Development 1.Wide reading 2.Direct teaching of important words 3.Teaching word learning strategies 4.Fostering word consciousness
Magic Number =1,000,000 words read per year For a child who reads words per minute, reading 20 minutes per day will yield 1,000,000 words read in a year. Anticipated vocabulary growth: 1,000 – 4,000 new words learned
Tier One: Examples: happy, bed, school Rarely require instruction in school The most basic words
Tier Two: Examples: coincidence, absurd, industrious Instruction adds productivity to an individuals language ability High-frequency words for mature language users
Tier Three: Examples: isotope, lathe, peninsula Best learned when needed in a content area Words whose frequency of use is quite low, often limited to specific domains
Prior Knowledge... Better than I.Q. for predicting success on inferential comprehension.
Types of Prior Knowledge Topic knowledge Text structure and organization Vocabulary
The punter kicked the ball. The baby kicked the ball. The golfer kicked the ball. How did the ball change?
Mary Lous heart was pounding as she stood on the highest portion of the platform, flanked by a Japanese and a Rumanian. The last two years had been worth it!
Todays Cricket The batsmen were merciless against the bowlers. The bowlers placed their men in slips and covers, but to no avail. The batsmen hit one foul after another with an occasional six. Not once did a ball look like it would hit their stumps or be caught.
Proficient comprehension of text is influenced by: Accurate and fluent word reading skills Oral language skills Extent of conceptual and factual knowledge Knowledge and skill in use of cognitive strategies to improve comprehension or repair it when it breaks down. Reasoning and inferential skills Motivation to understand and interest in task and materials
Three Major Strategies to Teach Comprehension 1. Reading a lot 2. Strategic reading 3. Deep discussions about books or articles
1.Competent reader strategies 2.Text structure strategies Two Approaches
The Big Five Predict and Infer Self-Question Monitor and Clarify Evaluate and Determine Importance Summarize and Synthesize
The effectiveness of instruction in comprehension strategies depends critically on how they are taught, supported, and practiced.
1.An explicit description of the strategy and when and how it should be used. 2.Teacher and/or student modeling of the strategy in action. 3.Collaborative use of the strategy in action to construct meaning of text. 4.Guided practice using the strategy with gradual release of responsibility – scaffolding by the teacher. 5.Independent use of the strategy.
Meaningful conceptual content in reading instruction increases motivation for reading and text comprehension. Giving students choices of texts, responses, or partners during instruction. Have an abundance of interesting texts available at the right reading level for every student. Allow students the opportunity to work collaboratively with ample opportunities for discussion, questioning, and sharing. Engaged Readers