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Quality Tools and Techniques in the School and Classroom.

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1 Quality Tools and Techniques in the School and Classroom

2 Problem Solving Process Identify the Problem Find the Root Cause If repetitive If serious Takes time and money to collect data Determine the best Solution Implement the Solution

3 Tools and Techniques Issue Bin Plus-Delta Flow Chart Brainstorming Affinity Diagram Why? Why? Run Chart Scatter Diagram Histogram Control Chart Process Identification Surveys PDSA Cycle Mission Statement Goals Checklist/Rubric Data Folders Student-Led Conferences

4 If you want to do this: Gather as many ideas as you can Group your ideas Figure out how ideas connect See the steps in the thinking process Draw a picture of your data Keep track of your data Help make decisions This tool may be useful: Affinity Diagram Fishbone Diagram FlowchartHistogramCheck Sheet Light Voting Brain- storming Fishbone Diagram Relations Diagram Action PlanConsensus Gram Run ChartRelations Diagram Lotus Flower Diagram Blue Slipping Run Chart Plus/Delta Gallery Walk Blue Slipping Radar Pareto Diagram Multivoting Plus/Delta Scatter Diagram Radar Diagram Decision matrix Issue Bin Blue Slipping Tree Diagram Nominal group Technique Scattergram Force Field Survey Control chart Consensogram

5 Issue Bin It is a place to capture ideas, suggestions, or challenging questions that deserve further discussion at a more appropriate time. This can be important items that come up but do not pertain to the present topic. This is used so that important ideas are not forgotten. Once an individual sees that his or her idea has been captured, he or she is normally willing to let the group move on without interruption.

6 When to Use an Issue Bin When the present time is not the most appropriate time to address an issue or question When you want to give students, teachers, or anyone the chance to bring up an issue in a non-threatening manner

7 How to Use an Issue Bin Have a special space reserved on a bulletin board or flip chart so that it is always in the same place. Write Issue Bin across the Top. Inform the group that suggestions and topics for later discussion should be written on sticky notes and placed on the Issue Bin. Encourage people to use the issue bin. Review the items on the issue bin at the end of the day.

8 Using the Information from the Issue Bin To get people to continue utilizing the issue bin, they must be aware of the fact that you are reading and addressing issues. After reading items on the issue bin, decide what you will do with each item. –Decide to make the change –Decide not to make the change –Decide to study the issue further Provide feedback to the team on items listed in the issue bin.

9 Examples of Issue Bins Also called Asides List or Parking Lot Industry and Business Schools Classrooms

10 Flow Chart Displays a picture of the separate steps of a process in sequential order Shows a picture of any process, sequence of events, activities, or tasks that transform inputs into outputs in a system. Allows anyone to follow the sequence.

11 When to Use a Flow Chart When you want everyone to do something the same way When better communication is needed between the people involved with the process When you begin to study a process When designing an improved process

12 How to Use a Flow Chart Decide what you want to flow chart. Determine the beginning and end of the process. Observe the process in operation. Get input from the people who work with the process. Brainstorm all the process steps. Arrange the steps in proper sequence. List any inputs and outputs to the process. Draw arrows to show the flow of the process.

13 Questions to Ask as Flowchart is Being Developed Where does the service or material come from? How does the service or material get to the process? Who makes the decision? What happens if the decision is no? What happens if the decision is yes? Where does the product or service of this process go? Is there anything else that must be done? What check points exist in the process?

14 Using the Information Identify suppliers to the process Identify customers of the process Use the flow chart to train people. Use the flow chart to make sure everyone is doing things the same way. Use the flow chart to analyze the process to identify common mistakes or problems.

15 Examples of Flow Charts Industry and Business Schools Classrooms

16 Brainstorming A simple, yet effective tools used to stimulate creativity and generate ideas. Brainstorming is the free, uninhibited generation of ideas in a group. It allows each participant to state his opinions in a non-threatening environment. The purpose is to list as many ideas as possible without judging the merits of any of the ideas. Quantity is more important than quality.

17 When to Brainstorm When a broad range of options is desired When creative, original ideas are desired When participation of the entire group is desired When generating a list of possible problems, causes, or solutions.

18 How to Brainstorm State the objective clearly. Allow each member to take a turn in sequence. Go around the group, allowing each person the opportunity to express only one idea. Allow participants to pass. Do not discuss or critique any idea. Write each idea on the flip chart Keep the pace lively and energetic. Continue until everyone passes.

19 Using the Brainstormed list Discuss any items that are not clear Combine any items that mean exactly the same thing. (Be careful not to over- combine and have three or four enormous issues.) It is okay to add new ideas at this time. This is the opportunity for the discussion that should have been suppressed during the quick pace of the brainstorming.

20 Brainstorm Examples Business and Industry Schools Classrooms

21 Affinity Diagram Organizes large numbers of ideas into their natural relationships. This tool taps a teams creativity and intuition. Very similar to brainstorming, but it takes students one step farther. It serves to organize ideas into natural groupings. Taps both the right brain and left brain –Right brain – generates lots of ideas –Left brain – begins to analyze and organize

22 When to Use an Affinity Diagram If an issue is complex or hard to understand. If ideas seem to be uncertain, unorganized, or overwhelming. When breaking down a complicated issue into broad categories When group consensus is necessary. Often used following brainstorming.

23 How to Use an Affinity Diagram Brainstorm ideas directly onto sticky notes Randomly put notes on wall so all can see. Look for ideas that seem to be related. Place the like ideas together until most of the cards are grouped. It is okay to have loners that do not fit into a particular group. Select a heading for each group

24 Using the Information This process lets a group move beyond its habitual thinking and preconceived categories. The issue is broken down into the large key areas that can be further addressed.

25 Examples of Affinity Diagrams Business and Industry Schools Classrooms

26 Multivoting It is a tool for quick list reduction while maintaining team consensus. After brainstorming has been completed, a process is needed to reduce or prioritize the list of issues. Multivoting is a process of building a team consensus on the most important items on the list. It is used to make sure all of the team members have equal input into making the consensus decision on what is most important.

27 When to Multivote When you have a list of items that needs to be reduced or prioritized When you want to be sure all members of a team are involved in the prioritization When it is important that all team members support the decision made by the team

28 How to Multivote First, count the number of items in the list. To determine the number of votes each person gets, divide by 2 and add ½ or 1. Each person gets this number of votes to a maximum of 10 votes. Team members do not have to use of all their votes, but they cannot vote for an item more than once Informally discuss the criteria individuals should consider when voting ; things to consider include cost, stakeholder impact, seriousness, difficulty.

29 How to Multivote Part 2 Record the number of votes for each item. Eliminate the items that receive the lowest number of votes. Look for a natural break in the vote totals, but only eliminate about half of the items at a time. Count the number of items remaining and repeat the procedure. Continue until you have reduced the list to 3-6 items if your goal is to select only one item. You will use a decision matrix to finish the list reduction. If you are using multivoting to prioritize the list, you can stop after 2 to 4 rounds of voting. Remember to include all items on your prioritized list.

30 Using the Information Multivoting is usually done for these reasons: –prioritize a list of items –to help a team reach a consensus on the most important items Once the list is prioritized, a determination can be made on how to address the top items. If the objective is reduce the list to 1 item, a decision matrix is used once the multivoting has reduced the list to 3-6 items.

31 Examples

32 Decision Matrix The decision matrix allows a team to utilize a formal set of criteria to determine what is most important to the team. Organized criteria are established for evaluating the 3-6 items remaining after multivoting. It helps the team compare the items by organizing the decision making into one chart. It helps the team to fully understand various aspects of the issues.

33 When to Use a Decision Matrix When comparing six or fewer items When trying to understand how a group of issues relates to each other When trying to reach a consensus on which issue to select When a more formalized method of prioritization is needed

34 Drawing a Decision Matrix A decision matrix starts with a blank table. The items being compared are listed in the first column on the left. Write the criteria across the tops of the columns. Example criteria could include this: –What is problem costing? How serious is the problem? Can our team solve the problem? How difficult will it be to solve? What will be the impact various on our stakeholders? It is best to draw the matrix on a flip chart.

35 How to Use a Decision Matrix Draw the matrix on a flip chart Complete the matrix by going down each column that represents one criteria. You are attempting to compare the 4-6 items with each other. It is helpful to use some type of scoring system like H, M and L or 1, 2 and 3. A facilitator should be used to work through this tool rather quickly. Time and reaching a consensus for each block are the two key considerations.

36 Rating Items Since you are comparing all the items in each column, it does not help if you give all the items the same rating. It is usually easiest for the team to agree on which item is the highest and which is the lowest. Then the team can quickly agree where the others fit by using moderate, moderately high, and moderately low.

37 Using the Information Once the chart is completely filled in, the team needs to use the chart to determine which item is rated the highest. It is easier to eliminate items than to look at the chart and pick the most important. If the team cannot solve a problem, it should be not be selected. Items that are very difficult to solve should be eliminated next. Items with a low cost or that are not very serious should be eliminated next. Usually a team will select something easier to solve, even it is not quite as serious as something that is difficult to solve. Some teams like to give the criteria different weightings due to the relative importance of each criteria.

38 Examples

39 Mission Statement A mission statement needs to communicate to your stakeholders the essence of your organization. A mission statement helps everyone focus on the same thing. Effective mission statements are concise and easy to remember. Mission statements should be supported by measurable objectives or goals.

40 When to Use a Mission Statement A Mission statement can be used with any group that needs to work together to accomplish a common goal. Each School and Classroom should have a mission statement. It is more important to understand what the mission statement means than to memorize it.

41 How to Use a Mission Statement All members of the group should have the opportunity to have input. Normally, a small group representing all the different stakeholders is used to develop the mission statement. The mission statement should be prominently posted and frequently referred to. The statement needs to be concise and understood by all.

42 Using the Information Check with all involved to be sure they understand the mission statement. Get individuals to discuss what the mission statement means to them. All stakeholders can check what they are doing at any time to see if it consistent with the mission statement.

43 Examples of Mission Statements PPG will provide a safe workplace, protect the environment, be a low cost producer, and meet customer requirements. District – Provide a Quality Education for all Students. School and Classroom examples

44 Goals Goals are what the organization plans to accomplish in the next months. Goals provide the specific direction Goals should be SMART –Specific –Measurable –Agreed upon –Realistic –Time bounded Goals should be developed by the people in the organization and aligned with the goals of the higher organization.

45 When to Use Goals Anytime you want to help everyone focus on the same key objective Anytime you want to be sure what you are doing is aligned with the next level Needed for continuous improvement Developed on a pre-determined time frame –District – every two years –School – every year –Classroom – at the beginning of each school year

46 How to Set and Use Goals Get input from all stakeholders. Prioritize the goals. (We all have limited resources to work on goals or projects.) Make sure the goals are aligned with higher levels. Ensure that each goals is specific, measurable, agreed-upon, realistic, and time bounded. Review progress on the goals periodically throughout the year.

47 Using the Goals Make sure the goals are aligned. Make sure the goals are SMART. Review Periodically. Measure progress. Revise and update throughout the year.

48 Examples of Goals Business and Industry Schools Classrooms

49 Data Folders/ Journals A folder or binder where students graph their grades, behavior, absences, etc. It can also be used to keep important papers like the students mission statement and goals.

50 When to Use Data Folders It should be used throughout the year. It can be used to review a childs progress during a parent conference.

51 How to Use Data Folder Provide a separate data binder for each child. Provide a separate page with a graph on it for each item you want the child to track. As the child receives a grade, it should be plotted on the proper graph. If the child has a problem with attendance or behavior, it should be plotted. Set a goal for each item tracked.

52 Using the Information Periodically, the kids can average their grades and track their progress. Kids can see how their daily grades affect their report card grade This provides a visual display of progress toward goal. It can be used for conferences.

53 Examples of Data Folder Business and Industry Schools Classrooms

54 Chart Considerations Never display a chart with students names on it. Charts displayed in the classroom should represent how the entire class is doing. Students will be able to see how what they are doing is affecting the entire class. Students should plot individual charts in their journal or data folder to see how they are doing. Students can compare their individual charts to the class charts to see how they are doing in relationship to their fellow students.

55 Run Chart It is a graph that shows a measurement against time. The data can be measurements or counts The purpose is to look at performance over time. By collecting data over time, trends or patterns in the data can be detected.

56 When to Use a Run Chart During data collection When you want to compare a performance measure before and after a change When you are looking for trends or changes in the data. An abnormality is easier to see in a graph than in a table of numbers. Draw a horizontal line to represent the average line after at least 25 points.

57 How to Use a Run Chart Decide on the measure to be tracked Gather the data and decide on the scale Create the graph with time across the x-axis and measures along the y-axis. Plot in measurement in the time order it occurs. Look for patterns

58 Using the Information Notice the position of the average line. Is it where you want it to be? Notice the amount of variation. Is it where you want it to be? Look for unusual patterns Determine what changes you can make to move the average line, reduce the variation, or eliminate the patterns.

59 Examples of Run Charts Business and Industry Schools Classrooms

60 Histogram A bar graph of data Show how often the different values occur Shows basic information about the data –Center location –Amount of spread or variation –Shape – is it a normal distribution

61 When to Use a Histogram When you have a set of related values, either measurements or counts When it is important to visualize central location, shape or spread of the data To quickly communicate the data to others To analyze quickly how things are going To see whether a change has occurred from one period of time to another

62 How to Use a Histogram Determine the range for each bar. (Ex in first bar, in second bar, etc.) The x-axis represents the different ranges. The y-axis represents the number of times a measurement or counts falls in each range. Study the shape of the histogram. Look for an outliers, a point that is not close to any other data points.

63 Using the Information Satisfy yourself that the process you are measuring was stable; that is there were no significant changes. Analyze the meaning of your histograms shape If the center or spread is not where you want it, determine what needs to be done to the system to make the necessary changes. Determine the cause for any outliers.

64 Examples of Histograms Business and Industry Schools Classrooms

65 Consensogram Measures a groups perceptions and provides a chart of the frequency of distribution of the responses. Allows individuals to view their response in relation to the entire group. Can be used to identify the groups perception of effort, commitment or understanding. Can be used with a large group of people when time is limited.

66 When to Use a Consensogram Assessing needs, attitudes, or knowledge Building consensus Focusing the group Exploring multiple perspectives Rating students understanding of a given topic

67 How to Use a Consensogram Clearly state the objective of the exercise. Determine the degree of measurement. –Numerical Scale –Words like – I dont know, I have basic info, I know answer, I understand why, I can explain to others Draw the chart with empty columns. Have each person put a sticker above the number or words that they agree with.

68 Using the Information By observing where most of the stickers are, you can tell if there is group consensus on the issue. The completed chart will indicate the degree of knowledge on the issue. The teacher can adjust her lesson based on the knowledge of the students.

69 Examples of Consensogram Business and Industry Schools Classrooms

70 Scatter Diagram Helps identify relationships between two variables. Used to identify the direction and strength of the relationship between the variables. Used to determine objectively if a particular cause and effect are related.

71 When to Use a Scatter Diagram When trying to identify possible root causes of a problem. When trying to determine the relationship between two variables. By comparing a scatter diagram of students and their grade on a pre-test with a scatter diagram on post-test, you can visually see the improvement.

72 How to Use A Scatter Diagram Collect paired data points for the variables. Plot the paired data points on a graph. Look at the pattern of points to see if a relationship is obvious. A positive relationship is indicated if the general grouping of points goes up. A negative relationship is indicated if the general grouping of points goes down. If it is difficult to determine if the trend is up or down, there is no relationship.

73 Using the Information First determine the relative direction and strength of the relationship. If you want to increase one variable, you can use this data to determine what you need to do to the other variable to get the desired result in the first variable. This is only an indication; both of these variables may be influenced by a third variable and just appear to influence each other.

74 Examples of Scattergrams Business and Industry Schools Classrooms

75 Control Charts A control chart is a run chart with limits. These limits are used to separate the noise or normal variation from the signal. These limits are set at 3 standard deviations, so that for a normal distribution 99.7% of the data should be within the limits. Limits are calculated based on the data collected, the overall average, and variation.

76 When to Use a Control Chart When determining whether a process is stable When you want to predict the expected range of outcomes from a process When determining how to improve a process –Signals – cause can be identified and addressed –Noise – cause of variation is unknown, so system must be changed to reduce the noise

77 How to Use Control Chart Determine the subgroup size. Collect about 25 subgroups of data. Determine the overall average of the data. Determine the variation within the subgroup. Calculate the upper and lower control limits and central line by using the formula. Plot the points on the chart. Identify causes for any points outside the control limits.

78 Using the Information Everything has some variation in it. Most important use is to separate the signals from the noise. All signals, both good and bad, should be investigated to determine the cause. If you are not happy with the amount of noise in the system, you must modify the system.

79 Examples of Control Charts Business and Industry Schools Classrooms

80 Root Cause There is almost always more than one true root cause. A problem is usually caused by at least one condition and one action. The cause or causes, which when removed, result in the problem disappearing. If you do not identify the root cause, you are just putting a band-aid on the problem.

81 Root Cause A root cause is normally not a who? Instead, you need to ask the question,Why? Not following procedure is not a root cause? Continue to ask, Why? –Didnt know or understand –Procedure doesnt work or is outdated –Dont agree with procedure –Did it this way before with no problems The solution will be different for each why.

82 Why? The Why-Why diagram helps to identify the root causes of a problem. It helps a group recognize the broad network of problem causes and the relationship. It can indicate the best areas to address for short term and long term solutions. It is very easy to use.

83 When to Use a Why-Why When you need to find the root cause of a problem When the many contributing causes to a problem are confusing As a graphical communication tool

84 How to Use the Why-Why Clearly state the problem. Brainstorm a list of possible causes and ask why the problem exists. Identify which causes are the most important through data collection. Then ask why the problem exists. Continue to ask why until you get to something basic – Often takes 5 whys.

85 Example Why-Why Problem – Student failed a test. Why – Student was not prepared. Why – Student could not focus when material was presented.

86 Example Why-Why Problem – Student failed a test. Why – Student was not prepared. Why – Student couldnt focus when material was presented. Why – Student did not get much sleep Why – Student was not home that night. Why – Students brother was in an accident.

87 Using the Information Do not stop when you reach a who. Who is a convenient way to point a finger, not a root cause. If you stop asking why too soon, you may only be putting a band-aid on the problem. The deeper you go, the more you will get to underlying fundamental systemic problems.

88 Examples of Why-Why Business and industry Schools Classrooms

89 PDSA Plan – Do – Study – Act A concept for continuous improvement Also called PDCA –Plan – Do – Check –Act Also known as the Deming Cycle or the Shewhart Cycle First discussed by Dr. Walter Shewhart in 1939

90 PDSA Plan –Define and assess the current system. –Analyze Causes. Do –Try out improvements. Study –Collect data to determine the impact. Act –Standardize the actions. –Plan for further improvement.

91 When to Use PDSA When starting a new improvement project When planning data collection and analysis in order to assess and improve current system. When implementing a solution When reviewing your improvement process to see what you have learned.

92 How to Use PDSA Plan – Identify what change you think will result in improvement and how you will test the change. Do – Put the plan in practice and collect the data. Study – Review and reflect on the data and ask, What else can be done differently? Act – Decide to standardize what you have done or make further changes. Continue the cycle again and again.

93 Using the Information Involve others to: –Help identify problems. –Identify solutions. –Collect data. –Determine ways to further improve. Standardize the improvements.

94 Examples of PDSA Industry and Business Schools Classrooms

95 Plus Delta A critique method A way of letting everyone consider what went well and what could be changed. Plus – what went well with the activity that was just completed. Delta – what would you like to see changed on done differently next time. This is not a good vs. bad evaluation. A way to reinforce what went well A way to identify opportunities for improvement

96 When to Use Plus Delta Plus Delta can be used anytime feedback is needed –At the end of the day or week –At the end of a lesson or unit –At the end of a project or report –After an event is complete

97 How to Use the Plus Delta First, clearly state the objective of the plus delta. Ask each person to consider the activity or event and think about what worked well and what did not. Go around the room, giving each person a chance to state one issue that went well. It is okay to pass. Write the issues on a chart in front of the room for all to see. If an item is mentioned more than once, just put a check mark next to it. Repeat for things that should be changed/delta.

98 Using the Information Just collecting the information helps get things into the open and people thinking about them. Positive Reinforcement tool Evaluate the deltas to determine –Is this an issue with just one person or does it affect several people? –Is there something that can be changed? –Make the changes.

99 Examples of Plus Delta Industry and Business Meetings Workshops Schools Classrooms

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