Presentation on theme: "Quality Tools and Techniques in the School and Classroom"— Presentation transcript:
1Quality Tools and Techniques in the School and Classroom There are many Quality Tools and Techniques that can be used in the classroom or the school. The objective of this slideshow is to familiarize you with the use of these tools and techniques. For each tool, we will explain what the tool is and tell you when and how to use it. For many of the tools, we will discuss what to do with the information gathered with the tool. Examples will be included with the handout material.An important aspect to remember is that these tools and techniques need to be part of the systematic approach to improving quality in education. If just a few of these tools and techniques are used, you will see some short-term successes, but it will be hard to sustain.These tools and techniques support the Baldrige framework for continual improvement in the school system.
2Problem Solving Process Identify the ProblemFind the Root CauseIf repetitiveIf seriousTakes time and money to collect dataDetermine the best SolutionImplement the SolutionAn important part of the Quality in Education process is the problem solving process. Continuous improvement is all about identifying and correcting problems. There are many different problem solving processes in business and industry ranging from 4 step processes to 8 or 10 step processes.The generic problem solving process has four steps. The first step is to identify the problem. This is not as easy as it seems because often causes or implied solutions are thought to be the problem. If a teacher says her problem is that she needs a new computer for her classroom, it is really an implied solution. We really don’t know what the problem is, but the teacher thinks a new computer is the best solution. The new computer may solve the problem, but it may not be cost effective.It is also important that everyone working on the problem have a common understanding of the problem. Once the problem is identified, most people quickly jump to the solution because we tend to be problem-solvers. However, the second step in the problem-solving process is to identify the root cause or causes of the problem, and the third step is to determine the best solution..Although finding the root cause of the problem is the second step, it is not practical to always find the root cause. Finding the root cause takes time and money. Data has to be collected and analyzed to find the root cause. Therefore, it is necessary to find the root cause when a problem is repetitive or serious. When a problem occurs, we fix it. If the same problem occurs over and over, just fixing it is not enough; it is time to find the underlying cause so the problem won’t continue to happen.The final step is to implement the the solution. Someone can do a great job on the first three steps, but if the solution isn’t implemented, nothing has been accomplished. An implementation plan is simply who is going to do what by when.
3Tools and Techniques Issue Bin Process Identification Plus-Delta Flow ChartBrainstormingAffinity DiagramWhy? Why?Run ChartScatter DiagramHistogramControl ChartProcess IdentificationSurveysPDSA CycleMission StatementGoalsChecklist/RubricData FoldersStudent-Led ConferencesShown on this slide is a list of many of the tools and techniques that have been taken from the world of business and industry and successfully implemented in classrooms and schools throughout the country.Some, like the issue bin and plus-delta, are easy to understand and use. Others, like the Affinity Diagram and Control Chart, take a little more understanding but can yield valuable results.All of these tools and techniques will be covered in detail in the remainder of this presentation.
4Gather as many ideas as you can Group your ideas If you want to do this:Gather as many ideas as you canGroup your ideasFigure out how ideas connectSee the steps in the thinking processDraw a picture of your dataKeep track of your dataHelp make decisionsThis tool may be useful:Affinity DiagramFishbone DiagramFlowchartHistogramCheck SheetLight VotingBrain-stormingRelations DiagramAction PlanConsensus GramRun ChartLotus Flower DiagramBlue SlippingPlus/DeltaGallery WalkRadarPareto DiagramMultivotingScatter DiagramRadar DiagramDecision matrixIssue BinTree DiagramNominal group TechniqueScattergramForce FieldSurveyControl chartConsensogramOne of the first questions asked is, “How do I know when to use a particular tool?” The purpose of this table is to give some you some guidance on when to use each tool.Tools like the Issue Bin, Brainstorming and Surveys are used to gather as many ideas as you can. Affinity Diagrams and Fishbone Diagrams are used to group the information. Fishbone and Scatter Diagrams can be used to figure out how ideas connect.Flowcharts and action plans are used to see the steps in the process. Run charts and Check Sheets are used to keep track of the data. To analyze data, tools like the Histogram, Pareto Chart, and Control Chart are utilized.Tools like multivoting, plus-delta, and the decision matrix are used to help make decisions.Although there are many other tools, the ones in this presentation have been proven to be the most useful.
5Issue BinIt is a place to capture ideas, suggestions, or challenging questions that deserve further discussion at a more appropriate time.This can be important items that come up but do not pertain to the present topic.This is used so that important ideas are not forgotten.Once an individual sees that his or her idea has been captured, he or she is normally willing to let the group move on without interruption.The simplest tool to implement is the Issue Bin. It is nothing more than a place to capture ideas, suggestions, or challenging questions that someone feels deserves further discussion when the present time is not the most appropriate time to discuss.The Issue Bin issues can be an important idea that comes up during the current discussion but does not pertain to the present topic. It can also an issue that a student wants the teacher to address, but for some reason the student doesn’t want to verbalize it.The idea can be an important idea to the person who places it in the issue bin and by putting the idea in the issue bin, it will not be forgotten.Once an individual sees that his or her idea has been captured, he or she is normally willing to let the group move on without interruption. Once the individual puts his/her idea into the issue bin, he/she doesn’t have to keep thinking about it so he/she won’t forget it. This allows the student to devote his/her attention to the subject being taught.The issue bin also minimizes classroom disruptions because the teacher doesn’t have to stop what he or she is doing and address each issue the students have.
6When to Use an Issue BinWhen the present time is not the most appropriate time to address an issue or questionWhen you want to give students, teachers, or anyone the chance to bring up an issue in a non-threatening mannerAn issue bin can be used when the present time is not the most appropriate time to address an issue or question. It can also be used to give students in a classroom, or teachers in a school the chance to bring up an issue in a non-threatening manner.An Issue bin allows a person to make sure his idea is not forgotten and then let it go, so he can focus on what is being presently discussed.
7How to Use an Issue BinHave a special space reserved on a bulletin board or flip chart so that it is always in the same place.Write Issue Bin across the Top.Inform the group that suggestions and topics for later discussion should be written on sticky notes and placed on the Issue Bin.Encourage people to use the issue bin.Review the items on the issue bin at the end of the day.To use the issue bin, reserve a special place on a bulletin board or a flip chart and write Issue Bin across the top. It is very important for the issue bin to remain in the same place so students will easily find it and feel comfortable using it.Teachers should inform the class that suggestions and topics for later discussion can be written on sticky notes and placed on the Issue Bin. Teachers should also give the class some examples of things that should be written and placed in the issue bin. Finally, teachers should let their students know that it is okay to write anonymous issue .Throughout the day teachers should encourage students to use the issue bin; and at the end of the day or class period, teachers should review the items on the issue bin.
8Using the Information from the Issue Bin To get people to continue utilizing the issue bin, they must be aware of the fact that you are reading and addressing issues.After reading items on the issue bin, decide what you will do with each item.Decide to make the changeDecide not to make the changeDecide to study the issue furtherProvide feedback to the team on items listed in the issue bin.It is important to let the students see you reading the issues in the issue bin throughout the day. Once they know you are taking it seriously, students will use the Issue Bin.After reading the items on the issue bin, as the teacher you will have to decide what to do with each item; some you can may address immediately. For the Issue Bin to be effective, you do not have to address every issue; but if you read and ignore most of the items, students will stop using it.The same above concept also applies to a Principal using the Issue Bin to get information from the teachers.The most important thing you have to do is to provide feedback to the class on each item listed in the issue bin. People are willing to accept no as an answer, as long as they know you have given it serious consideration.
9Examples of Issue Bins Also called Asides List or Parking Lot Industry and BusinessSchoolsClassroomsAnother name for the issue bin is the Asides List or the Parking Lot. It is most often used in business and industry during meetings to capture important ideas that come up during the meeting but don’t pertain to the agenda.Issue bins are used in classrooms to give the students an opportunity to write down what is bothering them or a problem they are having. It has proven to be successful in minimizing disruptions.Principals have successfully used Issue Bins in places like the Teacher’s Lounge to give teachers a chance to write down concerns they have.
10Flow ChartDisplays a picture of the separate steps of a process in sequential orderShows a picture of any process, sequence of events, activities, or tasks that transform inputs into outputs in a system.Allows anyone to follow the sequence.A flow chart is another of the basic tools. It is nothing more than a picture of the separate steps of a process in sequential order. A process is nothing more than a series of steps to accomplish something. There are many processes in classrooms and schools that can be flowcharted including getting started in the morning, going to the cafeteria for lunch, the using the Accelerated Reader Process, etc.For young children, the flow chart utilizes pictures or sketches to depict each step in the process. If the pictures are placed in sequential order, the students will be able to look at the pictures and understand what to do next.For older children and students, the flow chart often utilizes blocks with words in them instead of pictures. Just seeing the sequential steps in a process, makes it a lot easier for people to follow.
11When to Use a Flow ChartWhen you want everyone to do something the same wayWhen better communication is needed between the people involved with the processWhen you begin to study a processWhen designing an improved processA flow chart is most effectively used when you want all the students to do something in the same way. Flow charts can also be used to improve the communication between people involved with the process. By looking at the flow chart or picture of how things should be working, students and teachers can talk about problems that are occurring.A flow chart is one of the first things to do when you want to study a process to determine why it isn’t working properly or how the process can be improved. The flow chart helps to make sure everyone understands all the steps in the process, the correct order of the steps, and who is responsible for doing each step.
12How to Use a Flow Chart Decide what you want to flow chart. Determine the beginning and end of the process.Observe the process in operation.Get input from the people who work with the process.Brainstorm all the process steps.Arrange the steps in proper sequence.List any inputs and outputs to the process.Draw arrows to show the flow of the process.A flow chart can be done by one individual, but it is often done by a group of people who are involved with the process. A flow chart constructed to show students how to do certain things is usually constructed by the teacher. The teacher understands the best way to do something and wants to insure all of the students are doing it the same way.The first step in constructing a flow chart is to determine what you want to flow chart and why you are making the chart. Next, determine the first and last step of the process. This gives everyone the same starting point and lets people know when they are finished.It is important to watch the process as it is occurring to see what is actually happening. Very often, the ways things happen is not exactly like the procedure. When possible, get input from several of the people who work in the process.Once you have done this, you are ready to develop the flow chart. First, brainstorm all the process steps. It is best to write each step on a separate sticky note. Next, arrange the steps in proper sequence and then draw arrows to show the flow of the process.List any inputs and outputs to the process. Inputs are the things that come from outside the process and outputs are the things that leave the process. If you are making a flow chart of the Accelerated Reader Program, inputs would include the books available to be read, the system that rates the books, and the computer system that grades the test. The output could be a graph of the total points accumulated or a graph of the percent correct.
13Questions to Ask as Flowchart is Being Developed Where does the service or material come from?How does the service or material get to the process?Who makes the decision?What happens if the decision is no?What happens if the decision is yes?Where does the product or service of this process go?Is there anything else that must be done?What check points exist in the process?Listed on this slide is a list of questions that could be helpful when constructing a flow chart? It is important to understand the inputs and outputs. Equally important is an identification of any decision points or check points and what to do once the decision is made
14Using the Information Identify suppliers to the process Identify customers of the processUse the flow chart to train people.Use the flow chart to make sure everyone is doing things the same way.Use the flow chart to analyze the process to identify common mistakes or problems.As mentioned earlier, the information on a flow chart can be helpful in identifying problems or opportunities for improvement in a process. To do this it is important to know the suppliers and customers of the process.Flow charts can also be used to analyze the process to identify common mistakes made within the process or problems that exist in the process.Flow charts have also proven to be an effective method of training students on how to do certain things and making sure everyone does it the same way.
15Examples of Flow Charts Industry and BusinessSchoolsClassroomsFlow charts are used frequently in business for both training and process improvement.There are many examples of flow charts used in classrooms. One of the most common flow charts used by teachers in Kindergarten and first grade is a flow chart of what the students should do when they first come into the classroom.This chart usually consists of 4 or 5 pictures. It is posted where all the students can look it at when they enter the room. The flow charts shows the students what to do next. This chart may seem very elementary to adults, but with young children it has proven to be very useful. Many teachers have indicated that it helps them get started 5-6 minutes quicker in the morning.That 5 or 6 minutes a day over the course of a year adds to hours of additional learning opportunity for the students.
16BrainstormingA simple, yet effective tools used to stimulate creativity and generate ideas.Brainstorming is the free, uninhibited generation of ideas in a group.It allows each participant to state his opinions in a non-threatening environment.The purpose is to list as many ideas as possible without judging the merits of any of the ideas.Quantity is more important than quality.Brainstorming is probably the most widely used quality tool by groups of all types. It is a simple yet effective tool used to stimulate creativity and generate lots of ideas. This free, uninhibited generation of ideas is usually done in a group setting. Brainstorming allows each participant to state his or her opinion in a non-threatening manner. It is a tool that encourages input from those who are normally quiet and keeps others from dominating the conversation.For this tool to be effective, the quantity of items if more important than the quality ideas. The objective is to list as many ideas as possible without judging the merits of any idea at time. The items need to be added to the list as quickly as possible with minimal discussion.
17When to Brainstorm When a broad range of options is desired When creative, original ideas are desiredWhen participation of the entire group is desiredWhen generating a list of possible problems, causes, or solutions.Brainstorming can be used in a wide variety of situations. It is often used when it is necessary to look at a broad range of options before making a choice. Brainstorming can be used to get past the ordinary ideas on everyone’s mind and uncover some creative or original ideas.Brainstorming is used when you want to be sure everyone in a group is given an equal chance to provide input . Brainstorming is used to generate a list of itemslike problems, causes, and solutions. Brainstorming is a tool that is can be effectively used in each of the first three steps of the problem solving process.
18How to Brainstorm State the objective clearly. Allow each member to take a turn in sequence.Go around the group, allowing each person the opportunity to express only one idea.Allow participants to pass.Do not discuss or critique any idea.Write each idea on the flip chartKeep the pace lively and energetic.Continue until everyone passes.Brainstorming is fairly easy to do, but it will lose it’s effectiveness if not done correctly. The first step often overlooked is to clearly state the objective so everyone is on the same page.There are several variations of brainstorming, but the most common is when each member of the group takes a turn in sequence to state an item pertaining to the objective. Each person is allowed to state one item at a time. Each idea is written on a flip chart where everyone can see the list. If someone does not have an idea at the time, it is okay to pass. Continue to brainstorm in sequence until everyone passes.Often an individual will pass the first couple of times, and then have ideas on the next rounds. There is a tendency to stop brainstorming too fast, as soon as half of the team passes. When this happens, very few creative and original ideas will be included on the list. A good leader or facilitator will often state an off the wall or seemingly ridiculous idea to spark humor and creativity within the group.It is important to keep the pace lively and energetic and the mood positive. During brainstorming, ideas should not be explained or critiqued because both of these will slow down the free flow of ideas.It is also important for the scribe writing the ideas to use as close to the exact words as possible. If not careful, the scribe can change the intent of the original idea by using different words. It is the responsibility of the person who stated the idea, to make sure the intent is captured on the flip chart.
19Using the Brainstormed list Discuss any items that are not clearCombine any items that mean exactly the same thing. (Be careful not to over-combine and have three or four enormous issues.)It is okay to add new ideas at this time.This is the opportunity for the discussion that should have been suppressed during the quick pace of the brainstorming.Once everyone has passed, it is now time to make sure all of the items are understood by all. Questions should be asked about any item that is unclear.Now is also the time to combine items that mean exactly the same thing. At this point you need to be careful not to over-combine and end up with only three or four enormous items like training, communication and procedures. When this happens, you end up with an elephant, but it is impossible to eat an elephant all at once. Keep the items more specific and only combine items when the two people who suggested the ideas agree they should be combined.At this point it is okay to add new ideas to the list, but no idea should be crossed off the list. When two items are combined, it is a good idea to cross one of the numbers off and write that number next to the number of the item it is combined with. By doing this none of the original thoughts or ideas will be lost.Once the list has been completed, there are a number of other tools that can be used to help reduce the list or group the ideas. Multivoting and a Decision Matrix are used to prioritize the items, while an Affinity Diagram is used to group ideas.
20Brainstorm Examples Business and Industry Schools Classrooms Brainstorming is often used in business and industry to develop a list of goals, opportunities, problems, causes or solutions. It can be used at the District Level or School to do the same types of things.In the classroom brainstorming can also be used for a variety of reasons. It is most frequently used when a teacher wants to give all of the students an equal opportunity to provide input.
21Affinity DiagramOrganizes large numbers of ideas into their natural relationships.This tool taps a team’s creativity and intuition.Very similar to brainstorming, but it takes students one step farther.It serves to organize ideas into natural groupings.Taps both the right brain and left brainRight brain – generates lots of ideasLeft brain – begins to analyze and organizeAn affinity diagram is used to organize the large number of items generated in a brainstorming session into their natural relationships. The first part of this tool is brainstorming which taps the group’s creativity and intuition. The second part of this tool is when the the team works to organize the items into natural groupings.An affinity diagram taps into both the left and right brain. The right brain is used to generate lots of ideas while the left brain is used to analyze and organize the ideas.
22When to Use an Affinity Diagram If an issue is complex or hard to understand.If ideas seem to be uncertain, unorganized, or overwhelming.When breaking down a complicated issue into broad categoriesWhen group consensus is necessary.Often used following brainstorming.Affinity diagrams are used to help simplify complex issues. It can be used when an issue seems to be uncertain, unorganized, or overwhelming. Affinity diagrams are used to break down complicated issues into broad categories. This tool like many of the other quality tools helps a team reach a consensus on moving forward.
23How to Use an Affinity Diagram Brainstorm ideas directly onto sticky notesRandomly put notes on wall so all can see.Look for ideas that seem to be related.Place the like ideas together until most of the cards are grouped.It is okay to have loners that do not fit into a particular group.Select a heading for each groupThe first step is to follow the typical brainstorming rules, except that the various ideas are written on sticky notes instead of the flip chart. The various notes are randomly put on the wall. Once the brainstorming is complete, the team members individually place like ideas together until most of the notes are grouped. Continue until most of the notes are grouped with a few loners that don’t fit into any particular group. Finally, select a heading for each group.
24Using the InformationThis process lets a group move beyond its habitual thinking and preconceived categories.The issue is broken down into the large key areas that can be further addressed.The affinity process helps a group move beyond its habitualway of combining things. An affinity diagram helps break down a complicated issue into large groupings of ideas that can be further addressed.
25Examples of Affinity Diagrams Business and IndustrySchoolsClassrooms
26MultivotingIt is a tool for quick list reduction while maintaining team consensus.After brainstorming has been completed, a process is needed to reduce or prioritize the list of issues.Multivoting is a process of building a team consensus on the most important items on the list.It is used to make sure all of the team members have equal input into making the consensus decision on what is most important.Brainstorming is used to generate a long list of items, but just having a list of items doesn’t accomplish anything. It is also very difficult if not impossible to address all the issues on a list at the same time or with the same level of resources. Multivoting is a tool used for a quick reduction of a list while maintaining team consensus.Very often before a list of problems is developed, there are usually a few items that seem to be the most important because someone brings up that issue often. These items may or may not be the most important to the overall team. Multivoting is a tool that gives all team members an equal opportunity to voice their opinions on what is most important. As the list is reduced, team members remain interested because some items each person voted for are usually on the list of remaining items.When you give each person just one vote to decide on what to address, many people will feel uninterested because the item they voted for doesn’t remain on the list.Equal input and team support for the decisions made are the hallmarks of multivoting.
27When to MultivoteWhen you have a list of items that needs to be reduced or prioritizedWhen you want to be sure all members of a team are involved in the prioritizationWhen it is important that all team members support the decision made by the teamMultivoting is normally done after a brainstorming session, but it can be used anytime you have a list of items than needs to be prioritized by a team.It is also used when it is important that team members are involved in the prioritization process. When people are involved, they will take more ownership in decisions made and be much more willing to support the decision made by the team.
28How to Multivote First, count the number of items in the list. To determine the number of votes each person gets, divide by 2 and add ½ or 1.Each person gets this number of votes to a maximum of 10 votes.Team members do not have to use of all their votes, but they cannot vote for an item more than onceInformally discuss the criteria individuals should consider when voting ; things to consider include cost, stakeholder impact, seriousness, difficulty.Multivoting is a rather easy process that begins after a brainstormed list has been discussed, combined, and numbered. The goal with multivoting is to prioritize a list or reduce the list to 3-6 items. First count the number of items on the list. Each person will get ½ plus one votes to a maximum of 10.If there are 16 items on the list, each person gets 9 votes.If there are 13 items on the list, each person gets 7 votes.If there are 18 or more items on the list, each person gets 10 votes.If there are 6 or less items on the list, stop multivoting and use the decision matrix.Team members do not have to use all of their votes, but they cannot vote for an item more than once.Before each person votes, the team should informally discuss the criteria they will use to help them decide what items to vote for. Things to consider include cost, stakeholder impact, seriousness, difficulty, etc. It is up to the team to decide what to consider when voting. By taking a few minutes to discuss the criteria, it helps make sure everyone on the team is thinking the same way.
29How to Multivote Part 2 Record the number of votes for each item. Eliminate the items that receive the lowest number of votes.Look for a natural break in the vote totals, but only eliminate about half of the items at a time.Count the number of items remaining and repeat the procedure.Continue until you have reduced the list to 3-6 items if your goal is to select only one item. You will use a decision matrix to finish the list reduction.If you are using multivoting to prioritize the list, you can stop after 2 to 4 rounds of voting. Remember to include all items on your prioritized list.There are several methods to record the votes. You can have each person put a hash mark or a colored dot by the items they want to vote for or you can ask for a show of hands and count the number of votes for each item.You can also vote outside a meeting by having each person send their votes to one person who will tally the votes. This can be a time saving procedure.Once the votes have been tallied, it is time to reduce the items on the list. Normally, you don’t want to reduce the list by more than half at any one vote. Eliminate the items that receive the lowest number of votes until you get to a natural break in the voting pattern or about half the number of items.Next, count the number of items remaining and repeat the procedure.If you are working to reduce the list to just one or two items, continue voting and reducing the list until you get down to three to six items. You will then use a decision matrix to complete the list reduction.If you are use multivoting to prioritize the list, you may have to multivote three or four times to get a good prioritization of the list. Remember to include all the items you started with on your prioritized list. Normally, you will address the top ten items or so and save the remaining items for later.
30Using the Information Multivoting is usually done for these reasons: prioritize a list of itemsto help a team reach a consensus on the most important itemsOnce the list is prioritized, a determination can be made on how to address the top items.If the objective is reduce the list to 1 item, a decision matrix is used once the multivoting has reduced the list to 3-6 items.Multivoting is usually done to to either prioritize a list or to help a team reach a consensus on the most important item.Teams often brainstorm a list of goals and problems to address. In this case multivoting is used to prioritize the list and select the goals or problems that important to the team as a whole.A team will also multivote when it wants to determine the one problem or solution it wants to investigate further. In this case the objective of multivoting is to reduce the list to three to six items which can be further analyzed with a decision matrix.
32Decision MatrixThe decision matrix allows a team to utilize a formal set of criteria to determine what is most important to the team.Organized criteria are established for evaluating the 3-6 items remaining after multivoting.It helps the team compare the items by organizing the decision making into one chart.It helps the team to fully understand various aspects of the issues.A decision matrix is tool that allows a team or individual to examine a group of issues a lot closer before making a decision. A formal set of criteria is used to determine which items are most important to the team.The decision matrix will help the team or individual compare the items to each other for each criteria. This helps the team fully understand the various aspects of the issues. It is important that all members of the team fully understand each issue so a good decision can be reached.
33When to Use a Decision Matrix When comparing six or fewer itemsWhen trying to understand how a group of issues relates to each otherWhen trying to reach a consensus on which issue to selectWhen a more formalized method of prioritization is neededA decision matrix is used when you are trying to understand how a group of items relate to each other. It is a very helpful tool for the team to use to gain a consensus on which items are the most important. It is much more formalized than just multivoting, because the team members have to reach a consensus on the rating for each item for each of the criteria.A decision matrix is normally only used for comparing 3 to 6 items. If you evaluate fewer than three, you have probably eliminated too many items when multivoting. If you compare more than six items, it will take a lot more time to thoroughly evaluate the items.
34Drawing a Decision Matrix A decision matrix starts with a blank table.The items being compared are listed in the first column on the left.Write the criteria across the tops of the columns. Example criteria could include this:What is problem costing? How serious is the problem? Can our team solve the problem? How difficult will it be to solve? What will be the impact various on our stakeholders?It is best to draw the matrix on a flip chart.A decision matrix can be done on a piece of paper, but it better to use a flip chart so all members of the team can see what is going on.First, draw a blank table on the chart. The items to be compared are listed in the first column on the left. The criteria are listed across the top of each column.The team needs to quickly agree on the criteria, which can vary from matrix to matrix. Example criteria could include:What a problem is costing the organization because it exists?How serious the problem is?Does the team have the ability to develop a solution ?How difficult will it be to solve the problem?What type of impact will it have on the various stakeholders like the teachers, students, administrators, community, parents, etc.?A team could decide on any other criteria that the team members feels will help than compare the various problems or issues.
35How to Use a Decision Matrix Draw the matrix on a flip chartComplete the matrix by going down each column that represents one criteria.You are attempting to compare the 4-6 items with each other.It is helpful to use some type of scoring system like H, M and L or 1, 2 and 3.A facilitator should be used to work through this tool rather quickly. Time and reaching a consensus for each block are the two key considerations.After drawing the matrix on the flip chart, listing the problems down the left column and the criteria across the top row, the team is ready to complete the matrix.It is very important to complete the matrix by going down each column, not across because you are attempting to compare the various items on the list against each other.It is helpful to use some type of scoring system to rate each item like High/ Moderate/ Low or one/ two/three.It is best to use a facilitator to help the team quickly complete the matrix. A team could easily get bogged down or make a decision without reaching a true consensus. A facilitator will help balance time and consensus decisions.
36Rating ItemsSince you are comparing all the items in each column, it does not help if you give all the items the same rating.It is usually easiest for the team to agree on which item is the highest and which is the lowest.Then the team can quickly agree where the others fit by using moderate, moderately high, and moderately low.When you compare the items, go down each column. You are trying to compare each item to all the other items in the list. Remember, it doesn’t help to rate all the items the same. If you rate all the items as high or low, then that particular criteria doesn’t help in the evaluation.All of the items may seem very serious to you, but you have to decide which is the most serious and which is the least serious. It is usually easiest to agree on the item that is the highest and lowest in the category. Then, ask this question about the other items , “Is each item as high or as low as the first two items?”A facilitator can do this by asking the question and then listening as the various team members express their opinion. If someone is not speaking up, the facilitator should ask that person for their opinion. If the facilitator hears almost everyone saying one thing, he can say that it looks like we agree the rating of that item. If the facilitator hears half the people saying low and have high, he can write ML for moderately low.It is important to go through this exercise quickly while making sure everyone has a chance for their input so the team feels it has reached a consensus.The biggest mistakes made when using this tool is going across the rows instead of down the columns. The other mistake is rating all the items in one column the same, thereby making that column useless in comparison.
37Using the InformationOnce the chart is completely filled in, the team needs to use the chart to determine which item is rated the highest.It is easier to eliminate items than to look at the chart and pick the most important.If the team cannot solve a problem, it should be not be selected.Items that are very difficult to solve should be eliminated next.Items with a low cost or that are not very serious should be eliminated next.Usually a team will select something easier to solve, even it is not quite as serious as something that is difficult to solve.Some teams like to give the criteria different weightings due to the relative importance of each criteria.Once the chart is completed, the team needs to use the chart to determine which item is rated the highest. This should be done without considering what each item is. By looking at the chart, a team should be able to quickly reach a consensus on which item to choose.It is usually easier to start by eliminating the items that are rated lowest overall. If a team cannot solve a problem it should not be selected. Next, items that are very difficult to solve should be eliminated. Items that aren’t very serious and or the problem is costing you much should be eliminated next.By this time, the team should have been able to eliminate about half of the items. The team now needs to select the one item to address. Although it may be more serious or costly, it is usually easier to solve a simple problem. This is because it is important to have a success before tackling something that is fairly difficult to solve. On the other hand if something is easy to solve, but it is not very serious or costly, it should not be selected.
39Mission StatementA mission statement needs to communicate to your stakeholders the essence of your organization.A mission statement helps everyone focus on the same thing.Effective mission statements are concise and easy to remember.Mission statements should be supported by measurable objectives or goals.Organizations and individuals should have mission statements to set the direction of their efforts. A mission statement needs to clearly and concisely communicate the essence of your organization to your stakeholders. In the schools stakeholders include the principal, teachers, other staff members, students, parents, the community and the next grade level.When all stakeholders understand the mission statement, it is easier for them all to focus on the same thing. Effective organizations have all stakeholders aligned with the mission statement.Effective mission statements are concise and easy to remember. If the mission statement is several sentences, it will be hard for all stakeholders to remember. What then often happens is that each stakeholder focuses on only part of the mission statement, and alignment is not good.Mission statements should be supported by measurable goals and objectives. A good mission statement is usually a general statement. The measurable goals and objectives list the specific things that need to be done in support of the mission statement.
40When to Use a Mission Statement A Mission statement can be used with any group that needs to work together to accomplish a common goal.Each School and Classroom should have a mission statement.It is more important to understand what the mission statement means than to memorize it.Mission statements can be used with any group that needs to work together to accomplish a common goal. The District mission statement needs to be supported by the school mission statements. Individual classroom mission statements should support the school mission statement.When developing a mission statement, it is more important that people understand what it means than that they try and memorize it. When conducting quality audits, the auditors usually ask people what they do in their jobs that supports the mission statement.
41How to Use a Mission Statement All members of the group should have the opportunity to have input.Normally, a small group representing all the different stakeholders is used to develop the mission statement.The mission statement should be prominently posted and frequently referred to.The statement needs to be concise and understood by all.Mission statements for groups should not be developed for the group by the person in charge. All members of the group should have the opportunity to have input. When writing the school mission statement, every stakeholder cannot be present, so normally a small group is put together representing all the different stakeholders. This group develops a draft mission statement and gives all stakeholders the opportunity to make comments and ask questions before finalizing the mission statement.When writing the classroom mission statement, the activity is led by the teacher, but all of the students should have the opportunity for input. The classroom mission statement should be written in the words of the students, so that they understand it and feel ownership. When students write their own class mission statement, they experience pride with the final result.Once the mission statement is finalized, it should be prominently displayed where everyone can see it. Effective mission statements are not just hung on the wall, they are used and referred to frequently.
42Using the InformationCheck with all involved to be sure they understand the mission statement.Get individuals to discuss what the mission statement means to them.All stakeholders can check what they are doing at any time to see if it consistent with the mission statement.Once the school or classroom mission statement is finalized, the principal or teacher should ensure that everyone understands it. It is a good idea to ask people to discuss what the mission statement means to them from time to time. By getting people to talk about the mission statement in their own words, it will become a living statement and not just a poster on the wall.Once people understand the mission statement and their role, they will check what they are doing to be sure it is consistent with the mission statement.
43Examples of Mission Statements PPG will provide a safe workplace, protect the environment, be a low cost producer, and meet customer requirements.District – Provide a Quality Education for all Students.School and Classroom examplesPPG’s mission statement is very simple, PPG will provide a safe work environment, protect the environment, be a low cost producer and meet customer requirement. Each year, the plant sets measurable goals or objectives that support the mission statement.The Mission statement of the District is to Provide a Quality Education for all Students. There are Six Key Indicators with specific goals under each indicator.The Mission statement of Dolby Elementary isThe Mission statement of Mrs.
44GoalsGoals are what the organization plans to accomplish in the next months.Goals provide the specific directionGoals should be SMARTSpecificMeasurableAgreed uponRealisticTime boundedGoals should be developed by the people in the organization and aligned with the goals of the higher organization.While the mission statement is a general statement for direction, goals are the specific items that the organization will try and accomplish in the next months. Like the mission statement, the goals should be developed by the stakeholders, not just the person in charge.To be effective goals should be SMART goalsSpecific – so that everyone knows what they need to doMeasurable – so that everyone knows if the goal has been accomplishedAgreed-upon – all members of the group agree it needs to be doneRealistic – everyone needs to believe it is possible to accomplish the objective. If it is unrealistic, people won’t work hard at trying to get it done.Time Bounded – without a completion date, people tend to procrastinateThe goals should be developed by the people in the organization and aligned with the goals of the higher organization. Alignment is a key focuses of any quality initiative, and it is needed in all organizations to be effective.
45When to Use GoalsAnytime you want to help everyone focus on the same key objectiveAnytime you want to be sure what you are doing is aligned with the next levelNeeded for continuous improvementDeveloped on a pre-determined time frameDistrict – every two yearsSchool – every yearClassroom – at the beginning of each school yearGoals should be utilized anytime you want individuals to focus on the same key objectives. Goals are a good way to ensure that what you plan to focus on is aligned with the higher level of the organization. If the school has a goal to improve the utilization of a program like Accelerated Reader, then individual class rooms should have goals that support the school goal.SMART goals lead to continuous improvement which is what all schools and students need to do.Goals are usually set on a pre-determined time frame, normally yearly. Since the School Board is elected every 4 four years the District plans to set goals every two years. Individual schools should set goals before the school year starts each year. Classroom goals are normally set at the beginning of each school year.
46How to Set and Use Goals Get input from all stakeholders. Prioritize the goals. (We all have limited resources to work on goals or projects.)Make sure the goals are aligned with higher levels.Ensure that each goals is specific, measurable, agreed-upon, realistic, and time bounded.Review progress on the goals periodically throughout the year.When setting goals, it is important to get input from all stakeholders. This is normally done through Brainstorming. Normally a long list of possible goals comes out of the Brainstorming. Most organizations have limited resources to use to address the goals or projects, so the list of possible goals needs to be prioritized. Through consensus, the organization then decides which of the high priority goals it plans to address in the next year.The goals also need to be aligned with any goals of higher level and may have to be re-written in the SMART format. The goals need to be specific, measurable, agreed-upon, realistic and time bounded.Once the goals are set, you cannot afford to forget about them. To insure continuous improvement, you should review progress on the goals periodically throughout the year.
47Using the Goals Make sure the goals are aligned. Make sure the goals are SMART.Review Periodically.Measure progress.Revise and update throughout the year.Goals should set the focus for individuals and individuals within a group. By periodically referring to the goals, students and teachers can ensure that are working on the things that are important. SMART goals are measurable and time-bounded, so it will be easy to measure progress as the year goes by.Measurement is crucial for continuous improvement to occur. Since goals are set once a year and things seem to change all the time, you may find it necessary to revise or change some of the goals as time goes by. By changing goals as necessary, it will be easier to maintain alignment throughout the organization.
48Examples of GoalsBusiness and IndustrySchoolsClassrooms
49Data Folders/ Journals A folder or binder where students graph their grades, behavior, absences, etc.It can also be used to keep important papers like the student’s mission statement and goals.Data Folders are a key step in transferring ownership of the learning to the students. Most of the students in the first few grades don’t understand how their daily work is related to the grades on their report card. Data Folders help both students and parents understand how well the student is doing.This is a folder or binder where the students graph things such as their grades, absences and behavior. It can also be used to keep important papers like the student’s mission statement and goals.
50When to Use Data Folders It should be used throughout the year.It can be used to review a child’s progress during a parent conference.Students should begin using data folders during the first few days of school. Key issues for schools are grades, behavior, and attendance. If the students are tracking these issues in their data folders, they are in alignment with what is important to the school. This is a great example of how alignment can be used throughout the school system.Data folders have proven to be very effective in parent conferences to review the student’s progress. It has successfully been used for student led conferences, where the students can show and tell their parents how well they are doing.
51How to Use Data Folder Provide a separate data binder for each child. Provide a separate page with a graph on it for each item you want the child to track.As the child receives a grade, it should be plotted on the proper graph.If the child has a problem with attendance or behavior, it should be plotted.Set a goal for each item tracked.Each student should have their own data folder with a separate page with a graph for each item you want the child to track. Things that can be tracked in the data folder include, grades in each subject separately, Accelerated Reader Points, attendance, behavior, homework.It is important that the students have a goal for each item tracked. By having a goal students will be able to see how well they are doing in each area. It will easier for the teacher to point out to the student where they are doing well and where they have to work harder.Remember: Data folders are not to be shared between students. Students need to feel secure in the fact, that what is in their data folder will only be shared with their teachers and parents.
52Using the InformationPeriodically, the kids can average their grades and track their progress.Kids can see how their daily grades affect their report card gradeThis provides a visual display of progress toward goal.It can be used for conferences.By having the students plot their grades and other key indicators, they will be able to see how they are doing in relationship to their goal. Teachers can help the students understand how their daily performance and grades end up as report card grades.The information in the data journal provides a visual display of progress toward goals and it has proven to be very effective in conferences. Students are usually eager to show their work to others.
53Examples of Data Folder Business and IndustrySchoolsClassrooms
54Chart Considerations Never display a chart with students’ names on it. Charts displayed in the classroom should represent how the entire class is doing.Students will be able to see how what they are doing is affecting the entire class.Students should plot individual charts in their journal or data folder to see how they are doing.Students can compare their individual charts to the class charts to see how they are doing in relationship to their fellow students.Charts or graphs are a very effective way of showing data. There are many different types of charts that can be used, several will be covered in this presentation. Although charts are effective, they can cause problems if not used correctly.Charts can be displayed both in the classroom for all to see and in the data folders which are much more private. Charts displayed in the classroom should represent how the entire class is doing as a group, without displaying the name of individual students. Students should plot their individual grades in their own data folder.By comparing their individual charts with the classroom charts, students will be able to see how well they are doing compared to their fellow students. They will also be able to see how what they are doing is affecting the entire class.Charts will help the students see how their performance affects their grades, and charts help students take more responsibility for their own learning.If you are tracking something like Accelerated Reader points for a class, a child who is a poor reader will be able to see how his or her few points helps the class achieve the class goal, creating a sense of accomplishment for that child.The first chart we will look at is the run chart.
55Run Chart It is a graph that shows a measurement against time. The data can be measurements or countsThe purpose is to look at performance over time.By collecting data over time, trends or patterns in the data can be detected.A run chart is simply a graph that shows a measurement versus time. The data plotted can be measurements like grades or percentages, or it can be a count like the number of days with good attendance.The purpose of a run chart is to look at performance over time. By collecting this data over time, trends or patterns in the data can be detected. If the same data is just looked at in a table form, these patterns or trends often go undetected.A run chart is used to plot a data in real time. Each time a new data point is collected, it is plotted on the chart.
56When to Use a Run Chart During data collection When you want to compare a performance measure before and after a changeWhen you are looking for trends or changes in the data.An abnormality is easier to see in a graph than in a table of numbers.Draw a horizontal line to represent the average line after at least 25 points.A run chart can be used any time you have a set of data that has been collected over time. If you are interested in seeing how that data might be changing, a run chart is the easiest chart to use. An abnormality is easier to see in a graph than in a table of numbers. Once you see an abnormality, the next step will be to determine what caused the abnormality.Another good time to use a run chart is when you are making a change. By plotting and comparing the data before and after the change, you will be able to determine what impact the change has had.If you have at least 25 points of data, it is good to calculate and plot the average. Then as you plot additional points, it will be easy to see how these points compare to the average.
57How to Use a Run Chart Decide on the measure to be tracked Gather the data and decide on the scaleCreate the graph with time across the x-axis and measures along the y-axis.Plot in measurement in the time order it occurs.Look for patternsThe first step in plotting a run chart is to decide on the measure to be tracked. If possible gather some data from past history and decide on the scale. If you do not have any past data, you will have to use your best judgment to decide on the scale. Draw the graph with time across the x-axis and the measures along the y-axis and plot the data in time order. Once the data has been plotted look for any patterns or trends. Continue to plot the data each time you collect a new data point.Finally once you have 25 data points, calculate and plot the average on the chart.
58Using the Information Notice the position of the average line. Is it where you want it to be?Notice the amount of variation.Look for unusual patternsDetermine what changes you can make to move the average line, reduce the variation, or eliminate the patterns.Once you have to created the graph, one of the first things to look at is the average line. Is it where you want it to be, or is it too low or too high ? If the average is not where it should be, you need to determine what needs to be done to move the average.The other important thing to look for on the graph is the amount of variation. If there is a lot of variation, it will be hard to predict the future. If there is a lot of variation, you will have to determine the source of that variation so you can work to reduce the variation.If both the average and variation are not satisfactory, you first need to reduce the variation, then work on the average. A control chart which will be discussed later is a useful tool to help you determine the source of variation.
59Examples of Run ChartsBusiness and IndustrySchoolsClassrooms
60Histogram A bar graph of data Show how often the different values occurShows basic information about the dataCenter locationAmount of spread or variationShape – is it a normal distributionAnother way to look at data is with a histogram. Unlike a run chart, a histogram is not plotted in time-sequence order. A histogram is a picture of how often different values occur.Once plotted, a histogram will show the average or center location and the amount of spread or variation. By looking at the shape of the histogram, you can determine if the distribution of the data is normal. A normal distribution of data will have a bell-shaped curved with the average in the center of the curve. The width of the curve is an indication of how much variation exists in the data.
61When to Use a HistogramWhen you have a set of related values, either measurements or countsWhen it is important to visualize central location, shape or spread of the dataTo quickly communicate the data to othersTo analyze quickly how things are goingTo see whether a change has occurred from one period of time to anotherA histogram is used to visualize an historical set of data. A histogram is not used to plot data in real time. A histogram is used to visualize data set. It is hard to tell much about data by just looking at a table. But the histogram can communicate the average and variation just by looking at it. A histogram allows a teacher to quickly analyze the data and compare it to other data.Histograms can be used by a teacher to compare the scores on tests before and after the material is taught. By looking at the histogram of scores before the material is taught, the teacher can determine how well the students know the information. By looking at the histogram of scores after the material is taught, the teacher can determine how well she taught and the students learned.Pre-test combined with a histogram can give the teacher an indication of how much time she has to spend teaching the particular material.
62How to Use a HistogramDetermine the range for each bar. (Ex in first bar, in second bar, etc.)The x-axis represents the different ranges.The y-axis represents the number of times a measurement or counts falls in each range.Study the shape of the histogram.Look for an outliers, a point that is not close to any other data points.First, you need to collect the data you are going to plot. Each bar of the histogram will represent a certain range of data. After looking at the data, you need to determine the range for each bar.If a teacher is plotting grades, the first bar might represent A’s, the second B’s, the third C’s, the fourth D’s and the fifth U’s.The x-Axis is used to depict the different ranges, and the y-axis is used to depict the number of times a measurement or count falls in each range.Once the data is plotted, notice the shape of the curve, the average and the amount of variation. Also look for any outliers. Outliers are points that are not close to the any of the other data points. You need to try and determine the cause for the outliers.
63Using the InformationSatisfy yourself that the process you are measuring was stable; that is there were no significant changes.Analyze the meaning of your histogram’s shapeIf the center or spread is not where you want it, determine what needs to be done to the system to make the necessary changes.Determine the cause for any outliers.A histogram can be used for many different things. As mentioned earlier, a teacher can used a histogram to compare scores before an after material is taught. Analyzing a histogram of pre-test scores can give the teacher an indication of how well the students know the material and how much variation there is in that knowledge.If the shape of the histogram is the normal bell curve, than the data is considered normal. If the center of the spread is not where you want it or if there is too much variation, you will have to determine what changes you need to make to the system.Finally, look for any outliers and work to determine the cause of the outlier.
64Examples of Histograms Business and IndustrySchoolsClassrooms
65ConsensogramMeasures a group’s perceptions and provides a chart of the frequency of distribution of the responses.Allows individuals to view their response in relation to the entire group.Can be used to identify the group’s perception of effort, commitment or understanding.Can be used with a large group of people when time is limited.A consensogram is similar to a histogram in that is a tool that is used to compare data. Instead of using data points, individuals in the group are asked to place a dot on the chart representing how much they know about a specific issue. When the dots are placed on the chart, a picture of the overall knowledge of the group will appear.The consensogram will allow the individuals to see how their response is in relation to the entire group. The consensogram is often used to identify a group’s overall perception of their own knowledge about a particular subject. It is a very effective tool to use with a large group of people when the time is limited, but you want to be sure to get input from everyone.
66When to Use a Consensogram Assessing needs, attitudes, or knowledgeBuilding consensusFocusing the groupExploring multiple perspectivesRating student’s understanding of a given topicA consensogram can be used when a teacher wants to assess the needs, attitudes or knowledge of the group. It is effective in focusing the group on the issue at hand and reaching a group consensus on the group’s overall knowledge about the subject at hand.A teacher can use the consensogram to allow their students to rate their own level of understanding about the subject the teacher is getting ready to teach. After viewing the consensogram, the teacher can then decide on how time he needs to spend teaching that particular subject.The major difference between the consensogram and the histogram is that the histogram is based on data, and the consensogram is more subjective because it is based on perceptions.
67How to Use a Consensogram Clearly state the objective of the exercise.Determine the degree of measurement.Numerical ScaleWords like – I don’t know, I have basic info, I know answer, I understand why, I can explain to othersDraw the chart with empty columns.Have each person put a sticker above the number or words that they agree with.Like so many of the quality tools, the first step is to clearly state the objective of the exercise. Next it is necessary to determine what type of measurement system you will use.You can use a numerical scale, say 1 to 7, where 7 indicates excellent knowledge about a subject; and 1 indicates no knowledge. You can also use words like, I don’t know, I have basic information, I know the answer; I understand why that is the answer, I can explain this to others. If you choose to use words, you can use whatever words work best for you.Next draw a chart with a series of empty columns. Label each column with a number or word.Explain the objective of what you are trying to do. Then ask each person to put a dot or sticker in the column that most closely indicates their level of knowledge.
68Using the InformationBy observing where most of the stickers are, you can tell if there is group consensus on the issue.The completed chart will indicate the degree of knowledge on the issue.The teacher can adjust her lesson based on the knowledge of the students.Once everyone has put their stickers on the chart, the teacher can look at the chart first to see if there is an overall consensus in the class about how much the students know. The completed chart will be a good indication of the degree of knowledge the students in the class have on this issue.The teacher can then adjust his or her lesson based on the knowledge of the students. If all but a couple of the students are very knowledgeable about the issue, the teacher knows she has to do some extra work with those students.
69Examples of Consensogram Business and IndustrySchoolsClassrooms
70Scatter Diagram Helps identify relationships between two variables. Used to identify the direction and strength of the relationship between the variables.Used to determine objectively if a particular cause and effect are related.A scatter diagram is used to identify the relationship between two variables. As one variable changes, what happens to the other variable. The scatter diagram will show this relationship. It is an objective way to determine if a particular cause and effect are related.By looking at the cluster of points plotted on the graph, you can determine both the direction and strength of the relationship between the variables.
71When to Use a Scatter Diagram When trying to identify possible root causes of a problem.When trying to determine the relationship between two variables.By comparing a scatter diagram of students and their grade on a pre-test with a scatter diagram on post-test, you can visually see the improvement.Scatter diagrams can be used to analyze data to help identify possible root causes of a problem. They are also used when trying to determine if a relationship exists between two variables.A scatter diagram is another chart you can use to compare student’s grades on pre and post test. It will visually indicate the amount of improvement that has occurred as a result of the teaching.
72How to Use A Scatter Diagram Collect paired data points for the variables.Plot the paired data points on a graph.Look at the pattern of points to see if a relationship is obvious.A positive relationship is indicated if the general grouping of points goes up.A negative relationship is indicated if the general grouping of points goes down.If it is difficult to determine if the trend is up or down, there is no relationship.After deciding what two variable you want to compare, you need to collect several paired sets. Construct a chart with one variable on the x-axis and the other variable on the y-axis. Plot the paired data points on the graph. After plotting several data points on the chart, look at the pattern of points to see if a relationship exists.A positive relationship is indicated if the general grouping of points goes up from right to left. This means that as one variable increases the other variable also increases.A negative relationship is indicated if the general grouping of points goes down from right to left. This means that as one variable increases, the other variable decreases.If it is difficult to determine if the trend is up or down, there is no relationship. As one variable goes up, the other variable may increase or decrease.
73Using the InformationFirst determine the relative direction and strength of the relationship.If you want to increase one variable, you can use this data to determine what you need to do to the other variable to get the desired result in the first variable.This is only an indication; both of these variables may be influenced by a third variable and just appear to influence each other.After plotting data, you can determine direction and relative strength of the relationship. The closer the general direction of the dots is to a 45 degree angle either up or down the stronger the relationship.If there is a relationship between the two variables, you can use this data to determine what you need to do to the other variable, to get the desired result in the first variable.One thing to remember about a scatter diagram is that it is only an indication, not an absolute. The two variables may actually be unrelated but influenced by a third variable that you haven’t considered.
74Examples of Scattergrams Business and IndustrySchoolsClassrooms
75Control Charts A control chart is a run chart with limits. These limits are used to separate the noise or normal variation from the signal.These limits are set at 3 standard deviations, so that for a normal distribution 99.7% of the data should be within the limits.Limits are calculated based on the data collected, the overall average, and variation.Control charts are one of the more complex quality tools, but it is easy to use once it is constructed and can be very helpful in determining when to take action.A control chart is basically a run chart with limits. The limits are used to separate the noise or normal variation from the signal or assignable causes. Whenever you take measurements, there will always be some variation if the measurement device is accurate enough.These limits are called control limits. The control limits are not just arbitrarily set but are based on the overall average and standard deviation. Standard deviation is a measure of the variation. The control limits are usually set at plus or minus three standard deviations from the overall average. If the data is normally distributed, about 99.7% of the data should fall within the control limits.
76When to Use a Control Chart When determining whether a process is stableWhen you want to predict the expected range of outcomes from a processWhen determining how to improve a processSignals – cause can be identified and addressedNoise – cause of variation is unknown, so system must be changed to reduce the noiseControl charts can be used to help you determine how stable a set of data collected from a process is. If the process is stable, 99.7% of the points will fall between the control limits. This means you can predict with a pretty good degree of accuracy what the process will do in the future.A control chart is another tool used to help you identify problems, so you can continually improve the process. One way to improve a process is to remove the sources of variation. There are two types of variation. The noise or normal variation in the system. This is all of the data between the control limits. To reduce this variation, you have to find a way to improve the system. The second type of variation is the signal. Signals are the points that lie outside the control limits when plotted on a control chart. When you see a signal, it is important to determine the cause of the signal so you can improve the system. Trying to find the cause of noise is a waste of time.Your average drive home from work might be 15 minutes. That does not mean that it always takes you exactly 15 minutes. Your normal drive home will probably range from 10 to 20 minutes. If it took you 11 minutes to get home yesterday and it took you 18 minutes today, you wouldn’t be concerned. You wouldn’t spend time trying to determine why it took you 7 more minutes to get home. This is just noise in the system caused by things like traffic patterns and stop lights.However, if it took you 60 minutes to get home, you would want to know why it took you longer today. If it was due to an accident on the road, you probably wouldn’t change your route. If it was due to road work that was going to last 2 months, you would look for a different route.The same holds true when we look at data in a process we are trying to improve. It is important to know if the variation is due to noise or a signal.
77How to Use Control Chart Determine the subgroup size.Collect about 25 subgroups of data.Determine the overall average of the data.Determine the variation within the subgroup.Calculate the upper and lower control limits and central line by using the formula.Plot the points on the chart.Identify causes for any points outside the control limits.After determining what process you want to plot a control chart on, you need to determine the subgroup size. The subgroup size varies normally varies from 1 to 6. If you are considering using a control chart, see a Quality Professional or Statistician to help you set up a control chart.After collecting about 25 subgroups of data, it is time to calculate the overall average of all of the data and the variation within the subgroup. A measure of variation is standard deviation, but it is not easy to calculate. A second measure of variation is range which is an estimate but it is easy to calculate. The range is just the difference between the minimum and maximum data points in each subgroup.There are a set of formulas with factors depending on the subgroup size that can be used to calculate the upper and lower control limits.Once the limits are calculated, draw a line for the average, the upper control limit and the lower control limit on your chart. Plot each data point on the control chart.Look for points that fall above or below the control limit. If there are any, you need to determine the cause of that variation.
78Using the Information Everything has some variation in it. Most important use is to separate the signals from the noise.All signals, both good and bad, should be investigated to determine the cause.If you are not happy with the amount of noise in the system, you must modify the system.Everything that can be measured has some variation in it. One major emphasis of Baldrige and continuous improvement is reduction of variation. Before you can reduce the variation you have to separate the signals from the noise.It has been proven statistically and in real situations that if you make a correction in the system every time there is noise in the system, you will actually increase the amount of variation in the process. On the other hand if you ignore the signals, you will also increase the amount of variation in the process.All signals both good and bad should be investigated to determine the cause. It is obvious if the signal is bad, you don’t want it to happen again. However if it signal is good, you want to determine what causes it to be good because you might learn how to improve the system.If you are not happy with the noise in the system, you have to modify the system.To explain this in school terms, if you plot a control chart on an individual student’s grades, there will be some noise or normal variation. Occasionally there will be a grade that is a signal and you should be able to find out why the student scored so much differently that normal. If it was a lot higher than normal, maybe she decided to study for once, of it was a lot lower, may she their was an emergency in the family the night before.If you want to reduce the amount of noise in the system, you will have to modify the system. In a school the system consists of the student, the teachers, the curriculum, the books, teaching methods, procedures ,etc.
79Examples of Control Charts Business and IndustrySchoolsClassrooms
80Root Cause There is almost always more than one true root cause. A problem is usually caused by at least one condition and one action.The cause or causes, which when removed, result in the problem disappearing.If you do not identify the root cause, you are just putting a band-aid on the problem.When a problem exists and it is repetitive or serious, it is important to find the root cause of the problem. If you can eliminate the root cause the problem will go away. Many people are confused by the term root cause and think there is only one true root cause for a problem. In actually there is almost always more than one root cause. When there is a problem, it is usually caused by at least one condition and one action. A problem usually occurs because 3 or 4 causes all are present at the same point and time.Too often we tend to be just problem-solvers. We are in a hurry to have the problem go away so we just do something. Often this works, but at other times all we do is put a band-aid on the problem.If you get a flat tire on your car, you want to get it fixed. Most of us don’t take the time to determine what caused it. If you had flat tire 3 mornings in a row, you would start looking for the cause instead of just fixing the tire.The same thing holds true when we try to solve problems that exist in the school system or in business. Without determining and removing the root cause, the problem can occur again at any time.
81Root CauseA root cause is normally not a who? Instead, you need to ask the question,”Why?”Not following procedure is not a root cause?Continue to ask, “Why?”Didn’t know or understandProcedure doesn’t work or is outdatedDon’t agree with procedureDid it this way before with no problemsThe solution will be different for each why.Too often in the past when something went wrong, the first question asked is who was involved. Blaming an individual usually does nothing to prevent the problem from reoccurring.To find a root cause the question that needs to be asked over and over is why did it happen.Another problem with trying to identify a root cause is stopping to soon. Not following procedures is not a root cause. When you ask why the procedure wasn’t followed, there can be some significantly different reasons like: the person doesn’t know or understand the procedure, the procedure doesn’t work or is outdated; the person doesn’t agree with the procedure as written , or the person may have done it that way before with no problems.The solution that will eliminate the problem will be different for each of the possible reasons why the procedure wasn’t followed.The next tool is one of the easiest tools to use but is very effective in finding the root cause if you don’t stop too quickly.
82Why? Why?The Why-Why diagram helps to identify the root causes of a problem.It helps a group recognize the broad network of problem causes and the relationship.It can indicate the best areas to address for short term and long term solutions.It is very easy to use.The why-why diagram, often called the 5 Whys, is an effective tool when trying to find the root cause of a problem. When we were young and in the first grade, we used to ask why over and over again. For some reason as we get older, we quit asking the why question.This tool can be used in a group setting or individually. When you ask why something might have happened, you will been to recognize a broad network of possible causes and their relationship to the problem.As you ask the question why and for each answer, you ask the question why again, you will begin to understand the problem in more detail. You will also be able to spot some things that can be done right away and others that will take much longer.
83When to Use a Why-WhyWhen you need to find the root cause of a problemWhen the many contributing causes to a problem are confusingAs a graphical communication toolThe why-why is used to help find the root cause or causes of a problem. It is an effective way to organize your thoughts, while looking for all the possible causes. A graphical display of the why-why will help sort through a large amount of confusing information.
84How to Use the Why-Why Clearly state the problem. Brainstorm a list of possible causes and ask why the problem exists.Identify which causes are the most important through data collection.Then ask why the problem exists.Continue to ask why until you get to something basic – Often takes 5 whys.The first step is to clearly state the problem you are trying to eliminate. Then as a group follow the normal brainstorming procedure to brainstorm a list of possible causes.The hardest part of a root cause analysis is data collection and analysis. Once you have completed the brainstorming, through data collection, knowledge of the system and other information identify which causes are the most important.Then begin asking the question why did that happen, and continue asking why until you get to something basic that you can do something about. This normally takes about 5 whys.
85Example Why-Why Problem – Student failed a test. Why – Student was not prepared.Why – Student could not focus when material was presented.For a why-why example, let’s assume you have a student who normally does fairly well on test fail a test. If the teacher just told the student she was disappointed or she knows the student can do better, the teacher is assuming she knows the cause. If the why-why is used, you may find a surprise.If the teacher ask the student why did he fail the test, the student may say he wasn’t prepared. That is still very general so the teacher ask why again. John, why weren’t you prepared. John says, “Well I just couldn’t focus when the material was presented in class.” Again the teacher asks John, “Why couldn’t you focus in class?”
86Example Why-Why Problem – Student failed a test. Why – Student was not prepared.Why – Student couldn’t focus when material was presented.Why – Student did not get much sleepWhy – Student was not home that night.Why – Student’s brother was in an accident.John then replies he didn’t get much sleep. If the teacher were to stop here, she might think John was staying up late with his friends or playing video or games.But when asked why again, John says he wasn’t home that night. The teacher asks why and John, replies that his brother was in an accident and he was at the hospital all night and it was hard to get any sleep there.Now the teacher has gotten to the root cause of the problem. If she had stopped earlier, the teacher would have thought John was just goofing off, but by continuing to ask why, she realized that the cause was beyond John’s control.By continuing to ask the question why, a teacher can get past the general causes on the surface and find the true root cause. Once the root cause is uncovered, it is easier to develop a solution that will work.
87Using the InformationDo not stop when you reach a who. Who is a convenient way to point a finger, not a root cause.If you stop asking why too soon, you may only be putting a band-aid on the problem.The deeper you go, the more you will get to underlying fundamental systemic problems.When you start using a why-why, you may find a person comes up as a cause. It is easy to blame someone for a problem, because then you believe it is no longer your problem. Blaming someone is usually a convenient way to point a finger, not a root cause.If you stopping asking why too soon, you may end up only putting a band-aid on the problem. Things look okay in the short term, but sooner or later the problem comes up again. In the previous example with the student’s grade, if the teacher stops too soon she will talk to student about his attitude and motivation when they have nothing to do with the problem.
88Examples of Why-WhyBusiness and industrySchoolsClassrooms
89PDSA Plan – Do – Study – Act A concept for continuous improvement Also called PDCAPlan – Do – Check –ActAlso known as the Deming Cycle or the Shewhart CycleFirst discussed by Dr. Walter Shewhart in 1939The plan-do-check-act (PDCA) cycle is a well-known model for continual process improvement (CPI). It teaches organizations to plan an action, do it, check to see how it conforms to the plan and act on what has been learned.The PDCA cycle is also known by two other names, the Shewhart cycle and the Deming cycle. Walter A. Shewhart first discussed the concept of PDCA in his 1939 book. He said the cycle draws its structure from the notion that constant evaluation of management practices, as well as the willingness of management to adopt and disregard unsupported ideas is key to the evolution of a successful enterprise.W. Edwards Deming was the one who first coined the term "Shewhart cycle" for PDCA, naming it after his mentor and teacher at Bell Laboratories in New York. Deming promoted PDCA as a primary means of achieving CPI. He also referred to the PDCA cycle as the PDSA cycle ("S" for study). Deming is credited with encouraging the Japanese in the 1950s to adopt PDCA. The Japanese eagerly embraced PDCA and other quality concepts, and to honor Deming for his instruction, they refer to the PDCA cycle as the Deming cycle.
90PDSA Plan Do Study Act Define and assess the current system. Analyze Causes.DoTry out improvements.StudyCollect data to determine the impact.ActStandardize the actions.Plan for further improvement.The PDCA cycle is made up of four steps for improvement. They are:1. Plan: Recognize an opportunity, and plan the change.2. Do: Test the change.3. Study: Review the test, analyze the results and identify learnings.4. Act: Take action based on what you learned in the study step. If the change was successful, incorporate the learnings from the test into wider changes. If not, go through the cycle again with a different plan.Making Improvements in services involves changing things. Change can seem threatening or over-whelming for busy people doing demanding work. The PDSA method is a way to break down change into manageable chunks, and test each small part to make sure that things are improving and no effort is wasted.It's a model for testing ideas that you think may create an improvement. The PDSA Cycle can be used to test ideas for improvement quickly and easily based on existing ideas, research, theory, review, audit, etc. or practical ideas that have been proven to work elsewhere. It uses simple measurements to monitor the effect of change over time. It encourages starting with small changes, which can build into larger improvements in the service through successive quick cycles of change.
91When to Use PDSA When starting a new improvement project When planning data collection and analysis in order to assess and improve current system.When implementing a solutionWhen reviewing your improvement process to see what you have learned.It works! It has been used for decades as an effective tool for improvement and it's still going strong! The method is well established and validated and is particularly suited to small, dynamic organizations like general practice. It's an extremely practical, common sense based approach that is easy to understand. By breaking things down into lots of small, bite-sized pieces (PDSA Cycles), what started out as an idea for change, will quickly develop into real, sustainable improvement.The PDSA cycle for continuous improvement can be used when starting new projects to plan data collection and analysis and when implementing a solution to determine how well it works.
92How to Use PDSA Do – Put the plan in practice and collect the data. Plan – Identify what change you think will result in improvement and how you will test the change.Do – Put the plan in practice and collect the data.Study – Review and reflect on the data and ask, “What else can be done differently?”Act – Decide to standardize what you have done or make further changes.Continue the cycle again and again.The first step in the PDSA cycle is to Plan. That is when you identify what change you think will result in improvement and determine how you will test to see if the change is effective.The Do step is when you put the plan in practice and collect the data that will be used to determine if the change was successful.The Study step consists of reviewing and analyzing the data to determine the effect of the change. It is also the time to think of what else can be done differently to further improve the system.The final step/act is when the system changes are standardized so that the improvements are done the same way be everyone.Once this cycle is complete it is time to start it again. Take a look at the new system and plan any future changes. This repeated cycle is what drives the continuous improvement needed by all organizations.
93Using the Information Involve others to: Standardize the improvements. Help identify problems.Identify solutions.Collect data.Determine ways to further improve.Standardize the improvements.The PDSA cycle is best used when it is a group effort with several people involved. Each person sees an issue from a different viewpoint. When more people are involved, a more thorough job is done in the continuous improvement process.Once improvements are made if they are not standardized by changing the procedure or policy, people may slip back to doing things the old way.
94Examples of PDSA Industry and Business Schools Classrooms Most people use the concept of the PDSA cycle often without realizing they are using it. PDSA is simply continuous improvement in action. A business needs to continue to get better in comparison to their competitors or relatively they are getting worse.A Second grade teacher used the PDSA cycle with her class to improve their behavior in the cafeteria. First, the teacher identified this as a problem that needed to be improved. Next, the class talked about what they could do differently to improve their behavior. They decided that the teacher was going to keep track of the number of times she had to correct one of the students. Before implementing any change the class was averaging 50 bad behaviors a day. The class implemented the changes and continued to collect the data.After a few days, the class analyzed the data to see if how the change was working. They had reduced the number of bad behaviors a day to less than 20 , but the goal was to reduce it to less than 10.Therefore, the class talked about what was still causing the bad behaviors and came up with another change involving the collection of forks. Once this change was implemented, measurement showed that the class reached their goal.
95Plus Delta + r A critique method A way of letting everyone consider what went well and what could be changed.Plus – what went well with the activity that was just completed.Delta – what would you like to see changed on done differently next time.This is not a good vs. bad evaluation.A way to reinforce what went wellA way to identify opportunities for improvementPlus Delta is a tool that can be used to get input from participants on how something has gone. It is a critique method that is often called did well, do better. It is a tool that combines positive reinforcement with continuous improvement. Plus Delta is a way of getting everyone to consider what went well and what should be changed the next time the activity is done.Plus is used to give positive reinforcement on what has gone well. You can ask, “What were some of the things you liked about the activity just completed?” Delta is used for continuous improvement. It is not about what went bad. Delta is used to identify opportunities to do that activity even better the next time it is done
96When to Use Plus Delta + r Plus Delta can be used anytime feedback is neededAt the end of the day or weekAt the end of a lesson or unitAt the end of a project or reportAfter an event is completePlus/Delta can be used any time feedback is needed: at the end of the day or the end of a week. It can be used to evaluate a lesson or a unit when it is complete. It is also an effective tool to use to critique a school wide activity or event, such as an open-house.+r
97How to Use the Plus Delta r+First, clearly state the objective of the plus delta.Ask each person to consider the activity or event and think about what worked well and what did not.Go around the room, giving each person a chance to state one issue that went well.It is okay to pass.Write the issues on a chart in front of the room for all to see.If an item is mentioned more than once, just put a check mark next to it.Repeat for things that should be changed/delta.How can you use the Plus Delta? It is very important to first clearly state the objective of the exercise. We are going to do a plus delta on Chapter 3 in the Language Book. Each person is asked to silently think about what went well and what could be changed. After ten to fifteen seconds, everyone goes in turn and states what went well. The thought is written on a chart where everyone can see it. It is okay to pass if nothing significant comes to mind. It better to pass than just to say something insignificant. If the same item is mentioned by more than one person, just put a check mark by that item on the chart.Repeat this process for things that should be changed. Once you have completed both lists, ask the group one last time if there is anything significant that went well or that should be changed that is not on the list.
98Using the Information + r Just collecting the information helps get things into the open and people thinking about them.Positive Reinforcement toolEvaluate the deltas to determineIs this an issue with just one person or does it affect several people?Is there something that can be changed?Make the changes .Completing the Plus/Delta is only the beginning. The real opportunity comes from what you do with the information collected. You will find just taking the time to talk about what went well and what could be changed will generate enthusiasm. It will increases the awareness level of everyone involved about how the activity went.The Plusses are positive, immediate and certain recognition and will encourage those behaviors to continue.The Deltas need to be evaluated to determine if that is the opinion of only one person or most people in the group. Next, you need to determine how you can make the changes to improve and finally, you need to actually make the changes.
99Examples of Plus Delta r + Industry and Business Meetings Workshops SchoolsClassroomsThere are many examples of how plus/delta has been effectively used in business and industry. Meeting, training workshops and events are critiqued after the fact to determine what went well and what can be done better next time. Next, we will look at some examples of how the plus/delta has been used in the school and in classrooms.r+