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Presentation on theme: "Presentation Plus! The American Vision Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Developed by FSCreations, Inc., Cincinnati, Ohio 45202 Send all."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Presentation Plus! The American Vision Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Developed by FSCreations, Inc., Cincinnati, Ohio Send all inquiries to: GLENCOE DIVISION Glencoe/McGraw-Hill 8787 Orion Place Columbus, Ohio Welcome to Presentation Plus!

3 Splash Screen

4 Contents Chapter Introduction Section 1Rise of Industry Section 2The Railroads Section 3Big Business Section 4Unions Chapter Summary Chapter Assessment Click on a hyperlink to view the corresponding slides.

5 Intro 1 Click the Speaker button to listen to the audio again.

6 Intro 2 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Chapter Objectives Identify the effects of expanding population on industry. Explain the effects of technological innovations such as the telephone and telegraph on American development. Section 1: Rise of Industry

7 Intro 3 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Chapter Objectives Section 2: The Railroads Discuss ways in which the railroads spurred industrial growth. Analyze how the railroads were financed and how they grew.

8 Intro 4 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Chapter Objectives Section 3: Big Business Analyze how large corporations came to dominate American business. Evaluate how Andrew Carnegies innovations transformed the steel industry.

9 Intro 5 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Chapter Objectives Section 4: Unions Describe industrial working conditions in the United States in the late 1800s. List the barriers to labor union growth.

10 Intro 6 Why It Matters The rise of the United States as an industrial power began after the Civil War. Many factors promoted industry, including cheap labor, new inventions and technology, and plentiful raw materials. Railroads rapidly expanded. Government policies encouraged growth, and large corporations became an important part of the economy. As industry expanded, workers tried to form unions to fight for better wages and working conditions.

11 Intro 7 The Impact Today Trends which began in this era can still be seen today. Corporations continue to play an important role. Technology continues to change American life. Unions remain powerful in many industries. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.

12 Intro 8 continued on next slide

13 Intro 9

14 End of Intro

15 Section 1-1 Guide to Reading American industry grew rapidly after the Civil War, bringing revolutionary changes to American society. gross national product Main Idea Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Key Terms and Names Edwin Drake laissez-faire entrepreneur Morrill Tariff Alexander Graham Bell Thomas Alva Edison

16 Section 1-2 Guide to Reading (cont.) Reading Strategy Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Organizing As you read about the changes brought about by industrialization, complete a graphic organizer similar to the one on page 436 of your textbook listing the causes of industrialization. Identify the effects of expanding population on industry. Reading Objectives Explain the effects of technological innovations such as the telephone and telegraph on American development.

17 Section 1-3 Guide to Reading (cont.) Section Theme Economic Factors The free enterprise system nurtured the growth of American industry.

18 Section 1-4 Click the Speaker button to listen to the audio again.

19 By the early 1900s, the United States had become the worlds leading industrial nation. By 1914 the gross national product (GNP), or total value of goods and services produced by a country, was eight times greater than at the end of the Civil War. Section 1-5 (pages 436–437) The United States Industrializes Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. With the end of the Civil War, American industry expanded and millions of people left their farms to work in mines and factories.

20 Section 1-6 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Water, timber, coal, iron, and copper are natural resources found in the United States that led to the countrys industrial success. Transcontinental railroads increased industrialization by bringing settlers and miners to the West and moving resources to the factories in the East. Petroleum could be turned into kerosene for lanterns and stoves. (pages 436–437) The United States Industrializes (cont.)

21 Section 1-7 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. The demand for kerosene created the American oil industry. In 1859 Edwin Drake drilled the first oil well near Titusville, Pennsylvania. As oil production increased, so did economic expansion. Between 1860 and 1910, the population of the United States tripled. This provided a large workforce and a greater demand for consumer goods. (pages 436–437) The United States Industrializes (cont.)

22 Section 1-8 How did the construction of the transcontinental railroad add to an increase in industrialization? The railroads brought settlers and miners to the West to work and moved the resources back to the factories in the East. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. (pages 436–437) The United States Industrializes (cont.)

23 Section 1-9 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. (page 438) Free Enterprise Laissez-faire, a French phrase that means let people do as they choose, was a popular idea in the late 1800s. Many Americans believed the government should not interfere with the economy. Instead, they wanted supply and demand to regulate prices and wages. Entrepreneurs risked their capital to organize and run a business.

24 Section 1-10 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. In the late 1800s, entrepreneurs were attracted to manufacturing and transportation fields. As a result, hundreds of factories and thousands of miles of railroad were built. Another important source of private capitol was Europe. Foreign investors saw more opportunity for profit in the U.S. than they did at home. Free Enterprise (cont.) (page 438)

25 Section 1-11 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Why was Europe an important source of private capital? Foreign investors saw more opportunities for growth and profit in the U.S. than at home. Free Enterprise (cont.) (page 438)

26 Section 1-12 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. (pages 438–439) Governments Role in Industrialism In the late 1800s, state and federal government had a laissez-faire attitude by keeping taxes and spending low and by not imposing regulations on industry. The government did not control wages or prices. It adopted policies to help industry. Since the early 1800s, the northeastern states and southern states debated on economic policies.

27 Section 1-13 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Northerners wanted high tariffs to protect their industries from foreign competition. Southerners opposed tariffs to keep the cost of imported goods down. The Civil War ended the economic debate. After the south seceded, the Morrill Tariff was passed, which reversed years of declining tariffs. (pages 438–439) Governments Role in Industrialism (cont.)

28 Section 1-14 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. The high tariffs contradicted laissez-faire policies and harmed many Americans. As the United States raised tariffs on foreign products, other countries responded by raising tariffs against American products. American companies who sold goods overseas, especially farmers, were hurt by these high tariffs. (pages 438–439) Governments Role in Industrialism (cont.)

29 Section 1-15 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Many business leaders and members of Congress felt tariffs were necessary to protect American industry against the already established European factories. By the early 1900s, American industries were larger and highly competitive. Many business leaders began to encourage free trade, believing they could compete internationally and succeed. (pages 438–439) Governments Role in Industrialism (cont.)

30 Section 1-16 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. What were some problems caused by high tariffs? When other countries placed high tariffs against American goods, it hurt American companies selling products overseas. Rural American farmers were especially hard hit by the tariffs, causing many of them to leave farms and take factory jobs. (pages 438–439) Governments Role in Industrialism (cont.)

31 Section 1-17 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. (pages 439–440) New Inventions New inventions increased Americas productivity, which in turn produced wealth and job opportunities. In 1876 Scottish-American inventor Alexander Graham Bell invented the telephone. In 1877 Bell and his associates organized the Bell Telephone Company, which later became the American Telephone and Telegraph Company (AT&T).

32 Section 1-18 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. In the late 1800s, Thomas Alva Edison invented or perfected the phonograph, the light bulb, the electric generator, the dictaphone, and the motion picture. In 1882 an Edison Company began to transform American society when it started supplying electric power to customers in New York City. New Inventions (cont.) (pages 439–440)

33 Section 1-19 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. The clothing industry increased productivity in the mid-1800s with the introduction of the Northrop automatic loom, the power driven sewing machine, and cloth cutters. Mass production in the shoe industry allowed large factories to produce shoes more cheaply and efficiently than local cobblers. The savings then resulted in lower prices. New Inventions (cont.) (pages 439–440)

34 Section 1-19 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Technology improved connections among people. In 1866 Cyrus Field laid a telegraph cable across the Atlantic Ocean, providing instant contact between the United States and Europe. New Inventions (cont.) (pages 439–440) Another innovation, the radio, became common in American homes in the 1920s.

35 Section 1-20 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. How did technology cause the prices of shoes to go down? Large factories could mass-produce shoes more quickly and cheaply than local cobblers could, resulting in lower prices. New Inventions (cont.) (pages 439–440)

36 Section 1-21 Checking for Understanding __ 1.policy that government should interfere as little as possible in the nations economy __ 2.the total value of goods and services produced by a country during a year __ 3.one who organizes, manages, and assumes the risks of a business or enterprise A.gross national product B.laissez-faire C.entrepreneur Define Match the terms on the right with their definitions on the left. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers. A C B

37 Section 1-22 Checking for Understanding (cont.) Explain how an abundance of natural resources contributed to economic growth in the United States in the late 1800s. Americans did not have to import resources from other countries, saving resources for internal growth. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.

38 Section 1-23 Reviewing Themes Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Economic Factors How did the principles of the free enterprise system, laissez-faire, and profit motive encourage the rise of industry? They put development in the hands of entrepreneurs, not the government.

39 Section 1-24 Critical Thinking Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Synthesizing What role did the federal government play in increasing industrialization in the United States after the Civil War? Congress subsidized railroads and sold lands below market value.

40 Section 1-25 Analyzing Visuals Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Applying Time Lines Copy the time line on pages 438 and 439 of your textbook onto a separate sheet of paper. Add other inventions you have learned about to the time line in proper chronological order. Be sure to include the date for each invention. Possible answers: 1859, first oil well dug; 1882, Edison Electric Illuminating Company supplies electric power to New York City; first refrigerated railroad car; 1893, Northup automatic loom.

41 Section 1-26 Close Explain the effects of technological innovations such as the telephone and telegraph on American industrial development.

42 End of Section 1

43 Section 2-1 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Guide to Reading After the Civil War, the rapid construction of railroads accelerated the nations industrialization and linked the country together. Pacific Railway Act Main Idea Key Terms and Names Grenville Dodge Leland Stanford Cornelius Vanderbilt time zone land grant Jay Gould Crédit Mobilier James J. Hill

44 Section 2-2 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Guide to Reading (cont.) Reading Strategy Organizing As you read about the development of a nationwide rail network, complete a graphic organizer similar to the one on page 442 of your textbook listing the effects of this rail network on the nation. Discuss ways in which the railroads spurred industrial growth. Reading Objectives Analyze how the railroads were financed and how they grew.

45 Section 2-3 Guide to Reading (cont.) Section Theme Individual Action The railroads provided new ways for some Americans to amass wealth.

46 Section 2-4 Click the Speaker button to listen to the audio again.

47 Section 2-5 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. (pages 442–444) Linking the Nation Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. After the Civil War, railroad construction dramatically expanded. In 1862 President Abraham Lincoln signed the Pacific Railway Act, which provided for the construction of a transcontinental railroad by the Union Pacific and Central Pacific railroad companies. To encourage rapid construction, the government offered each company land along its right of way.

48 Section 2-6 In 1865 the Union Pacific, under engineer Grenville Dodge, pushed westward from Omaha, Nebraska. Weather, labor, money, and engineering problems hampered the project. The workers included Civil War veterans, Irish immigrants, farmers, miners, cooks, and ex-convicts. Camp life was dangerous. Linking the Nation (cont.) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. (pages 442–444)

49 Section 2-7 Four merchants known as the Big Four invested in the Central Pacific Railroad. They each bought stock in the railroad and eventually made a fortune. One of them, Leland Stanford, became governor of California, founded Stanford University, and later became a United States senator. Because of a labor shortage, the Central Pacific Railroad hired about 10,000 workers from China. Linking the Nation (cont.) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. (pages 442–444)

50 Section 2-8 How did the government encourage rapid construction of the railroads? The government offered each railroad company land. Competition occurred between the two railroad companies as each tried to get as much land and money as possible. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Linking the Nation (cont.) (pages 442–444)

51 Section 2-9 Railroads Spur Growth Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Railroads encouraged the growth of American industry. They linked the nation and increased the size of markets. The railroad industry stimulated the economy by spending large amounts of money on steel, coal, and timber. In the early 1800s, most railways served only local needs, resulting in many unconnected rail lines. (pages 444–445)

52 Section 2-10 Eastern capitalists wanted to create a single rail transit system from the many smaller railroads. Eventually seven systems controlled most of the railroad traffic. The most famous railroad consolidator, Cornelius Vanderbilt, merged three short New York railroads to form the New York Central in He was the first to offer direct rail service from New York City to Chicago. Railroads Spur Growth (cont.) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. (pages 444–445)

53 Section 2-11 In 1883 rail service became safer and more reliable when the American Railway Association divided the country into four time zones, or regions, where the same time was kept. Large integrated railroad systems provided increased efficiency, a decrease in time spent in long distance travel, and it united Americans from different regions. Railroads Spur Growth (cont.) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. (pages 444–445)

54 Section 2-12 What were the benefits of integrated railroad systems? Integrated railroad systems were equipped to shift cars from one section of the country to another and made long distance transportation quicker. It also helped unite people from different regions. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Railroads Spur Growth (cont.) (pages 444–445)

55 Section 2-13 (page 445) The Land Grant System Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Land grants were given to railroad companies by the federal government to encourage railroad construction. Railroad companies like the Union Pacific and Central Pacific were able to cover all their building costs by selling the land to settlers, real estate agencies, and other businesses.

56 Section 2-14 Why were land grants necessary? The building and operating of railroad lines required more money than most private investors could raise on their own. The Land Grant System (cont.) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. (page 445)

57 Section 2-15 (pages 445–446) Robber Barons Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. The wealth of railroad entrepreneurs led to accusations that they had acquired their wealth through illegal means. One of the entrepreneurs with the worst reputation was Jay Gould, who used information he obtained as a railroad owner to manipulate stock prices to his benefit. Railroad investors realized they could make more money through land grants than by running a railroad, so many investors bribed members of Congress to vote for more land grants.

58 Section 2-16 In 1872 corruption in the railroad system became public with the Crédit Mobilier scandal. Several stockholders of the Union Pacific set up the Crédit Mobilier, a construction company. The investors signed contracts with themselves. The company greatly overcharged Union Pacific, and the railroad agreed to pay the inflated bills. Robber Barons (cont.) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. (pages 445–446)

59 Section 2-17 When the railroad was completed, the investors had made a fortune, but the railroad was almost bankrupt. Congress agreed to give additional grants to the railroad after several members of Congress were given shares in Union Pacific at a price well below market value. An investigation implicated several members of Congress, including James Garfield, who later became president. Robber Barons (cont.) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. (pages 445–446)

60 Section 2-18 Not all railroad entrepreneurs were corrupt. James J. Hill built the Great Northern Railroad without any federal land grants or subsidies. It became the most successful transcontinental railroad and the only one not to go bankrupt. Robber Barons (cont.) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. (pages 445–446)

61 Section 2-19 What was the Crédit Mobilier scandal? Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Robber Barons (cont.) (pages 445–446)

62 Section 2-20 Several stockholders of the Union Pacific set up the Crédit Mobilier, a construction company. The investors signed contracts with themselves. The company greatly overcharged Union Pacific and the railroad agreed to pay the inflated bills. When the railroad was completed, the investors had made a fortune, but the railroad was almost bankrupt. Congress agreed to give additional grants to the railroad after several members of Congress were given shares in Union Pacific at a price well below market value. An investigation implicated several members of Congress. Robber Barons (cont.) (pages 445–446)

63 Section 2-21 Checking for Understanding __ 1.a geographical region in which the same standard time is kept __ 2.a grant of land by the federal government especially for roads, railroads, or agricultural colleges A.time zone B.land grant Define Match the terms on the right with their definitions on the left. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers. B A

64 Section 2-22 Checking for Understanding (cont.) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Explain the provisions of the Pacific Railway Act. The Act provided for the construction of the transcontinental railroad.

65 Section 2-23 Reviewing Themes Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Individual Action How did Grenville Dodge contribute to the economic growth of the United States in the late 1800s? He supervised the Union Pacifics westward expansion.

66 Section 2-24 Critical Thinking Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Synthesizing How did railroad expansion in the United States lead to industrial growth? Railroad expansion increased the size of markets and led to great amounts of money being spent on resources.

67 Section 2-25 Analyzing Visuals Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Examining Maps and Graphs Study the map and the graph on page 445 of your textbook. Then make up a quiz of at least five questions based on the information presented. Quizzes will vary.

68 Section 2-26 Close Discuss ways in which the railroads spurred industrial growth.

69 End of Section 2

70 Section 3-1 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Guide to Reading After the Civil War, big business assumed a more prominent role in American life. corporation Main Idea Key Terms and Names stockholder stock economies of scale fixed costs operating costs pool Andrew Carnegie Bessemer process vertical integration horizontal integration monopoly trust holding company

71 Section 3-2 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Guide to Reading (cont.) Reading Strategy Organizing As you read about the rise of corporations in the United States, complete a graphic organizer similar to the one on page 447 of your textbook to describe the steps large business owners took to weaken or eliminate competition. Analyze how large corporations came to dominate American business. Reading Objectives Evaluate how Andrew Carnegies innovations transformed the steel industry.

72 Section 3-3 Guide to Reading (cont.) Section Theme Economic Factors Large national corporations formed in the United States in the mid-1800s and contributed to greater production.

73 Section 3-4 Click the Speaker button to listen to the audio again.

74 Section 3-5 (pages 447–448) The Rise of Big Business Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. By 1900 big business dominated the economy of the United States. A corporation is an organization owned by many people but treated by law as though it was a single person. Stockholders, the people who own the corporation, own shares of ownership called stock. Issuing stock allows a corporation to raise large sums of money but spreads out the financial risk.

75 Section 3-6 From the sale of stock, corporations could invest in new technologies to increase their efficiency. By making goods quicker and cheaper, these corporations achieved economies of scale. All businesses have two kinds of costs. Fixed costs are the costs a company has to pay whether it is operating or not. Examples of fixed costs would be loans, mortgages, and taxes. The Rise of Big Business (cont.) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. (pages 447–448)

76 Section 3-7 Operating costs are costs that occur when a company is in operation. These costs include wages, shipping charges, and supplies. Big corporations had an advantage over small manufacturing companies. Big corporations could produce more cheaply, and they could continue to operate even in poor economic times by cutting prices to increase sales. Many small businesses with high operating costs were forced out of business. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. The Rise of Big Business (cont.) (pages 447–448)

77 Section 3-8 Why were large corporations able to thrive when so many small companies were forced out of business? Large corporations were able to produce more goods cheaply and more efficiently. They could continue in poor economic times, and they could negotiate rebates from railroads. Small businesses with high operating costs were unable to compete with large corporations and were forced out of business. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. The Rise of Big Business (cont.) (pages 447–448)

78 Section 3-9 (pages 448–450) The Consolidation of Industry Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Competition between corporate leaders caused lower prices for consumers, but it also cut business profits. To stop prices from falling, companies organized pools–agreements to keep prices at a certain level. Pools usually did not last long. As soon as one member cut prices, the pool broke apart. By the 1870s, competition had reduced industries to a few large, highly efficient corporations.

79 Section 3-10 Andrew Carnegie, a poor Scottish immigrant, worked his way up from a bobbin boy in a textile factory to the president of the Pennsylvania Railroad. He invested much of his money in railroad-related businesses and later owned his own business. He opened a steel company in 1875 and quickly adapted his steel mills to use the Bessemer process. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. (pages 448–450) The Consolidation of Industry (cont.)

80 Section 3-11 Carnegie began vertical integration of the steel industry. A vertically integrated company owns all the different businesses it depends on for its operation. This not only saved money but also made the big company bigger. Business leaders also pushed for horizontal integration, combining many firms doing the same type of business into one large corporation. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. (pages 448–450) The Consolidation of Industry (cont.)

81 Section 3-12 A monopoly occurs when one company gains control of an entire market. In the late 1800s, Americans became suspicious of large corporations and feared monopolies. Many states made it illegal for a company to own stock in another company without permission from the state legislature. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. (pages 448–450) The Consolidation of Industry (cont.)

82 Section 3-13 In 1882 Standard Oil formed the first trust, which merged businesses without violating laws against owning other companies. A trust allows a person to manage another persons property. A holding company did not produce anything itself. Instead, it owned the stock of companies that did produce goods. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. (pages 448–450) The Consolidation of Industry (cont.)

83 Section 3-14 The holding company controlled all the companies it owned, merging them all into one large enterprise. (pages 448–450) The Consolidation of Industry (cont.)

84 Section 3-15 Why did Americans fear monopolies? Americans feared monopolies because a company with a monopoly could charge whatever price it wanted for a product. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. (pages 448–450) The Consolidation of Industry (cont.)

85 Section 3-16 (page 451) Selling the Product Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Retailers looked for new ways to market and sell their goods. Advertising changed, with illustrations replacing small-type line ads. The department store changed the idea of shopping by bringing in a huge assortment of products in a large, glamorous building. Chain stores, like Woolworths, focused on offering low prices instead of special services or fancy decor.

86 Section 3-17 Mail-order catalogs were created to reach rural Americans. Montgomery Ward and Sears, Roebuck were the two largest catalog retailers. Selling the Product (cont.) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. (page 451)

87 Section 3-18 How did department stores change the idea of shopping? Department stores brought a huge assortment of products into one building. They made shopping seem glamorous and exciting. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Selling the Product (cont.) (page 451)

88 Section 3-19 Checking for Understanding __ 1.an organization that is authorized by law to carry on an activity but treated as though it were a single person __ 2.costs that occur while running a company __ 3.total control of a type of industry by one person or one company __ 4.costs a company must pay regardless of whether or not it is operating __ 5.the combining of competing firms into one corporation A.corporation B.horizontal integration C.fixed costs D.operating costs E.monopoly Define Match the terms on the right with their definitions on the left. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers. D E A C B

89 Section 3-20 Checking for Understanding (cont.) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. List the new methods of advertising and selling that helped push consumer goods in the late 1800s. New methods included large display ads in newspapers, department stores, chain stores, and mail-order catalogs.

90 Section 3-21 Reviewing Themes Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Economic Factors What factors allowed corporations to develop in the United States in the late 1800s? General incorporation laws allowed corporations to develop in the United States in the late 1800s.

91 Section 3-22 Critical Thinking Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Forming an Opinion Do you think an individual today can rise from rags to riches like Andrew Carnegie did? Why or why not? Answers will vary.

92 Section 3-23 Analyzing Visuals Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Analyzing Photographs Study the photograph on page 450 of your textbook of a woman using an early electric vacuum cleaner. How would you compare this to todays vacuum cleaners? How do you think new mass- produced appliances affected the lives of women in this era? Vacuums are lighter today. New mass produced appliances gave women more leisure time.

93 Section 3-24 Close Analyze how large corporations came to dominate American business.

94 End of Section 3

95 Section 4-1 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Guide to Reading In an attempt to improve their working conditions, industrial workers came together to form unions in the late 1800s. deflation Main Idea Key Terms and Names trade union industrial union blacklist lockout Marxism Knights of Labor arbitration injunction closed shop

96 Section 4-2 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Guide to Reading (cont.) Reading Strategy Sequencing As you read about the increase of American labor unions in the late 1800s, complete a time line similar to the one on page 454 of your textbook by filling in the incidents of labor unrest discussed and the results of each incident. Describe industrial working conditions in the United States in the late 1800s. Reading Objectives List the barriers to labor union growth.

97 Section 4-3 Guide to Reading (cont.) Section Theme Individual Action People like Samuel Gompers and Mother Jones strove to balance the power of corporations with the needs of workers.

98 Section 4-4 Click the Speaker button to listen to the audio again.

99 Section 4-5 (pages 454–455) Working in the United States Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Workers in industrial America faced monotonous work, dangerous working conditions, and an uneven division of income between the wealthy and the working class. Between 1865 and 1897, the United States experienced deflation, or a rise in the value of money. Relations between workers and employers were made more difficult by deflation.

100 Section 4-6 Deflation caused prices to fall and companies to cut wages. To the workers, it seemed their company wanted to pay them less for the same work. Workers felt the only way to improve their working environment was to organize unions. Working in the United States (cont.) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. (pages 454–455)

101 Section 4-7 How did deflation add to poor relations between workers and employers? Deflation caused prices to fall and increased the buying power of workers wages. Companies cut workers wages but prices fell even faster, so that wages were really still going up in buying power. Workers were angry, however, because they were being paid less for the same amount of work. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Working in the United States (cont.) (pages 454–455)

102 Section 4-8 (pages 455–456) Early Unions Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Two types of workers were a part of industrial America. Craft workers had special skills and were generally paid more. Common laborers had few skills and as a result received lower wages. In the 1830s, craft workers formed trade unions, which were unions limited to people with specific skills. By 1873 there were 32 trade unions in the United States.

103 Section 4-9 Employers opposed industrial unions, which united all craft workers and common laborers in a particular industry. Companies went to great lengths to prevent unions from forming. Companies would have workers take oaths or sign contracts promising not to join a union. They would also hire detectives to identify union organizers. Early Unions (cont.) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. (pages 455–456)

104 Section 4-10 Workers who organized a union or strike were fired and put on a blacklist–a list of troublemakers. Once blacklisted, a worker could get a job only by changing trade, residence, or his or her name. If a union was formed, companies used a lockout to break it. Workers went without pay and were locked out of the property. Early Unions (cont.) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. (pages 455–456)

105 Section 4-11 If the union did strike, employers would hire replacement workers called strikebreakers, also known as scabs. There were no laws that gave workers the right to organize. Marxism, the ideas of Karl Marx, was popular in Europe. Marx felt it was the class struggle between the workers and the owners that shaped society. He believed the workers would revolt and gain control. Early Unions (cont.) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. (pages 455–456)

106 Section 4-12 After the revolution, Marx believed a socialist society would be created in which the wealth was evenly divided, and classes would no longer exist. Many labor supporters agreed with Marxism, and some supported the idea of anarchism. Anarchists believed society did not need government and that a few acts of violence would cause the government to collapse. Early Unions (cont.) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. (pages 455–456)

107 Section 4-13 As ideas of Marxism and anarchism spread in Europe, tens of thousands of immigrants arrived in the United States. People began to associate Marxism and anarchism with immigrants. They became suspicious of unions as well. Early Unions (cont.) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. (pages 455–456)

108 Section 4-14 How did companies try to prevent unions from forming? Companies would have workers take oaths or sign contracts promising not to join a union. They would also hire detectives to identify union organizers. Workers who tried to organize a union were fired and placed on a blacklist. If workers formed a union, companies used a lockout to break it. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Early Unions (cont.) (pages 455–456)

109 Section 4-15 (pages 456–458) The Struggle to Organize Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Workers attempted to create large unions, but rarely succeeded. Many times confrontations between owners and government ended in violence. The Great Railroad strike of 1877 occurred after a severe recession in 1873 forced many companies to cut wages. The result was the first nationwide labor protest in Martinsburg, West Virginia, as workers walked off their jobs and blocked tracks.

110 Section 4-16 The strike spread until 80,000 railroad workers in 11 states stopped working. Violence erupted. President Hayes ordered the army to stop the strike. In the end, 100 people died and millions of dollars in property were lost. The failure of the great railroad strike led to a need for better organized laborers. The Struggle to Organize (cont.) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. (pages 456–458)

111 Section 4-17 By the late 1870s, the first nationwide industrial union called the Knights of Labor was formed. They demanded an eight-hour workday, a government bureau of labor statistics, equal pay for women, an end to child labor, and worker-owned factories. They supported arbitration, a process where an impartial third party helps mediate between workers and management. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. The Struggle to Organize (cont.) (pages 456–458)

112 Section 4-18 The Haymarket Riot caused the popularity of the Knights of Labor to decline. A nationwide strike was called to show support of an eight-hour workday. A clash in Chicago left one striker dead. The next evening, a meeting at Haymarket Square was scheduled to protest the killing. Someone threw a bomb. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. The Struggle to Organize (cont.) (pages 456–458)

113 Section 4-19 In the end, seven police and four more workers were killed. Although no one ever knew who threw the bomb, one man arrested was a member of the Knights of Labor. This hurt the reputation of the organization, and people began dropping out. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. The Struggle to Organize (cont.) (pages 456–458)

114 Section 4-20 In 1893 railroad workers created the American Railway Union (ARU). They unionized the Pullman Palace Car Company in Illinois. After a recession caused the company to cut wages, a boycott of Pullman cars occurred across the United States. It tied up the railroads and threatened the economy. To end the boycott, U.S. mail cars were attached to Pullman cars. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. The Struggle to Organize (cont.) (pages 456–458)

115 Section 4-21 Refusing to handle a Pullman car would result in tampering with the mail, a violation of federal law. After an injunction, or formal court order, stopped the boycott, the strike and the ARU both ended. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. The Struggle to Organize (cont.) (pages 456–458)

116 Section 4-22 What did the railroad managers do to break the union boycott of Pullman cars? They attached mail cars to the Pullman cars. If the strikers refused to handle the Pullman cars, they would be interfering with the United States mail. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. The Struggle to Organize (cont.) (pages 456–458)

117 The AFLs first leader was Samuel Gompers, whose plain and simple approach to labor relations helped unions become accepted. Gompers wanted to keep unions out of politics and to fight for small gains such as higher wages and better working conditions. Section 4-23 (pages 458–459) The American Federation of Labor Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. In 1886 delegates from over 20 of the nations trade unions organized the American Federation of Labor (AFL).

118 Section 4-24 Under Gomperss leadership, the AFL had three goals: to get companies to recognize unions and agree to collective bargaining; to push for closed shops, where companies could only hire union members; and to promote an eight-hour workday. By 1900 the AFL had over 500,000 members. The majority of workers, however, were still unorganized. The American Federation of Labor (cont.) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. (pages 458–459)

119 Section 4-25 What were some of Samuel Gomperss beliefs regarding unions? Gompers believed that unions should stay out of politics. He was against socialist and communist ideas, and he believed that the AFL should fight for small gains like higher wages and better working conditions. Although willing to use the strike, Gompers felt negotiation was better. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. The American Federation of Labor (cont.) (pages 458–459)

120 Section 4-26 (page 459) Working Women Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. By 1900 women made up more than 18 percent of the labor force. Women worked as domestic servants, teachers, nurses, sales clerks, and secretaries. Women were paid less than men. It was felt that men needed a higher wage because they needed to support a family. Most unions excluded women.

121 Section 4-27 A separate union for women was created by Mary Kenney OSullivan and Leonora OReilly. The Womens Trade Union League (WTUL) was the first national association dedicated to promoting womens labor issues. Working Women (cont.) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. (page 459)

122 Section 4-28 Why were women paid less than men were paid? It was assumed that a woman had a man who was supporting her. It was believed that men needed a higher wage because they had a family to support. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Working Women (cont.) (page 459)

123 Section 4-29 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers. Checking for Understanding __ 1.an agreement in which a company agrees to hire only union members __ 2.an organization of common laborers and craft workers in a particular industry __ 3.settling a dispute by agreeing to accept the decision of an impartial outsider __ 4.an organization of workers with the same trade or skill __ 5.a company tool to fight union demands by refusing to allow employees to enter its facilities to work A.trade union B.industrial union C.lockout D.arbitration E.closed shop Define Match the terms on the right with their definitions on the left. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers. B D E A C

124 Section 4-30 Checking for Understanding (cont.) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. List the groups of workers represented by the Knights of Labor and the American Federation of Labor. Industrial workers and trade workers were represented by the Knights of Labor and the American Federation of Labor.

125 Section 4-31 Reviewing Themes Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Individual Action What political contribution did Mary Harris Mother Jones make to American society? She became a key organizer for the United Mine Workers union.

126 Section 4-32 Critical Thinking Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Analyzing Why did early labor unions fail? Early labor unions failed because of confrontations that led to violence and courts that ruled against them. They fought for many things all at the same time, and frequent strikes and blacklisting hurt them.

127 Section 4-33 Analyzing Visuals Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Examining Photographs Examine the photograph at the top of page 459 of your textbook of workers in a watch factory. Most of the people in the picture are women. What do you think the jobs were of the men in the photograph? The men were probably managers or supervisors.

128 Section 4-34 Close Describe industrial working conditions in the United States in the late 1800s.

129 End of Section 4

130 Chapter Summary 1

131 End of Chapter Summary

132 Chapter Assessment 1 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers. Reviewing Key Terms Define Match the terms on the right with their definitions on the left. __ 1.a grant of land by the federal government especially for roads, railroads, or agricultural colleges __ 2.policy that government should interfere as little as possible in the nations economy __ 3. total control of a type of industry by one person or one company __ 4.settling a dispute by agreeing to accept the decision of an impartial outsider A.gross national product B.laissez-faire C.land grant D.economies of scale E.fixed costs F.monopoly G.trust H.holding company I.arbitration J.Marxism B F C I

133 Chapter Assessment 2 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers. Reviewing Key Terms (cont.) Define Match the terms on the right with their definitions on the left. __ 5.the reduction in the cost of a good brought about especially by increased production at a given facility __ 6.a combination of firms or corporations formed by a legal agreement, especially to reduce competition __ 7.theory of socialism in which a class struggle would exist until the workers were finally victorious, creating a classless society G J D A.gross national product B.laissez-faire C.land grant D.economies of scale E.fixed costs F.monopoly G.trust H.holding company I.arbitration J.Marxism

134 Chapter Assessment 3 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers. Reviewing Key Terms (cont.) Define Match the terms on the right with their definitions on the left. __ 8.the total value of goods and services produced by a country during a year __ 9.costs a company must pay regardless of whether or not it is operating __ 10.a company whose primary business is owning a controlling share of stock in other companies E H A A.gross national product B.laissez-faire C.land grant D.economies of scale E.fixed costs F.monopoly G.trust H.holding company I.arbitration J.Marxism

135 Chapter Assessment 4 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Reviewing Key Facts The United States had an advantage in industrializing due to its resources and large workforce. What resources did the nation have? Why was its workforce large? The nation had iron ore, water, copper, coal, and timber. Its workforce was large due to large families and floods of immigrants.

136 Chapter Assessment 5 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Reviewing Key Facts (cont.) How did inventions contribute to economic growth in the United States in the late 1800s? Inventions helped increase the nations productive capacity and improved transportation and communication.

137 Chapter Assessment 6 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Reviewing Key Facts (cont.) How did the federal government encourage railroad companies to construct railroads? The government offered land grants.

138 Chapter Assessment 7 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Reviewing Key Facts (cont.) What new methods of selling products were developed in the late 1800s? Large display advertisements in newspapers, department stores, chain stores, and mail-order catalogs were used.

139 Chapter Assessment 8 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Reviewing Key Facts (cont.) Why did workers try to organize labor unions in the United States in the late 1800s? Workers tried to change poor working conditions, low pay, and job security.

140 Chapter Assessment 9 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Reviewing Key Facts (cont.) What were the two basic types of workers in American industry at this time? Craft workers and common laborers were the two basic types of workers.

141 Chapter Assessment 10 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Critical Thinking Analyzing Themes: Individual Action List the names and actions of five people who contributed to American economic growth in the late 1800s. Answers will vary.

142 Chapter Assessment 11 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Critical Thinking (cont.) Analyzing Analyze the impact of technological innovations and industrialization on the American labor movement. Inventions such as electric power and the automatic loom led to large manufacturing companies and industrialization but created a host of challenges for workers, such as harsh working conditions. This led workers to unite and join labor unions.

143 Chapter Assessment 12 Economics and History The graph below shows steel production from 1865 to Study the graph and answer the questions on the following slides.

144 Chapter Assessment 13 Interpreting Graphs Between what years did steel production have the greatest increase? The greatest increase occurred between 1895 and Economics and History (cont.) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.

145 Chapter Assessment 14 Economics and History (cont.) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Making Inferences How did increased steel production contribute to American industrialism? Increased steel production allowed railroads to be built, improving transportation and benefiting industry.

146 Chapter Assessment 15 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Directions: Choose the best answer to the following question. Labor unions were formed for all of these reasons except: FTo improve workers wages GTo protect factory owners from being sued HTo make factories safer JTo prevent children from working long hours Test-Taking Tip If a question used the word except, you need to look for the answer that does not fit. Remember that unions were formed to try to help workers. Which answer is least likely to help workers?

147 End of Chapter Assessment

148 History Online Explore online information about the topics introduced in this chapter. Click on the Connect button to launch your browser and go to The American Vision Web site. At this site, you will find interactive activities, current events information, and Web sites correlated with the chapters and units in the textbook. When you finish exploring, exit the browser program to return to this presentation. If you experience difficulty connecting to the Web site, manually launch your Web browser and go to

149 F/F/F 3-Fact The New York Stock Exchange In 1792 business-people met in New York City to establish a stock exchange–a marketplace for buying and selling stock in companies. At first, the new stock exchange was located under a buttonwood tree on Wall Street. The organization took its present name, the New York Stock Exchange, in Huge amounts of the capital required for the nations industrialization after the Civil War passed through the New York Stock Exchange. As stock trading grew, investors from across the nation needed financial news. In 1882 Henry Charles Dow and Edward D. Jones founded Dow Jones & Company. This new company sent bulletins on the days business to Wall Streets financial houses. The days last delivery contained a news sheet, which became The Wall Street Journal in July Today, The Wall Street Journal has the largest daily circulation of any newspaper in the United States.

150 FYI Contents 3 Carnegie Steel OPEC Click on a hyperlink to view the corresponding slide.

151 FYI 3-1a In 1898, although Carnegie Steels output had risen threefold over the previous few years, the number of workers needed to produce the steel had decreased by 400. The use of electricity to drive automatic machinery was largely responsible for the decline in the workforce.

152 FYI 3-2b Today the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) tries to maintain stability in the oil industry to ensure profits. This is called a cartel. Since 1970 OPEC has controlled approximately one-third to one-half of the worlds oil supply. In 2001 member nations included Algeria, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Libya, Nigeria, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates, and Venezuela.

153 FYI 4-1 A century after the railroad strike of 1877, another group of transportation workers, air traffic controllers, went on strike demanding higher wages and fewer working hours. In August 1981, over 11,000 striking air traffic controllers were fired.

154 Moment in History 1 Click the Speaker button to listen to the audio again.

155 You Dont Say 2-1 Time Tales Opponents of standard time called local time Gods time because it was based on the laws of nature–the suns position in the sky. Not until 1918 was Congress able to pass a law that standardized time zones.

156 You Dont Say 4-1 Hard Work Strict rules were enforced in the workplace in the late 1800s. Many bosses forbade singing, drinking, joking, smoking, or conversation on the job. They also denied immigrant workers time to celebrate their national holidays and holy days, and they did not accommodate workers who did not want to work on the Sabbath.

157 CT Skill Builder 1 Making Inferences Just as you are about to leave home to catch your school bus, you hear a radio report. Firefighters are battling a blaze near the bus garage. Your bus is late. Although no one told you, you know that the fire disrupted the bus schedule. You have made an inference. From the limited facts available, you formed a conclusion. By combining facts and general knowledge, you inferred that the fire trucks delayed your bus. Click the Speaker button to listen to the audio again.

158 CT Skill Builder 2 Learning the Skill Learning how to make inferences will help you draw conclusions about particular situations. To make accurate inferences, follow these steps: Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Making Inferences Read or listen carefully for stated facts and ideas. Review what you already know about the same topic or situation. Use logic and common sense to form a conclusion about the topic. If possible, find information that proves or disproves your inference.

159 CT Skill Builder 3 Practicing the Skill Read the passage on the next slide about early airplanes, and then answer the questions on the following slides. Making Inferences

160 CT Skill Builder 4 Practicing the Skill (cont.) On December 8, 1903, Samuel Langley was ready for his second attempt at flying a manned, self-propelled aircraft. This had never been done before. Langley used a $50,000 U.S. government grant to build a plane based on unmanned aircraft designs, adding a very powerful engine. The plane broke apart on takeoff and crashed into the Potomac River. In contrast, Wilbur and Orville Wright used a little more than $1,000 of their personal savings to build their aircraft. The brothers carefully studied the problems with previous planes and designed one with better wings, a more efficient propeller, and a strong but light engine. On December 17, 1903, these intrepid Americans made the first manned, powered flight in history on the sand dunes of Kitty Hawk, North Carolina. Making Inferences

161 1.What are the facts regarding Langleys attempt? 2.What are the facts regarding the Wright brothers attempt? CT Skill Builder 5 Langley used government money and unmanned aircraft designs and failed. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers. The Wright brothers created new designs with little money and were successful. Making Inferences Practicing the Skill (cont.)

162 CT Skill Builder 6 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. 3.What inferences might you draw based in the success of the Wright brothers and failure of Langley? Answers will vary. Making Inferences Practicing the Skill (cont.)

163 TAV Video 1 Building America Objectives Click in the small window above to show a preview of The American Vision video. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Recognize that the railroad barons were brilliant entrepreneurs who were willing to take risks. Understand that some people also characterized the railroad barons as greedy and ruthless. Acknowledge the contributions of the many laborers who worked on the railroads. After viewing Building America, you should:

164 TAV Video 2 Discussion Questions Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Why were the railroad barons sometimes called robber barons? The term was used in reference to what was viewed as the greed and ruthless business practices of these industrialists. Building America

165 TAV Video 3 Discussion Questions Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. What two railroad companies built the Transcontinental Railroad? The Central Pacific and the Union Pacific Railroads joined forces to complete the project. Building America

166 M/C 1-1

167 M/C 2-1 Railroads, 1870 and 1890 Miles of Track, Click on a hyperlink to view the corresponding slide.

168 M/C 2-1a

169 M/C 2-2b

170 M/C 3-1

171 M/C 4-1

172 Why It Matters Transparency

173 Daily Focus Skills Transparency 1 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.

174 Daily Focus Skills Transparency 2 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.

175 Daily Focus Skills Transparency 3 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.

176 Daily Focus Skills Transparency 4 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.

177 End of Custom Shows WARNING! Do Not Remove This slide is intentionally blank and is set to auto-advance to end custom shows and return to the main presentation.

178 End of Slide Show


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