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From The American Pageant Textbook

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1 From The American Pageant Textbook
Us History Lesson 1 From The American Pageant Textbook By: Penny Wood Buckhorn High School

2 In this Lesson Ice Age - Treaty of Tordesillas

3 Key Terms… 1. Ice Age 2. Land Bridge 8. Renaissance
9. Prince Henry the Navigator 10. Slave Trade 11. Marco Polo 12. Conquistadors 13. Encomienda 14. Three G’s 15. Treaty of Tordesillas 1. Ice Age 2. Land Bridge 3. Maize Culture 4. Mound Builders 5. Iroquois Confederac y 6. Norse Seafarers 7. Spice Trade

4 Ice Age The eternal question - “How did we get here?”
About 10,000 years ago the ice melted from the Great Ice Age Before that time people traveled across the ice following herds of animals and/or looking for better places to live

5 Ice Age Ice covered 1/3 of the Earth We are living in a mini ice age
Recent evidence suggests that land in South Africa around Cape Town was one of the habitable places on earth and human population may have dropped to about 10,000 people

6 Land Bridge The ice bridge created in the Bering Straight between Siberia and Alaska “So easy a caveman could do it.”

7 Maize Culture Maize = corn Very plentiful and easy to grow
Supported nearly every Native American civilization Some people worshiped it - Aztecs Eventually Three Sister Farming would develop: corn, beans, squash

8 Maize Culture

9 Mound Builders Known as the Mississippian culture that flourished in the Midwestern, Eastern, and Southeastern United States from approximately 800 C.E. to 1500 C.E. Known for their construction of pyramid mounds, or platform mounds. Structures (domestic houses, temples, burial buildings, or other) were usually constructed atop these mounds.

10 Ancient Employment Office

11 Iroquois Confederacy Five tribes that joined together under the leadership of Hiawatha Represents one of the few confederacies of Native Americans in the New World who would have some influence upon politics

12 Norse Seafarers Eric the Red - banished for manslaughter and founded settlement at Greenland Leif Ericsson - started settlement in Newfoundland called Vinland No lasting settlement

13 Norse Seafarers

14 Spice Trade Developed after the Crusades - set of Wars started by Popes and Kings to reclaim the Holy Land of Jerusalem from the Muslims Only one Crusade was successful People though continued to travel to Middle East for spices

15 Spice Trade

16 Renaissance Means “rebirth”
With trade and travel to the Middle East, learning increased Muslims had preserved some learning from the Roman Empire, which had its last stronghold in modern day Turkey at Byzantium

17 Roman Emperor Valens’ Aqueduct in Turkey

18 Marco Polo European trader who traveled to the Far East in search of spices, silk and other products Marco, like many explorers, tended to get lost a lot. One time he was lost in the desert and he thought his family was yelling his first name, “Marco.” He went around the desert yelling back “Polo.” This is where we get that game we play sometimes. In reality, Marco was simply hallucinating. He traveled as far as China

19 Marco Polo?

20 Prince Henry The Navigator
Prince of Portugal who started a sailing school Mapped the coast of Africa Had much of his crew desert him because of fears of the “Sea of Darkness” Rebirth of learning during the Renaissance brought new knowledge of shipping to Europe

21 Prince Henry The Navigator

22 Slave Trade Prince Henry had some captives from one of his voyages, so he sold them, starting the slave trade for Portugal Until 1600 mostly the Portuguese and Spanish traded slaves

23 Encomienda A plantation farming system used by the Spanish.
The idea was to make a self- sustaining plantation Plantation owners were allowed to take Indian natives as laborers in exchange for Christianizing them Really just another form of slavery

24 Conquistadors During the 8th century, Spain was conquered by the Muslims Two great landowning families, The Aragons and Castilles, united through the marriage of their children, Ferdinand and Isabella and drove out the Muslims out of Spain with their armies The soldiers remained and needed a new conquest...and the New World Awaited - Most explorers are former Spanish soldiers called “Conquistadors” or conquerors

25 Three G’s There were three reasons people traveled to the New World

26 Treaty of Tordesillas Competition between Portugal and Spain for the New World led to many conflicts The Pope finally made both nations sit down and agree to a treaty The Pope divided the New World by drawing a line on the map with Spain receiving the territory west of the line

27 Columbian Exchange Exchange of goods between Old and New Worlds

28 Columbian Exchange Effects
Many new foods for both Old and New Worlds Old World Diseases devastated Native American Populations (Small Pox, Flu) Lots of precious metals go to Old World raising prices and creating inflation, but also funding colonies

29 Lessons Learned/Big Ideas
Weather conditions and hunger led to the migration of people to North America during the Ice Age Desire for trade led people to leave everything they had ever known and travel into an unknown sea People are still moving for opportunity but sometimes, “wherever we go, there we are”

30 3 - 2 - 1 See if you can recall from memory 3 key (underlined terms)
2 fun facts 1 lesson from this presentation

31 US History Lesson 2: Explorers of the New World
From The American Pageant Textbook

32 Key Terms… 10. Northwest Passage 1. Christopher Columbus
2. Hernando de Soto 3. Marco Polo 4. Francisco Coronado 5. Hernando Cortes 6. Aztec Empire 7. Francisco Pizarro 8. Incan Empire 9. John Cabot 10. Northwest Passage 11. Giovanni Verrazano 12. Jacques Cartier 13. Robert la Salle 14. Spanish Armada 15. Bartolome De Las Casas 16. Black Legend 17. Pope’s Rebellion

33 Christopher Columbus Tried for 6 years to get permission from Queen Isabella to find a western route to Asia Thought it was only 2400 miles to Asia when in fact it was 10,000 Stopped judicial proceedings against criminals to try and recruit people to go on the first voyage...only 4 volunteered Landed at Hispaniola; but never set foot on North America Allowed a boy to steer the Santa Maria one night and it crashed into a reef and sank

34 Christopher Columbus

35 Hernando de Soto Born to middle class parents, he started sailing at 14 to the West Indies Explored the Southeast US for Spain - Alabama, Florida, Arkansas First European to see the Mississippi Died at 56 from a fever

36 Hernando de Soto

37 Ponce de Leon Searched for the legendary Fountain of Youth in modern day Florida Named Florida which means flowers Forced to step down from power because of his treatment of natives Died from a poison arrow

38 Ponce de Leon

39 Francisco Coronado Searched for the legendary Seven Cities of Gold
Explored the Southwest US Also claimed to see the Mississippi River first along with De Soto

40 Francisco Coronado

41 Hernando Cortes Sold and mortgaged all his lands to travel west but was not allowed to build colonies because the Spanish lords thought he was too ambitious Landed in Mexico City and went along with the idea that he was the “white skinned” god the people had been waiting for With the help of small pox and his interpreter Malinche, Cortes conquered the Aztecs, but the Spanish send soldiers to take him out of power because he had abused his power He ended up leaving Mexico City and chasing a man who had betrayed him When he returned, his city was out of control, and he died shortly thereafter as a bitter man He left many children he had with Native American women, a new class the Spanish called Mestizos

42 Hernando Cortes and Aztec King Montezuma

43 Aztec Empire Beautiful, vibrant cities with populations of between 5 and 11 million Sophisticated calendars for planting and for keeping time Practiced human sacrifice believing that blood fed the gods Ate the bodies of the enemies killed in battle Sometimes sold children into slavery Did not allow poor to wear clothes of the rich; punishment was demolishing the poor person’s house

44 Aztec Empire

45 Francisco Pizarro Cousin of Cortes
Conquered the Incan Empire and took $8 million in treasure Diego De Almagro was his partner in exploring South America, but Pizarro took all the credit from the Spanish government A civil war took place between Almagro and Pizarro which ultimately led to Pizarro’s assassination

46 Francisco Pizarro

47 Incan Empire Had over 18,000 miles of roads
Believed in reincarnation Used a form of concrete to construct buildings in which rocks are so close that nothing can fit between them Used canals and ditches to irrigate their crops in Peru Used tests to decide if a person should learn a trade or sent to school to become administrators or part of the nobility Had over 18,000 miles of roads Had a postal system where postmen ran across rope bridges to deliver communications to the next team.  Did skull surgeries successfully Used knotted and colored strings, a ‘quipu’ for  records, math and possibly even language

48 Incan Empire

49 John Cabot Born in Italy, Giovanni Caboto moved to Bristol, England with his family where he asked the King Henry VII to fund an expedition to find the Northwest Passage to India After a couple of failed expeditions, he was the second European after the Vikings to land in northern Canada Died on another sea voyage in 1500

50 John Cabot

51 Northwest Passage A route to the west through the many archipelagos North of Canada Finally navigated by Roald Amundsen from

52 Giovanni Verrazano Explored the east coast of NorthAmerica for the King of France From New York to Florida After sailing past Florida, he sailed south toward Jamaica. He decided to land on an island in the area. He and a small crew left the ship to explore but was soon attacked by cannibals and eaten as the rest of the crew watched from the ship, unable to help.

53 Jacques Cartier Sailed Up the Mouth of the St. Lawrence River for France Made three voyages to the New World and made friends with the Huron Indians Published his findings when he returned home after his third voyage

54 Robert De La Salle Sailed down the Mississippi River for France claiming the whole region for their King Louis and naming the area "Louisiana" after his king. His last mission was to invade Mexico and conquer that territory held by Spain. He was killed on this mission by the Spanish.

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