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1 Welcome to Presentation Plus!
Presentation Plus! The American Vision Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Developed by FSCreations, Inc., Cincinnati, Ohio Send all inquiries to: GLENCOE DIVISION Glencoe/McGraw-Hill 8787 Orion Place Columbus, Ohio Welcome to Presentation Plus!

2 Splash Screen

3 Click on a hyperlink to view the corresponding slides.
Chapter Introduction Section 1 Truman and Eisenhower Section 2 The Affluent Society Section 3 Popular Culture of the 1950s Section 4 The Other Side of American Life Chapter Summary Chapter Assessment Click on a hyperlink to view the corresponding slides. Contents

4 Click the Speaker button to listen to the audio again.
Intro 1

5 Chapter Objectives Section 1: Truman and Eisenhower
Explain the Truman administration’s efforts on the domestic front.  Describe President Eisenhower’s domestic agenda. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Intro 2

6 Chapter Objectives Section 2: The Affluent Society
Explain the reasons for and the effects of the nation’s economic boom.  Describe changes to the American family that took place during the 1950s. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Intro 3

7 Chapter Objectives Section 3: Popular Culture of the 1950s
Explain the characteristics of the new youth culture.  Discuss the contributions of African Americans to 1950s culture. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Intro 4

8 Chapter Objectives Section 4: The Other Side of American Life
Identify those groups that found themselves left out of the American economic boom following World War II.  Explain the factors that contributed to the poverty among various groups. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Intro 5

9 Why It Matters After World War II, the country enjoyed a period of economic prosperity. Many more Americans could now aspire to a middle-class lifestyle, with a house in the suburbs and more leisure time. Television became a favorite form of entertainment. This general prosperity, however, did not extend to many Hispanics, African Americans, Native Americans, or people in Appalachia. Intro 7

10 The Impact Today The effects of this era can still be seen. 
The middle class represents a large segment of the American population.  •  Television is a popular form of entertainment for many Americans. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Intro 8

11 continued on next slide
Intro 9

12 Intro 10

13 End of Intro

14 Guide to Reading Main Idea Key Terms and Names
After World War II, the Truman and Eisenhower administrations set out to help the nation adjust to peacetime.  Key Terms and Names GI Bill  “Do-Nothing Congress”  Fair Deal  dynamic conservatism  Federal Highway Act closed shop  right-to-work law  union shop  featherbedding  Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 1-1

15 Guide to Reading (cont.)
Reading Strategy Categorizing As you read about the Truman and Eisenhower administrations, complete a graphic organizer similar to the one on page 808 of your textbook by listing the characteristics of the postwar economy of the United States.  Reading Objectives Explain the Truman administration’s efforts on the domestic front.  Describe President Eisenhower’s domestic agenda. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 1-2

16 Guide to Reading (cont.)
Section Theme Economic Factors Following World War II, the federal government supported programs that helped the economy make the transition to peacetime production. Section 1-3

17 Click the Speaker button to listen to the audio again.
Section 1-4

18 Return to a Peacetime Economy
The U.S. economy continued to grow after World War II because of increased consumer spending.  The Servicemen’s Readjustment Act, also called the GI Bill, helped the economy by providing loans to veterans to attend college, set up businesses, and buy homes.  Increased spending led to higher prices for goods, which then led to rising inflation. (pages 808–809) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 1-5

19 Return to a Peacetime Economy (cont.)
Workers went on strike for increased wages.  President Truman, fearing an energy shortage, forced miners to return to work after a month-long strike.  In 1946 Americans interested in change elected Republicans in both houses of Congress.  Congress, wanting to cut the power of organized labor, proposed the Taft-Hartley Act. (pages 808–809) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 1-6

20 Return to a Peacetime Economy (cont.)
This act outlawed the closed shop, or the practice of forcing business owners to hire only union members.  States could pass right-to-work laws outlawing union shops, or shops where new workers were required to join the union.  The act also prohibited featherbedding, the limiting of work output in order to create more jobs.  Although Truman vetoed the Taft-Hartley Act, Congress passed it in 1947. (pages 808–809) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 1-7

21 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
Return to a Peacetime Economy (cont.) How did the Taft-Hartley Act limit the powers of organized labor? This act outlawed the closed shop, or the practice of forcing business owners to hire only union members. States could pass right-to-work laws outlawing union shops, or shops where new workers were required to join the union. The act also prohibited featherbedding, the limiting of work output in order to create more jobs. (pages 808–809) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Section 1-8

22 Truman’s Domestic Program
President Truman tried to push many domestic measures through Congress.  Some of Truman’s many proposals included the expansion of Social Security benefits, raising the minimum wage from 40 to 75 cents an hour, and a broad civil rights bill protecting African Americans.  His proposals met with little success with Republicans and conservative Southern Democrats. (pages 809–811) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 1-9

23 Truman’s Domestic Program (cont.)
As the election of 1948 approached, it looked as if Truman would not be reelected.  During his campaign, Truman made speeches that criticized a “Do-Nothing Congress,” because it had not enacted any of his legislative proposals.  Truman won the election, and the Democratic Party also made a comeback, regaining control of both houses of Congress. (pages 809–811) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 1-10

24 Truman’s Domestic Program (cont.)
Truman’s domestic agenda was coined the Fair Deal.  He put forth in his State of the Union message that Americans had the right to expect a fair deal from their government.  Congress did not support all of Truman’s ideas. While the minimum wage was increased and the Social Security system expanded, Congress refused to pass national health insurance or to enact civil rights legislation. (pages 809–811) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 1-11

25 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
Truman’s Domestic Program (cont.) What was Truman’s Fair Deal? Truman’s Fair Deal was a series of domestic measures that sought to further the work done as part of Roosevelt’s New Deal. The Fair Deal measures included the following proposals: the expansion of Social Security benefits, the raising of the legal minimum wage, a program to ensure full employment through aggressive use of federal spending and investment, public housing and slum clearance, long-range environmental and public works planning, a system of national health insurance, and a civil rights bill. (pages 809–811) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Section 1-13

26 The Eisenhower Years With the United States at war in Korea, Truman’s Fair Deal faded, as did his approval rating.  He chose not to run for reelection.  The Republican candidate, Dwight Eisenhower ran with the slogan, “It’s time for a change!”  He promised to end the Korean War.  Eisenhower won in a landslide with his running mate, California senator Richard Nixon. (pages 811–813) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 1-14

27 The Eisenhower Years (cont.)
President Eisenhower’s political beliefs were self-described as midway between conservative and liberal.  He referred to the idea of “dynamic conservatism,” or the balancing of economic conservatism with some activism.  On the conservative side, Eisenhower ended government price and rent controls, vetoed a school construction bill, and cut aid for public housing while also supporting some tax reductions. (pages 811–813) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 1-15

28 The Eisenhower Years (cont.)
As an activist, Eisenhower pushed for the passage of the Federal Highway Act, which provided $25 billion for a 10-year project to construct 40,000 miles of interstate highways.  As the number of American car owners increased, this act was necessary to provide for more efficient travel routes.  Eisenhower also authorized the construction of the Great Lakes-St. Lawrence Seaway. (pages 811–813) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 1-16

29 The Eisenhower Years (cont.)
Three previous presidents had failed at reaching an agreement with Canada to build this American-Canadian waterway aiding international shipping.  As Eisenhower easily won his second run for the presidency in 1956, America transitioned from a wartime to a peacetime economy.  Americans focused their energy on a decade of tremendous prosperity. (pages 811–813) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 1-16

30 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
The Eisenhower Years (cont.) Why was Richard Nixon almost dropped from the Republican ticket? It was reported that Nixon had received gifts of $18,000 as a senator. In a radio broadcast, Nixon insisted the money had been used for legitimate political purposes. (pages 811–813) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Section 1-17

31 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers.
Checking for Understanding Define Match the terms on the right with their definitions on the left. __ 1. a law making it illegal to require employees to join a union __ 2. practice of limiting work output in order to create more jobs __ 3. an agreement in which a company agrees to hire only union members __ 4. policy of balancing economic conservatism with some activism __ 5. a business that requires employees to join a union B A. closed shop B. right-to-work law C. union shop D. featherbedding E. dynamic conservatism D A E C Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers. Section 1-23

32 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
Reviewing Themes Economic Factors How did President Eisenhower aid international shipping during his administration? He authorized the Great Lakes-St. Lawrence Seaway, which connected the Great Lakes with the Atlantic Ocean. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Section 1-25

33 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
Critical Thinking Interpreting In what ways did the Taft-Hartley Act hurt labor unions? It outlawed closed shops, allowed states to outlaw union shops, and prohibited featherbedding. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Section 1-26

34 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
Analyzing Visuals Analyzing Maps Study the map on page 811 of your textbook. Which parts of the country did Dewey win? Why do you think he did so well in these areas? Dewey won in the Northeast and Great Plains. He was the governor of New York, and strong in traditional Republican areas. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Section 1-28

35 Close Describe President Eisenhower’s domestic agenda. Section 1-29

36 End of Section 1

37 Guide to Reading Main Idea Key Terms and Names
The postwar economic boom brought great changes to society, including the ways many Americans worked and lived.  Key Terms and Names John Kenneth Galbraith  franchise  David Riesman  Levittown  baby boom  Jonas Salk white-collar  blue-collar  multinational corporation  Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 2-1

38 Guide to Reading (cont.)
Reading Strategy Sequencing As you read about American society in 1950s, complete a time line similar to the one on page 814 of your textbook by recoding the scientific and technological breakthroughs of the time.  Reading Objectives Explain the reasons for and the effects of the nation’s economic boom.  Describe changes to the American family that took place during the 1950s. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 2-2

39 Guide to Reading (cont.)
Section Theme Continuity and Change Americans became avid consumers in the atmosphere of postwar abundance. Section 2-3

40 Click the Speaker button to listen to the audio again.
Section 2-4

41 American Abundance In 1958 economist John Kenneth Galbraith published The Affluent Society, in which he claimed that the United States and some other industrialized nations had created an “economy of abundance.”  New business techniques and improved technology had produced a standard of living never before thought possible. (pages 814–816) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 2-5

42 American Abundance (cont.)
As the mechanization of farms and factories increased, many Americans began working in white-collar jobs, such as sales and management.  In 1956, for the first time, white-collar workers outnumbered blue-collar workers–people who perform physical labor in industry.  White-collar employees generally worked for large corporations, some of which expanded into overseas corporations. (pages 814–816) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 2-6

43 American Abundance (cont.)
Multinational corporations were located close to important raw materials and used cheaper labor forces, making them more competitive.  The 1950s also had an increase in franchises, in which a person owns and operates one or several stores of a chain operation.  Cooperate leaders wanted employees who could conform to company standards. (pages 814–816) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 2-7

44 American Abundance (cont.)
In the 1950s book The Lonely Crowd, sociologist David Riesman argued that the “inner-directed” man was giving way to the “other-directed” man, with concerns regarding company approval outweighing personal values.  The rise in luxury products led to the growth of more sophisticated advertising.  The advertising industry became the fastest-growing industry in the United States, using new marketing techniques to sell products. (pages 814–816) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 2-8

45 American Abundance (cont.)
Levittown, New York, one of the country’s earliest suburbs, was a mass-produced residential community spearheaded by Bill Levitt.  Between 1947 and 1951, other Levittown-type communities were built all over the United States.  The suburbs came to symbolize the American dream, while others saw it as another example of American conformity. (pages 814–816) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 2-8

46 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
American Abundance (cont.) What evidence supported John Kenneth Galbraith’s idea of an “economy of abundance?” Between 1940 and 1955, personal income for many American’s almost tripled. Americans produced more than they could use, and there was a huge increase in the number of homeowners. (pages 814–816) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Section 2-9

47 The 1950s Family The 1950s changed the American family as families grew larger and women entered the workforce.  The period between 1945 and is known as the baby boom, in which more than 65 million children were born in the United States.  Many young couples had delayed marriage until after the war and were now ready to marry and begin a family. (pages 816–817) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 2-10

48 The 1950s Family (cont.) Other factors in this boom were the GI benefits that encouraged the growth of families, and television and magazines promoting pregnancy and large families.  In the 1950s, although many women were expected to remain at home, the number of women who held jobs outside the home increased. (pages 816–817) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 2-11

49 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
The 1950s Family (cont.) Why did the American birthrate explode after World War II? Many young couples had delayed marriage until after the war and were now ready to marry and begin a family. Other factors in this boom were the GI benefits that encouraged the growth of families, and television and magazines promoting pregnancy and large families. (pages 816–817) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Section 2-13

50 Technological Breakthroughs
In 1946 scientists working for the United States Army developed one of the earliest computers.  It was called ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer), and it made military calculations.  Later, a newer model called UNIVAC (Universal Automatic Computer) could handle business data and led to the computer revolution. (pages 817–819) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 2-14

51 Technological Breakthroughs (cont.)
In the 1950s, there were many medical breakthroughs such as the development of antibiotics; new drugs for arthritis, diabetes, cancer, and heart disease; and advances in surgical techniques.  Polio epidemics swept the nation in the 1940s and 1950s.  Jonas Salk developed an injectable vaccine that prevented polio. (pages 817–819) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 2-15

52 Technological Breakthroughs (cont.)
New cases of polio declined dramatically. American scientist Albert Sabin later developed an oral vaccine for polio, causing the threat of polio to disappear in the United States. (pages 817–819) Section 2-16

53 Technological Breakthroughs (cont.)
The Soviet Union launched the world’s first space satellite, Sputnik, in October  The United States launched its own satellite in January  American engineers were making commercial planes smoother and faster. (pages 817–819) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 2-16a

54 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
Technological Breakthroughs (cont.) Why did American families in the 1950s have increased free time? The computer and improvements in communication and transportation systems allowed many Americans to work more quickly and efficiently. (pages 817–819) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Section 2-17

55 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers.
Checking for Understanding Define Match the terms on the right with their definitions on the left. __ 1. jobs in the manual labor field, particularly those requiring protective clothing __ 2. the right or license to market a company’s goods or services in an area, such as a store of a chain operation __ 3. a marked rise in birthrate, such as occurred in the United States following World War II __ 4. jobs in fields not requiring work clothes or protective clothing, such as sales __ 5. large corporations with overseas investments B A. white-collar B. blue-collar C. multi-national corporation D. franchise E. baby boom D E A C Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers. Section 2-19

56 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
Checking for Understanding (cont.) Describe how and why the suburbs became popular places to live. Government programs made homeownership more affordable and improved construction made houses cheaper. Some people wanted to escape urban problems or increase their standard of living. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Section 2-20

57 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
Reviewing Themes Continuity and Change How was the affluent society of the United States in the 1950s different from previous decades? All segments of American society showed measurable economic improvement. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Section 2-21

58 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
Critical Thinking Interpreting What caused the advertising industry to boom in the 1950s? Increased product mass production generated new emphasis on higher sales of consumer goods. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Section 2-22

59 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
Analyzing Visuals Analyzing Photographs Study the photograph on page 818 of your textbook of children suffering from polio. What do you think it was like to live in such an environment? Do Americans today face similar medical fears? Possible answer: It must have been depressing and frustrating both for the patients and the people treating them. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Section 2-24

60 Close Describe changes in the American family that took place during the 1950s. Section 2-25

61 End of Section 2

62 Guide to Reading Main Idea Key Terms and Names
During the carefree and prosperous 1950s, Americans turned to television, new forms of music, cinema, and literature to entertain themselves.  Key Terms and Names Ed Sullivan  generation gap  Jack Kerouac  Little Richard Alan Freed  Elvis Presley  Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 3-1

63 Guide to Reading (cont.)
Reading Strategy Categorizing As you read about the popular culture of the 1950s, complete a graphic organizer similar to the one on page 820 of your textbook comparing new forms of mass media during the 1950s.  Reading Objectives Explain the characteristics of the new youth culture.  Discuss the contributions of African Americans to 1950s culture. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 3-2

64 Guide to Reading (cont.)
Section Theme Culture and Traditions The 1950s added such elements as rock ’n’ roll music and sitcom television to modern culture. Section 3-3

65 Click the Speaker button to listen to the audio again.
Section 3-4

66 The New Mass Media The popularity of television increased as it became more affordable for consumers.  In 1946 there were 7,000 to 8,000 television sets in the United States.  By 1957 there were 40 million television sets.  In the late 1950s, the television news became an important source of information.  Advertising and sporting events became more common. (pages 820–823) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 3-5

67 The New Mass Media (cont.)
Television shows fell into the categories of comedy, action and adventure, variety-style entertainment, and quiz shows.  Ed Sullivan’s variety show Toast of the Town provided a mix of comedy, popular song, dance, and acrobatics.  In 1956 the quiz show Twenty-One caused an uproar after it was discovered that many of the show’s contestants were given the answers prior to the show. (pages 820–823) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 3-6

68 The New Mass Media (cont.)
With the increase in television viewing, the movie industry lost viewers.  Moviemakers tried several ways to lure people away from their television sets, including the use of 3-D glasses and cinemascope.  Movie roles for women were stereotypical, often dealing with marriage or the hope of marriage.  Roles for African Americans were often stereotypical or one-dimensional. (pages 820–823) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 3-7

69 The New Mass Media (cont.)
Radio had to find ways to get television viewers to listen again.  Recorded music, news, talk shows, weather, public-service programming, and shows for specific audiences were all used to encourage people to turn on their radios. (pages 820–823) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 3-7

70 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
The New Mass Media (cont.) What types of television shows were Americans watching in the 1950s? Television shows fell into the categories of comedy, action and adventure, variety-style entertainment, and quiz shows. Action shows like Gunsmoke and Dragnet were also hugely popular. (pages 820–823) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Section 3-8

71 The New Youth Culture Young Americans rebelled against the conformist ideals of adult society and looked to controversial styles in music and literature.  In 1951 radio disc jockey Alan Freed gained permission from his manager to play African American rhythm and blues on the radio.  The listeners loved the new songs, and soon white artists were copying the sound to form a new style of music called rock ’n’ roll. (pages 823–824) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 3-9

72 The New Youth Culture (cont.)
In 1956 Elvis Presley became a rock ’n’ roll hero for many teenagers.  He eventually became known as the “King of Rock ’n’ Roll.”  The music was very popular with teens, but parents disliked this new music.  Several cities banned rock ’n’ roll.  These varying opinions led to what became known as a generation gap, or cultural separation between children and parents. (pages 823–824) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 3-10

73 The New Youth Culture (cont.)
A group of mostly white artists, who called themselves the beats, highlighted the values gap that existed in the United States in the 1950s.  In 1957 beat writer Jack Kerouac published On the Road.  This book described freewheeling adventures with a car thief and a con artist.  The book shocked readers but went on to become a classic in American literature. (pages 823–824) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 3-11

74 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
The New Youth Culture (cont.) Who were the beats? This was a group of mostly white artists who chose an unconventional lifestyle, which highlighted the values gap in the 1950s. The word may have come from the group feeling beat down by American culture. (pages 823–824) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Section 3-12

75 African American Entertainers
African American entertainers tried to find a way to fit into a country that often treated them like second-class citizens.  Most were shut out by television.  African American rock ’n’ roll singers had an easier time gaining acceptance.  African Americans like Chuck Berry, Ray Charles, and Little Richard recorded hit songs. (pages 824–825) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 3-13

76 African American Entertainers (cont.)
African American women’s recording groups, including the Crystals, the Chiffons, and the Shirelles, paved the way for future women’s groups. (pages 824–825) Section 3-14

77 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
African American Entertainers (cont.) Which groups were left out of the American dream in the 1950s? The country’s minorities, rural poor, and African Americans were left out of the American dream. (pages 824–825) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Section 3-16

78 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
Checking for Understanding Define Match the terms on the right with their definitions on the left. __ 1. a cultural separation between parents and their children A A. generation gap Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Section 3-23

79 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
Checking for Understanding (cont.) Explain what happened to motion pictures and radio when television became popular. Motion picture attendance and radio listenership dropped for a while. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Section 3-24

80 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
Reviewing Themes Culture and Traditions What roles did African Americans play in television and rock ’n’ roll? They had limited opportunities on television but more success in the music industry. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Section 3-25

81 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
Critical Thinking Comparing How did the themes of television shows of the 1950s differ from the themes of the literature of the beat movement? Television shows depicted middle-class values endorsing American society; beat literature depicted it as meaningless and sterile. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Section 3-26

82 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
Analyzing Visuals Analyzing Photographs Study the photographs on pages 820 and 821 of your textbook. Many people have criticized these television programs for presenting a one-sided view of American life. Do you agree with this criticism? Why or why not? Answers will vary. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Section 3-28

83 Close As a class, discuss the contributions of African Americans to 1950s culture. Section 3-30

84 End of Section 3

85 Guide to Reading Main Idea Key Terms and Names
Not everyone in the United States prospered during the nation’s postwar boom, as millions of minorities and rural whites struggled daily with poverty.  Key Terms and Names poverty line  Bracero program  termination policy  juvenile delinquency Michael Harrington  urban renewal  Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 4-1

86 Guide to Reading (cont.)
Reading Strategy Taking Notes As you read about social problems in the United States in the 1950s, use the major headings of the section to create an outline similar to the one on page 828 of your textbook.  Reading Objectives Identify those groups that found themselves left out of the American economic boom following World War II.  Explain the factors that contributed to the poverty among various groups. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 4-2

87 Guide to Reading (cont.)
Section Theme Continuity and Change For some groups, poverty continued during the apparent abundance of the 1950s. Section 4-3

88 Click the Speaker button to listen to the audio again.
Section 4-4

89 Poverty Amidst Prosperity
In the 1950s, 1 in 5 Americans lived below the poverty line, a figure the government set to reflect the minimum income required to support a family.  Writer Michael Harrington chronicled poverty in the United States during the 1950s in his book The Other America.  He described how some Americans lived in the run-down and hidden communities of America. (pages 828–831) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 4-5

90 Poverty Amidst Prosperity (cont.)
The poor included single mothers, elderly, minority immigrants, rural Americans, Appalachians, and Native Americans.  As many Americans moved to the suburbs, the urban areas became home to poorer, less educated minority groups.  In the 1950s, the government tried to improve conditions with urban renewal programs, in which they tore down slums and built high-rise projects. (pages 828–831) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 4-6

91 Poverty Amidst Prosperity (cont.)
In 1958 African American salaries were only 51 percent of what whites earned.  Although the NAACP and the Congress of Racial Equality pushed for equality and economic opportunities for African Americans, they had little success. (pages 828–831) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 4-7

92 Poverty Amidst Prosperity (cont.)
Through the Bracero program, some 5 million Mexican immigrants came to the United States to help with agricultural needs.  These laborers struggled with poverty and worked in unbearable conditions for very little pay. (pages 828–831) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 4-7

93 Poverty Amidst Prosperity (cont.)
Native Americans were the poorest group in the nation.  Through the termination policy, the federal government withdrew all official recognition of the Native American groups as legal entities and made them follow the same laws as white citizens.  During the 1950s, many impoverished families left Appalachia in search of a better way of life. (pages 828–831) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 4-7

94 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
Poverty Amidst Prosperity (cont.) Which groups of Americans lived below the poverty line in the 1950s? Americans who lived below the poverty line in the 1950s included single mothers, the elderly, people living in the inner cities, African Americans, Hispanics, Native Americans, and people living in Appalachia. (pages 828–831) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Section 4-8

95 Juvenile Delinquency An important social problem in the United States during the 1950s was a rise in, or at least a rise in the reporting of, juvenile delinquency–antisocial or criminal behavior of youths.  Delinquency in the 1950s cut across class and racial lines.  While most teens did not participate in any illegal activity, teens were stereotyped, especially if they had long hair and dressed in an unconventional manner. (pages 831–832) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 4-9

96 Juvenile Delinquency (cont.)
As baby boomers started attending school, enrollments increased greatly.  During the 1950s, schools suffered a shortage of buildings and teachers.  Because the Soviet Union had launched the first space satellites, the nation’s educational institutions were criticized for a lack of technical education.  In response to the criticisms, efforts were made to improve math and scientific education in U.S. schools. (pages 831–832) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 4-10

97 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
Juvenile Delinquency (cont.) What were some reasons people used to explain the rise in juvenile delinquency? It was blamed on a variety of reasons including poverty, lack of religion, television, movies, comics, racism, busy parents, rising divorce rates, and anxiety over the military draft. (pages 831–832) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Section 4-12

98 Checking for Understanding
Define Match the terms on the right with their definitions on the left. __ 1. a government policy to bring Native Americans into mainstream society by withdrawing recognition of Native American groups as legal entities __ 2. a level of personal or family income below which one is classified as poor by the federal government __ 3. government programs that attempt to eliminate poverty and revitalize urban areas __ 4. antisocial or criminal behavior of young people C A. poverty line B. urban renewal C. termination policy D. juvenile delinquency A B D Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers. Section 4-23

99 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
Checking for Understanding (cont.) Evaluate how the federal government’s termination policy affected Native Americans. The policy deepened their poverty. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Section 4-24

100 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
Reviewing Themes Continuity and Change Why did urban renewal fail the poor of the inner cities? The high-rise buildings were too crowded, destroyed more housing than they created, and created an atmosphere of violence. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Section 4-25

101 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
Critical Thinking Interpreting What were some possible reasons for a dramatic rise in juvenile delinquency in the 1950s? Reasons offered included poverty, a lack of supervision, media influences, racism, and a lack of discipline or of religion. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Section 4-26

102 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
Analyzing Visuals Analyzing Photographs Study the photograph on page 832 of your textbook. What in the photograph might attract young people to this type of life? Why would others oppose such a life? The photograph shows a lone cyclist crossing a bridge, unconventional clothes, and a chance to rebel. Many people would oppose such a life because it suggests a rejection of many traditional values. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Section 4-28

103 Close Explain the factors that contributed to the poverty among various groups. Section 4-29

104 End of Section 4

105 Chapter Summary 1

106 End of Chapter Summary

107 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers.
Reviewing Key Terms Define Match the terms on the right with their definitions on the left. __ 1. jobs in fields not requiring work clothes or protective clothing, such as sales __ 2. the right to license and to market a company’s goods or services in an area, such as a store of a chain operation __ 3. a business that requires employees to join a union __ 4. an agreement in which a company agrees to hire only union members D A. closed shop B. union shop C. featherbedding D. white-collar E. blue-collar F. franchise G. baby boom H. generation gap I. urban renewal J. termination policy F B A Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers. Chapter Assessment 1

108 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers.
Reviewing Key Terms (cont.) Define Match the terms on the right with their definitions on the left. __ 5. government programs that attempt to eliminate poverty and revitalize urban areas __ 6. a cultural separation between parents and their children __ 7. jobs in the manual labor field, particularly those requiring protective clothing __ 8. practice of limiting work output in order to create more jobs I A. closed shop B. union shop C. featherbedding D. white-collar E. blue-collar F. franchise G. baby boom H. generation gap I. urban renewal J. termination policy H E C Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers. Chapter Assessment 2

109 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers.
Reviewing Key Terms (cont.) Define Match the terms on the right with their definitions on the left. __ 9. a government policy to bring Native Americans into mainstream society by withdrawing recognition of Native American groups as legal entities __ 10. a marked rise in birthrate, such as occurred in the United States following World War II J A. closed shop B. union shop C. featherbedding D. white-collar E. blue-collar F. franchise G. baby boom H. generation gap I. urban renewal J. termination policy G Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers. Chapter Assessment 2

110 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
Reviewing Key Facts What were three characteristics of the economy of the United States after World War II? Three characteristics of the postwar economy were abundant goods, low unemployment, and a housing boom. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Chapter Assessment 3

111 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
Reviewing Key Facts (cont.) What were two reasons for the economic boom of the 1950s? The economic boom was the result of consumerism and the GI Bill. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Chapter Assessment 4

112 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
Reviewing Key Facts (cont.) What caused many Americans to move to the suburbs in the 1950s? They wanted to escape urban crime and make a better life for their families. They had automobiles to transport them to and from work. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Chapter Assessment 5

113 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
Reviewing Key Facts (cont.) How did the scientific discovery of the transistor affect communications? The transistor made the miniaturization of radios and calculators possible and resulted in improvements in communication and transportation. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Chapter Assessment 6

114 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
Reviewing Key Facts (cont.) Which groups of Americans found themselves left out of the postwar economic boom? Single mothers, the elderly, minority immigrants, rural Americans, inner-city residents, African Americans, Hispanics, Native Americans, and people in Appalachia were left out of the postwar economic boom. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Chapter Assessment 7

115 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
Critical Thinking Analyzing Themes: Continuity and Change  How has mass media changed since the 1950s? Mass media has become more pervasive. Hundreds of radio and television stations, as well as the Internet, are available 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Chapter Assessment 8

116 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
Critical Thinking (cont.) Evaluating  What factors led to a rise in juvenile delinquency in the United States during the 1950s? Different reasons were suggested, including poverty, a lack of supervision, media influences, racism, and a lack of discipline or of religion. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Chapter Assessment 9

117 Geography and History The graph on page 835 of your textbook shows the number of suburban dwellers in the United States as a percentage of the total population. Study the graph and answer the questions on the following slides. Chapter Assessment 10

118 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
Geography and History (cont.) Interpreting Graphs  What trend in the percentage of suburban dwellers does this graph show? The graph shows a rising trend. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Chapter Assessment 11

119 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
Geography and History (cont.) Understanding Cause and Effect  How might the trend of suburban dwellers shown on this graph have affected life in suburbs and cities? The trend might have caused urban life to decline and suburban life to become the ideal. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Chapter Assessment 12

120 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
Directions: Choose the phrase that best completes the following statement. The Eisenhower administration worked to achieve all of the following EXCEPT F ending wage and price controls. G winning passage for the Federal Highway Act. H repealing right-to-work laws. J extending the Social Security system. Test-Taking Tip Pay careful attention to the wording of the question. Note here that EXCEPT means that three of the four choices were part of Eisenhower’s programs. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Chapter Assessment 13

121 End of Chapter Assessment

122 Explore online information about the topics introduced in this chapter.
Click on the Connect button to launch your browser and go to The American Vision Web site. At this site, you will find interactive activities, current events information, and Web sites correlated with the chapters and units in the textbook. When you finish exploring, exit the browser program to return to this presentation. If you experience difficulty connecting to the Web site, manually launch your Web browser and go to History Online

123 Geography Three Levittowns were built, the first on Long Island, the second in Bucks County, Pennsylvania, and the third in Willingboro, New Jersey. These planned communities allowed people to live in smaller communities but commute to larger cities. CC 2-1

124 Click on a hyperlink to view the corresponding slide.
GI Bill Presidential Incapacity Click on a hyperlink to view the corresponding slide. FYI Contents 1

125 In addition to providing low interest loans to help veterans buy homes and farms, the GI Bill provided unemployment benefits for veterans who could not find jobs. FYI 1-1a

126 In the fall of 1955, President Eisenhower had a heart attack
In the fall of 1955, President Eisenhower had a heart attack. The problem of presidential incapacity was not new. In 1881 James Garfield lingered for over two months before he died from an assassin’s bullet. In 1919 Woodrow Wilson’s stroke rendered him unable to participate in final treaty negotiations. FYI 1-2b

127 Parents of baby boomers seized the opportunity to give their children what they themselves never had. Memories of rationing and limited supplies during the Great Depression and World War II often fueled their enthusiasm for activities such as music lessons and Little League. FYI 2-1

128 Click on a hyperlink to view the corresponding slide.
Television Elvis Presley Click on a hyperlink to view the corresponding slide. FYI Contents 3

129 Invented in the 1930s, television became popular in the late 1940s
Invented in the 1930s, television became popular in the late 1940s. By 1960 nearly 90 percent of American families owned at least one set–mostly black and white. Although the Columbia Broadcasting System presented the first commercial color telecast in 1953, color television remained too expensive during the 1950s for widespread use. FYI 3-1a

130 Elvis Presley’s leather jacket and ducktail haircut became standard dress for young men in the 1950s. FYI 3-2b

131 Click on a hyperlink to view the corresponding slide.
Lorraine Hansberry James Baldwin Click on a hyperlink to view the corresponding slide. FYI Contents 4

132 Lorraine Hansberry achieved another first on April 7, 1959, when she became the first African American, and only the fifth woman, to win the prestigious New York Drama Critics Circle Award for her first play, A Raisin in the Sun. FYI 4-2b

133 James Baldwin created a vivid description of African American life in the postwar years in his novel Go Tell It on the Mountain. The novel describes a day in the lives of members of a church in Harlem, and, through flashbacks, their ancestors. Baldwin was recognized as a leading African American novelist noted for his powerful treatment of bigotry and oppression in American society. FYI 4-3c

134 Click the Speaker button to listen to the audio again.
Moment in History 1

135 Suburban Dream Developers attracted homebuyers to the suburbs with the promise of fresh air, green lawns, and trees. The names of many suburbs and subdivisions echoed that promise by including words such as park, forest, woods, grove, or hills. You Don’t Say 2-1

136 Quick and Easy Eats Along with the television came. TV dinners
Quick and Easy Eats Along with the television came TV dinners! Capitalizing on the television boom of the 1950s, these frozen individual meals offered an entrée, a side dish or two, and a dessert, all on an aluminum tray divided into compartments. Not everyone actually ate TV dinners in front of the television, but the meals were popular because they offered convenience. Noted one food industry executive of the time, “When Mary Smith rushes home from work late in the afternoon, she wants to buy food that not only will look pretty on the table but is something she can get ready in the half hour before her husband comes home for dinner.” The Swanson Company created its first frozen meals in 1952 and started using the name “Swanson TV Dinner” in Swanson sold 10 million TV dinners the first year they were distributed nationally. By the time the TV dinner celebrated its 45th birthday, Americans were buying 3 million a week. The famous compartmentalized aluminum tray was retired in 1986 and replaced with microwave-safe packaging. Fact/F/F

137 Click the Speaker button to listen to the audio again.
Writing a Journal Journal writing is personal writing with a casual style. The style in which you write is not as important as what you write about–your experiences, interests, and feelings. Journal writing can help you generate new ideas, and it can also give you a clearer picture of your thoughts and help you put them in order. Click the Speaker button to listen to the audio again. SW Skill Builder 1

138 Writing a Journal Learning the Skill
A journal is a written account that records what you have learned or experienced. In a journal you can express your feelings about a subject, summarize key topics, describe difficulties or success in solving particular problems, and draw maps or other visuals. To help you get started writing in your journal, follow these steps.  Jot down notes or questions about a specific topic or event as you read your textbook Then look for details and answers about it as you continue reading. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. SW Skill Builder 2

139 Writing a Journal Learning the Skill (cont.)
Describe your feelings as you read a selection or look at a photograph. Are you angry, happy, frustrated, or sad? Explain why you are reacting in this way.  Ask yourself if drawing a map or flowchart would help you understand an event better. If so, draw in your journal. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. SW Skill Builder 3

140 Writing a Journal Practicing the Skill
The excerpt on the following slide is a journal entry describing the launching of the nation’s first satellite in Read the excerpt, and then use the questions on the following slides to help you write entries in your own journal. SW Skill Builder 4

141 Writing a Journal Practicing the Skill (cont.)
“As the firing command neared, a deadly silence fell on those who were watching At fourteen and one-half seconds after time zero, after the priming fuel had ignited almost invisibly, the main stage engine came to life with an immeasurable thrust of flame in all directions With thousands of eyes following it, the rocket dug into the night and accelerated as its sound loudened. Spectators on nearby beaches pointed and craned their necks and cried, ‘There it is!’ and began to cheer.” SW Skill Builder 5

142 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers.
Writing a Journal Practicing the Skill (cont.) 1. What is particularly interesting about this description? 2. What are your feelings as you read the excerpt? Possible answer: The precision and moment-by-moment quality of the description makes it particularly interesting. Possible answer: Feelings include those of suspense and excitement. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers. SW Skill Builder 6

143 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers.
Writing a Journal Practicing the Skill (cont.) 3. Note the descriptive phrases and details that make the event come to life. Try to use similar techniques when writing in your journal. 4. Draw a map or other visual to help you understand the situation described here. Answers will vary. Answers will vary. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers. SW Skill Builder 7

144 America Takes to the Roads
Objectives After viewing “America Takes to the Roads,” you should:  Understand the impact of the automobile on American life in the 1950s.  Consider similarities and differences in our attitudes toward cars today.  See how “drive-through” conveniences of today are updated versions of “drive-in” establishments of the 1950s. Click in the small window above to show a preview of The American Vision video. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. TAV Video 1

145 America Takes to the Roads
Discussion Questions How did cars of the 1950s differ from earlier models? They were longer, lower, and wider than earlier models. They also were designed in more colors and used a lot of chrome. Tail fins were popular. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. TAV Video 2

146 America Takes to the Roads
Discussion Questions What effect did superhighways have on American business? Restaurants, motels, and gas stations sprang up along the highways for travelers. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. TAV Video 3

147 M/C 1-1

148 M/C 2-1

149 Why It Matters Transparency

150 Daily Focus Skills Transparency 1
Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Daily Focus Skills Transparency 1

151 Daily Focus Skills Transparency 2
Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Daily Focus Skills Transparency 2

152 Daily Focus Skills Transparency 3
Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Daily Focus Skills Transparency 3

153 Daily Focus Skills Transparency 4
Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Daily Focus Skills Transparency 4

154 End of Custom Shows WARNING! Do Not Remove
This slide is intentionally blank and is set to auto-advance to end custom shows and return to the main presentation. End of Custom Shows

155 End of Slide Show


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