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1 Welcome to Presentation Plus!
Presentation Plus! The American Vision Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Developed by FSCreations, Inc., Cincinnati, Ohio Send all inquiries to: GLENCOE DIVISION Glencoe/McGraw-Hill 8787 Orion Place Columbus, Ohio Welcome to Presentation Plus!

2 Splash Screen

3 Click on a hyperlink to view the corresponding slides.
Chapter Introduction Section 1 Miners and Ranchers Section 2 Farming the Plains Section 3 Native Americans Chapter Summary Chapter Assessment Click on a hyperlink to view the corresponding slides. Contents

4 Click the Speaker button to listen to the audio again.
Intro 1

5 Chapter Objectives Section 1: Miners and Ranchers
Trace the growth of the mining industry in the West.  Describe the ways that new technology changed open-range ranching. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Intro 2

6 Chapter Objectives Section 2: Farming the Plains
Explain why and how people began settling the Plains.  Trace the growth of commercial farming on the Plains. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Intro 3

7 Chapter Objectives Section 3: Native Americans
Discuss conflicts that arose between the Plains Indians and American settlers.  Summarize problems caused by attempts to assimilate Native Americans. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Intro 4

8 Why It Matters After the Civil War, a dynamic period in American history opened–the settlement of the West. The lives of Western miners, farmers, and ranchers were often filled with great hardships, but the wave of American settlers continued. Railroads hastened this migration. During this period, many Native Americans lost their homelands and their way of life. Intro 5

9 The Impact Today Developments of this period are still evident today.  Native American reservations still exist in the United States.  The myth of the Western hero is prominent in popular culture. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Intro 6

10 continued on next slide
Intro 7

11 Intro 8

12 End of Intro

13 Guide to Reading Main Idea Key Terms and Names
Miners and ranchers settled large areas of the West.  Key Terms and Names placer mining  long drive  Chisholm Trail  maverick  barbed wire quartz mining  Henry Comstock  vigilance committee  open range  Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 1-1

14 Guide to Reading (cont.)
Reading Strategy Organizing As you read about the development of the mining industry, complete a graphic organizer like the one on page 414 of your textbook, listing the locations of mining booms and the discoveries made there.  Reading Objectives Trace the growth of the mining industry in the West.  Describe the ways that new technology changed open-range ranching. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 1-2

15 Guide to Reading (cont.)
Section Theme Economic Factors People migrated to the West in search of economic opportunity. Section 1-3

16 Click the Speaker button to listen to the audio again.
Section 1-4

17 Growth of the Mining Industry
The growing industries in the East needed the West’s rich deposits of gold, silver, and copper.  These deposits brought settlers to the West’s mountain states.  Prospectors used simple equipment like picks, shovels, and pans to mine the shallow deposits of ore by hand.  This process is known as placer mining. (pages 414–416) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 1-5

18 Growth of the Mining Industry
(cont.) Corporations dug deep beneath the surface to mine the deposits of ore in a process known as quartz mining.  In 1859 prospector Henry Comstock staked a claim for a silver mine in Six-Mile Canyon, Nevada.  This caused Virginia City, Nevada, to go from an outpost to a boomtown almost overnight. (pages 414–416) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 1-6

19 Growth of the Mining Industry
(cont.) Several years later, the mines ran out of silver and the boomtown became a ghost town.  The cycle of boom and bust was repeated throughout the mountainous West.  During boom times, crime was a serious problem.  Vigilance committees formed to track down and punish wrongdoers. (pages 414–416) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 1-7

20 Growth of the Mining Industry
(cont.) Mining helped the growth of Colorado, the Dakota Territory, and Montana.  Mining in Colorado spurred the building of railroads through the Rocky Mountains.  Denver became the supply point for the mining areas and the second largest city in the West after San Francisco. (pages 414–416) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 1-8

21 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
Growth of the Mining Industry (cont.) How did the mining industry affect towns and cities in the West? Mining caused a cycle of boom and bust–from boomtown to ghost town. During booms, crime was a serious problem. Vigilance committees formed to track down and punish wrongdoers. The mining industry in Colorado led to the building of railroads through the Rocky Mountains. Denver became the supply point for the mining areas and the second largest city in the West. (pages 414–416) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Section 1-9

22 Ranching and Cattle Drives
After the Civil War, many Americans began building large cattle ranches on the Great Plains.  The Texas longhorn was a breed of cattle that could survive the harsh climate of the plains.  The cattle ranching industry grew in part because of the open range–vast areas of grasslands owned by the federal government.  Cattle raisers could graze their herds free of charge and without boundaries. (pages 416–419) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 1-10

23 Ranching and Cattle Drives (cont.)
During the Civil War, large numbers of eastern cattle were slaughtered to feed the Union and Confederate armies.  After the war, beef prices soared.  This made it worthwhile to round up the longhorns.  The first long drive in 1866 across the Great Plains to the railroad in Sedalia, Missouri, proved that cattle could be driven north to the rail lines and sold for 10 times the price they could get in Texas. (pages 416–419) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 1-11

24 Ranching and Cattle Drives (cont.)
The major route for moving cattle was the Chisholm Trail that went from Texas to Abilene, Kansas.  A long drive began with the spring roundup to collect cattle from the open range.  The cattle were divided and branded.  Then cowboys moved the herds of cattle along the trails to the rail lines. (pages 416–419) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 1-12

25 Ranching and Cattle Drives (cont.)
Most cowboys were former Confederate army soldiers, a few were Hispanic, and many were African American.  The long cattle drives ended, in part, when the open range was largely fenced off with barbed wire.  Investors from the East and from Britain put money into the cattle business, causing an oversupply of animals on the market. (pages 416–419) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 1-13

26 Ranching and Cattle Drives (cont.)
Prices for cattle greatly dropped.  Many ranchers went bankrupt.  Also, the harsh winters of 1886–1887 killed many cattle. (pages 416–419) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 1-14

27 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
Ranching and Cattle Drives (cont.) How did the invention and use of barbed wire affect the cattle industry? The long cattle drives and open grazing ended when the open range was largely fenced off with barbed wire. (pages 416–419) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Section 1-15

28 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers.
Checking for Understanding Define Match the terms on the right with their definitions on the left. __ 1. a stray calf with no identifying symbol __ 2. method of extracting minerals involving digging beneath the surface __ 3. method of extracting mineral ore by hand using simple tools, like picks, shovels, and pans __ 4. driving cattle long distances to a railroad depot for fast transport and great profit __ 5. vast areas of grassland owned by the federal government E A. placer mining B. quartz mining C. open range D. long drive E. maverick B A D C Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers. Section 1-16

29 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
Checking for Understanding (cont.) List the factors that contributed to the rise of the cattle industry. Factors include emergence of the longhorn breed, higher beef prices, and railroad transportation. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Section 1-17

30 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
Checking for Understanding (cont.) Explain how cattle ranching shifted from open range to an organized business operation. Barbed wire eliminated long drives, and the cowboy became a ranch hand. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Section 1-18

31 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
Reviewing Themes Economic Factors What two developments in the late 1800s led to the decline of the cattle business? An oversupply of cattle drove down prices, and the winter of 1886 to 1887 killed a large number of cattle. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Section 1-19

32 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
Critical Thinking Evaluating How did the mining industry contribute to the development of the West? People moved west, towns sprung up, and railroads expanded. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Section 1-20

33 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
Analyzing Visuals Examining Maps Draw a mental map of the western mining country or cattle trails. Then compare your map to the one on page 417, land list the differences between the two maps. Maps will vary. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Section 1-21

34 Close Describe the ways new technology changed open-range ranching.
Section 1-22

35 End of Section 1

36 Guide to Reading Main Idea Key Terms and Names
After 1865, settlers staked out homesteads and began farming the Great Plains.  Key Terms and Names Great Plains  dry farming  sodbuster  Wheat Belt  bonanza farm Stephen Long  Homestead Act  homestead  Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 2-1

37 Guide to Reading (cont.)
Reading Strategy Organizing As you read about the settlement of the Great Plains, complete a graphic organizer similar to the one on page 420 of your textbook listing the ways the government encouraged settlement.  Reading Objectives Explain why and how people began settling the Plains.  Trace the growth of commercial farming on the Plains. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 2-2

38 Guide to Reading (cont.)
Section Theme Science and Technology The need for new farming techniques in the West led to several technological innovations. Section 2-3

39 Click the Speaker button to listen to the audio again.
Section 2-4

40 Geography of the Plains
The Great Plains region extends westward to the Rocky Mountains from around the 100th meridian–an imaginary line running north and south from the central Dakotas through western Texas.  Rainfall on the Great Plains averages less than 20 inches per year.  Trees only grow naturally along rivers and streams and on hilltops.  Huge herds of buffalo once grazed on the prairie grasses of the Great Plains. (pages 420–421) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 2-5

41 Geography of the Plains (cont.)
Major Stephen Long explored the Great Plains with an army expedition in  He called it the “Great American Desert” and said it was almost entirely unfit for farming. (pages 420–421) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 2-6

42 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
Geography of the Plains (cont.) What is the geography of the Great Plains? The Great Plains region extends westward to the Rocky Mountains from around the 100th meridian–an imaginary line running north and south from the central Dakotas through western Texas. Rainfall averages less than 20 inches per year. Trees only grow naturally along rivers and streams and on hilltops. (pages 420–421) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Section 2-7

43 The Beginnings of Settlement
Railroads provided easy access to the Great Plains.  Railroad companies sold land along the rail lines at low prices and provided credit.  The federal government helped settle the Great Plains by passing the Homestead Act in  For $10, a settler could file for a homestead, or a tract of public land available for settlement. (page 421) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 2-8

44 The Beginnings of Settlement (cont.)
The homesteader could get up to 160 acres of public land and could receive title of it after living there five years.  Settlers on the Plains found life very difficult.  The environment was harsh, with summer temperatures soaring over 100°F and winter bringing blizzards and extreme cold.  Prairie fires and swarms of grasshoppers were a danger and a threat. (page 421) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 2-9

45 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
The Beginnings of Settlement (cont.) How did the railroads and the federal government help settle the Great Plains? Railroads provided easy access to the Great Plains. Railroad companies sold land along the rail lines at low prices and provided credit. The federal government passed the Homestead Act in For $10, a settler could file for a homestead. The homesteader could get up to 160 acres of public land and could receive title of it after living there five years. (page 421) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Section 2-10

46 The Wheat Belt Many inventions and new farming methods made farming on the Great Plains very profitable.  Farmers on the Great Plains used the dry farming method–planting seeds deep in the ground where there was enough moisture for them to grow.  By the 1860s, farmers on the Great Plains were using newly designed steel plows, seed drills, reapers, and threshing machines. (pages 422–423) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 2-11

47 The Wheat Belt (cont.) These machines made dry farming possible. 
Farmers could work large tracts of land with the machines.  Farmers who plowed the soil on the Great Plains were called sodbusters.  Many of them lost their homesteads because of drought, wind erosion, and overuse of the land. (pages 422–423) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 2-12

48 The Wheat Belt (cont.) During the 1860s and 1870s, new technology, such as the mechanical reapers and binders and threshing machines, made farming more profitable.  The innovations were also well suited for harvesting wheat.  Wheat withstood drought better than other crops, so it became the most important crop on the Great Plains. (pages 422–423) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 2-13

49 The Wheat Belt (cont.) Wheat farmers from Minnesota and other Midwestern states moved to the Great Plains in large numbers to take advantage of the inexpensive land and the new farming technology.  The Wheat Belt began at the eastern edge of the Great Plains and included much of the Dakotas and the western parts of Nebraska and Kansas. (pages 422–423) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 2-14

50 The Wheat Belt (cont.) Some wheat farms, called bonanza farms, were much larger than single-family farms and covered up to 50,000 acres.  These farms often brought the owners large profits.  Several events caused Great Plains farmers to fall on hard times.  In the 1890s, a glut of wheat caused prices to drop. (pages 422–423) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 2-15

51 The Wheat Belt (cont.) Some farmers lost their land because they could not repay bank loans they had taken out.  A prolonged drought that began in the 1880s destroyed crops and farms, forcing some farmers to return to the East. (pages 422–423) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 2-16

52 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
The Wheat Belt (cont.) Why did much of the Great Plains region become the Wheat Belt? Wheat withstood drought better than other crops, so it became the most important crop on the Great Plains. Wheat farmers from Minnesota and other Midwestern states moved to the Great Plains in large numbers to take advantage of the inexpensive land and the new farming technology. (pages 422–423) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Section 2-17

53 Closing the Frontier On April 22, 1889, the government opened for settlement the land that later became the state of Oklahoma.  Within hours 10,000 people raced to stake claims in an event know as the Oklahoma Land Rush. (page 423) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 2-18

54 Closing the Frontier In 1890 the Census Bureau reported that the frontier was closing.  This news concerned those who believed that land at the frontier provided a place for Americans to make a fresh start.  Many settlers in the Great Plains did make a fresh start.  They adapted to the environment by getting water from deep wells and getting supplies and building materials that the railroads had shipped. (page 423) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 2-18

55 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
Closing the Frontier (cont.) Why was the Census Bureau’s report of 1890 disturbing to some people? The news that the frontier was closing concerned those who believed that the frontier offered a place for Americans to make a fresh start. (page 423) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Section 2-19

56 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers.
Checking for Understanding Define Match the terms on the right with their definitions on the left. __ 1. method of acquiring a piece of U.S. public land by living on and cultivating it __ 2. a name given to Great Plains farmers __ 3. a large, highly-profitable wheat farm __ 4. a way of farming dry land in which seeds are planted deep in the ground where there is some moisture A A. homestead B. dry farming C. sodbuster D. bonanza farm C D B Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers. Section 2-20

57 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
Checking for Understanding (cont.) Explain why the Great Plains was not suitable for homesteading. Geography and climate made the Great Plains not suitable for homesteading. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Section 2-21

58 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
Reviewing Themes Science and Technology How did the need for new farming techniques on the Great Plains result in technological innovations in agriculture? Mechanical reapers, binders, and threshing machines were all created to help farmers harvest large tracts of farmland quickly. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Section 2-22

59 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
Critical Thinking Analyzing What factors contributed to the making of the Wheat Belt in the Great Plains and then to troubled times for wheat farmers in the 1890s? The Homestead Act and new farming techniques and equipment helped develop the Wheat Belt. Good harvests and world competition caused a glut that caused prices to drop. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Section 2-23

60 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
Analyzing Visuals Examining Photographs Study the photograph on page 421 of your textbook of farmers using binding machines in western Wisconsin. Based on the terrain and the type of work they needed to do, what other types of technology would have helped farmers on the Plains? Possible answer: Windmills would have helped by supplying power and irrigation. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Section 2-24

61 Close Study commercial farming in the Plains. Section 2-25

62 End of Section 2

63 Guide to Reading Main Idea Key Terms and Names
The settlement of the West dramatically changed the way of life of the Plains Indians.  Key Terms and Names nomad  Ghost Dance  assimilate  allotment  Dawes Act annuity  Little Crow  Indian Peace Commission  George A. Custer  Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 3-1

64 Guide to Reading (cont.)
Reading Strategy Sequencing As you read about the crisis facing Native Americans during the late 1800s, complete a time line similar to the one on page 425 of your textbook to record the battles between Native Americans and the U.S. government and the results of each.  Reading Objectives Discuss conflicts that arose between the Plains Indians and American settlers.  Summarize problems caused by attempts to assimilate Native Americans. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 3-2

65 Guide to Reading (cont.)
Section Theme Individual Action Some Native American groups fought the federal government in an attempt to keep their ancestral homelands. Section 3-3

66 Click the Speaker button to listen to the audio again.
Section 3-4

67 Culture of the Plains Indians
Some Native American nations of the Great Plains lived in communities and farmed and hunted.  Most Native Americans of the Great Plains were nomads who moved from place to place in search of food.  They followed the herds of buffalo.  Native American groups of the Great Plains had several things in common.  They lived in extended family networks and had a close relationship with nature. (pages 425–426) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 3-5

68 Culture of the Plains Indians (cont.)
They were divided into bands with a governing council.  Most Native American groups practiced a religion based on a belief in the spiritual power of the natural world. (pages 425–426) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 3-6

69 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
Culture of the Plains Indians (cont.) What was the culture of the Great Plains Indians? Some Native Americans of the Great Plains lived in communities and farmed and hunted. Most Native Americans of the Great Plains were nomads who followed herds of buffalo. Native American groups lived in extended family networks and had a close relationship with nature. They were divided into bands with a governing council. They practiced a religion based on a belief in the spiritual power of the natural world. (pages 425–426) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Section 3-7

70 Cultures Under Pressure
Native Americans had been under pressure for years from advancing white settlement.  In 1862 the Sioux in Minnesota launched a major uprising.  The Dakota Sioux agreed to live on a small reservation in Minnesota, in exchange for annuities paid by the federal government to the reservation dwellers.  The annuities were very small and often taken from them by American traders. (pages 426–428) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 3-8

71 Cultures Under Pressure (cont.)
In 1862 Congress delayed payments of the annuities.  Some Sioux began starving.  Chief Little Crow asked traders to give his people food on credit.  His request was denied.  The Dakota began an uprising that led to the deaths of hundreds of settlers. (pages 426–428) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 3-9

72 Cultures Under Pressure (cont.)
The U.S. army sent patrols into the northern Great Plains to prevent further uprisings among the Sioux there.  The Lakota Sioux were nomads who feared losing their hunting grounds.  In December 1866, Chief Red Cloud’s forces defeated a U.S. army detachment in Montana in what is called Fetterman’s Massacre. (pages 426–428) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 3-10

73 Cultures Under Pressure (cont.)
In the 1860s, tensions between the Cheyenne and Arapaho Native Americans and the miners in Colorado increased.  Bands of Native Americans attacked wagon trains and ranches in Colorado.  The territorial governor ordered the Native Americans to peacefully surrender at Fort Lyon. (pages 426–428) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 3-11

74 Cultures Under Pressure (cont.)
Chief Black Kettle brought hundreds of Cheyenne to the fort to negotiate.  Instead of negotiating peace with the Cheyenne, the U.S. army attacked them in what has become known as the Sand Creek Massacre.  In 1867 Congress formed an Indian Peace Commission, which proposed creating two large reservations on the Plains.  The Bureau of Indian Affairs would run the reservations. (pages 426–428) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 3-12

75 Cultures Under Pressure (cont.)
The U.S. army would deal with any groups that did not report to or remain on the reservations.  This plan was doomed to failure.  Signing treaties did not ensure that the government or Native Americans would abide by their terms. (pages 426–428) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 3-13

76 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
Cultures Under Pressure (cont.) What events led to the formation of the Indian Peace Commission? Fetterman’s Massacre, the Sand Creek Massacre, and several other conflicts between Native Americans of the Plains and white settlers and the U.S. army convinced Congress to create the Indian Peace Commission. (pages 426–428) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Section 3-14

77 The Last Native American Wars
By the 1870s, buffalo were rapidly disappearing.  By 1889 very few buffalo remained.  The buffalo were killed by migrants crossing the Great Plains, professional buffalo hunters who wanted their hides, sharpshooters hired by railroads, and hunters who killed them for sport. (pages 429–430) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 3-15

78 The Last Native American Wars
(cont.) Many Native Americans left their reservations to hunt buffalo on the open plains.  In addition, when American settlers violated the treaties, the Native Americans saw no reason to abide by them.  In 1876 the Lakota left their reservation to hunt near the Bighorn Mountains in southeastern Montana.  The U.S. government sent army troops after the Lakota. (pages 429–430) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 3-16

79 The Last Native American Wars
(cont.) George A. Custer, commander of the Seventh Cavalry, divided his forces and attacked the Lakota and Cheyenne warriors camped at the Little Bighorn River.  The Native Americans killed all the soldiers.  Sitting Bull and his followers fled to Canada.  Other Lakotas were forced to return to the reservation. (pages 429–430) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 3-17

80 The Last Native American Wars
(cont.) The Nez Perce, led by Chief Joseph, refused to move to a reservation in Idaho in  They fled, but later were forced to surrender and move to Oklahoma.  At the Lakota Sioux reservation in 1890, the Lakota were ordered by a government agent to stop the Ghost Dance–a ritual that was celebrating the hope that the whites would disappear, the buffalo would return, and Native Americans would reunite with their ancestors. (pages 429–430) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 3-18

81 The Last Native American Wars
(cont.) The dancers fled the reservation and were chased by the U.S. troops to Wounded Knee Creek.  Many Lakota were killed.  This was the final Native American resistance to federal authority. (pages 429–430) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 3-19

82 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
The Last Native American Wars (cont.) Why did many Native Americans leave their reservations? They preferred hunting buffalo on the open Plains, so they joined others who had left the reservations. Many Native Americans saw no reason to abide by treaties that were violated by the whites. (pages 429–430) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Section 3-20

83 Assimilation Some Americans had opposed the treatment of Native Americans.  Some people thought that the situation between whites and Native Americans could be improved if Native Americans could assimilate, or be absorbed into American society as landowners and citizens. (page 430) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 3-21

84 Assimilation (cont.) This included breaking up reservations into individual allotments, where Native Americans would live in families and support themselves.  This became the policy when Congress passed the Dawes Act in  The Dawes Act was a failure.  Few Native Americans had the training or enthusiasm for farming or ranching.  They found the allotments too small to be profitable. (page 430) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 3-22

85 Assimilation (cont.) Few Native Americans were willing or able to adopt the American settlers’ lifestyles in place of their own culture. (page 430) Section 3-23

86 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
Assimilation (cont.) Why was the idea of assimilation of the Native Americans a failure? Few Native Americans had the training or enthusiasm for farming or ranching. They found the allotments too small to be profitable. Few Native Americans were willing or able to adopt the American settlers’ lifestyles in place of their own culture. (page 430) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Section 3-24

87 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers.
Checking for Understanding Define Match the terms on the right with their definitions on the left. __ 1. a person who moves from place to place, usually in search of food or grazing land __ 2. to absorb a group into the culture of a larger population __ 3. a plot of land assigned to an individual family for cultivation __ 4. money paid by contract on regular intervals A A. nomad B. annuity C. assimilate D. allotment C D B Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers. Section 3-25

88 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
Checking for Understanding (cont.) Analyze how Native Americans responded to land lost due to white settlement of the Great Plains. Native Americans attacked wagon trains and ranches, and they killed settlers and soldiers. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Section 3-26

89 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
Reviewing Themes Individual Action How did Chief Joseph resist the government’s attempts to move the Nez Perce to reservations? Chief Joseph and the Nez Perce fled 1,300 miles before surrendering. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Section 3-27

90 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
Critical Thinking Analyzing Why do you think the government’s policy of assimilation of Native Americans was a failure? After the buffalo herds were wiped out, Native Americans were unwilling or unable to live like American settlers. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Section 3-28

91 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
Analyzing Visuals Analyzing Maps Examine the map of battle sites and reservations on page 428 of your textbook. Then, from the point of view of a historian, explain the actions taken against Native Americans within the historical context of the time. Answers will vary. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Section 3-29

92 Close Summarize problems caused by attempts to assimilate Native Americans. Section 3-30

93 End of Section 3

94 Chapter Summary 1

95 End of Chapter Summary

96 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers.
Reviewing Key Terms Define Match the terms on the right with their definitions on the left. __ 1. money paid by contract on regular intervals __ 2. method of extracting minerals involving digging beneath the surface __ 3. a stray calf with no identifying symbol __ 4. to absorb a group into the culture of a larger population __ 5. a way of farming dry land in which seeds are planted deep in the ground where there is some moisture H A. placer mining B. quartz mining C. open range D. maverick E. dry farming F. sodbuster G. bonanza farm H. annuity I. assimilate J. allotment B D I E Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers. Chapter Assessment 1

97 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers.
Reviewing Key Terms (cont.) Define Match the terms on the right with their definitions on the left. __ 6. a name given to Great Plains farmers __ 7. method of extracting mineral ore by hand using simple tools, like picks, shovels, and pans __ 8. a large, highly-profitable wheat farm __ 9. a plot of land assigned to an individual family for cultivation __ 10. vast areas of grassland owned by the federal government F A. placer mining B. quartz mining C. open range D. maverick E. dry farming F. sodbuster G. bonanza farm H. annuity I. assimilate J. allotment A G J C Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers. Chapter Assessment 2

98 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
Reviewing Key Facts What led to the start of boomtowns, and what caused their decline? The discovery of copper, gold, or silver led to the start of boomtowns. When a lode played out, mines closed and the towns’ economies collapsed. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Chapter Assessment 3

99 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
Reviewing Key Facts (cont.) What new invention finally brought an end to the open range on the Great Plains? Barbed wire brought an end to the open range. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Chapter Assessment 4

100 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
Reviewing Key Facts (cont.) How did the railroads boost the settlement of the West? Railroad companies sold land along rail lines at low prices, provided credit to prospective settlers, and advertised the benefits of booking passage to the Plains. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Chapter Assessment 5

101 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
Reviewing Key Facts (cont.) Why was wheat a suitable crop to grow on the Great Plains? Wheat could be cultivated using dry farming. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Chapter Assessment 6

102 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
Reviewing Key Facts (cont.) What events brought the way of life of the Plains Indians to an end? White settlers moving west, railroad construction, the widespread slaughter of buffalo, and wars brought the Plains Indians’s way of life to an end. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Chapter Assessment 7

103 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
Critical Thinking Analyzing Themes: Economic Factors Do you think that people moved to and settled in the West primarily for economic reasons? Why or why not? Many did move for the hope of riches; others for adventure, freedom, or a fresh start. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Chapter Assessment 8

104 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
Critical Thinking (cont.) Drawing Conclusions Why do you think that so many people were willing to give up their homes and move to mining towns and homesteads in the West? Many settlers thought that they could prosper in the West. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Chapter Assessment 9

105 Geography and History The graph below shows Native American population from1850 to Study the graph and answer the questions on the following slides. Chapter Assessment 10

106 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
Geography and History (cont.) Interpreting Graphs What does the graph indicate about Native American populations between 1850 and 1900? The populations declined steadily. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Chapter Assessment 11

107 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
Geography and History (cont.) Understanding Cause and Effect What factor caused the Native American populations to decline sharply between 1880 and 1890? Native Americans suffered high casualty rates in conflicts with white settlers. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Chapter Assessment 12

108 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
Directions: Choose the best answer to the following question. Which of the following did NOT make it easier for settlers to live and farm on the Great Plains? A Government assistance such as the Homestead Act B New technology such as the mechanical reaper and the combine C New farming techniques such as dry farming D The absence of land speculators Test-Taking Tip When you are not sure of an answer, it can be helpful to use the process of elimination. Eliminate the answers that you know are incorrect. For instance, machinery such as the reaper did make it easier for farmers to work more land at a quicker pace. Therefore, you can eliminate answer B. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Chapter Assessment 13

109 End of Chapter Assessment

110 Explore online information about the topics introduced in this chapter.
Click on the Connect button to launch your browser and go to The American Vision Web site. At this site, you will find interactive activities, current events information, and Web sites correlated with the chapters and units in the textbook. When you finish exploring, exit the browser program to return to this presentation. If you experience difficulty connecting to the Web site, manually launch your Web browser and go to History Online

111 Language Arts Hamlin Garland vividly recorded the hard life of the Plains farmers. In books such as Main-Travelled Roads (1891) and A Son of the Middle Border (1917), Garland told “a tale of toil that’s never done.” Although his stories included many moments of joy, such as harvest time, and of great beauty, such as the arrival of spring, Garland refused to paint life on the Plains as always perfect. “I will not lie,” he wrote. “A proper portion of the sweat, flies, heat, dirt, and drudgery shall go in.” CC 1-1

112 Click the Speaker button to listen to the audio again.
Moment in History 3

113 Stray Cattle Unbranded animals were called mavericks after cattle rancher Samuel A. Maverick, who shunned the practice of branding. Today, the term maverick is often used to identify an independent individual. You Don’t Say 1-1

114 Buffalo Bill’s Wild West Show Many Americans who never set foot on the Great Plains enjoyed a make-believe excursion there through a Wild-West show. Various promoters staged these popular extravaganzas, but the most famous was Buffalo Bill’s Wild West Show. Members of the cast performed a mock buffalo hunt with real buffalo, and they reenacted Custer’s defeat at the Little Bighorn. Among the stars of the show was Annie Oakley, a sharpshooter from Ohio who appeared in Western outfit and dazzled both the audience and her fellow performers. Annie Get Your Gun, a musical interpretation of Annie Oakley’s exploits, opened on Broadway in 1946 with Ethel Merman starring as Oakley. Irving Berlin wrote the music and lyrics based on the book written by Herbert and Dorothy Fields. The musical had a long run on Broadway, was made into a movie, and is a favorite for school and community productions. Perhaps the most recognizable songs from the show are “Anything You Can Do (I can do better)” and “There’s No Business Like Show Business.” Fact/F/F 3-1

115 Interpreting Statistics
Often presented in graphs and tables, statistics are collections of data that are used to support a claim or an opinion. The ability to interpret statistics allows us to understand probable effects and to make predictions. Click the Speaker button to listen to the audio again. SS Skill Builder 1

116 Interpreting Statistics
Learning the Skill Use the following steps to help you interpret statistical information.  Scan the graph or table, reading the title and labels to get an idea of what is being shown.  Examine the statistics shown, looking for increases and decreases, similarities and differences. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. SS Skill Builder 2

117 Interpreting Statistics
Learning the Skill (cont.) Look for a correlation in the statistics. Two sets of data may be related or unrelated. If they are related, we say that there is a correlation between them. In a positive correlation, as one number rises, so does the other number. In a negative correlation, as one number rises, the other number falls. For example, there is a positive correlation between academic achievement and wages, and there is a negative correlation between smoking and life expectancy. Sometimes, statistics may try to show a correlation when none exists. For example, a report that “people who go fishing are less likely to get cancer” may be statistically true but lack any real correlation. SS Skill Builder 3

118 Interpreting Statistics
Learning the Skill (cont.) Determine the conclusions you can draw from the statistics. SS Skill Builder 4

119 Interpreting Statistics
Practicing the Skill Study the table below and answer the questions on the following slide. SS Skill Builder 5

120 Interpreting Statistics
Practicing the Skill (cont.) 1. What claim does this set of statistics seem to support? 2. Is there a correlation between miles of railroad tracks and the Native American population? Is the correlation positive or negative? Explain. As the number of miles of track increased, the Native American population declined. You may see a negative correlation, but other data would be needed to support the conclusion that an increase in railroad track caused a reduction in Native American population. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers. SS Skill Builder 6

121 Life in the West Objectives
After viewing “Life in the West,” you should:  Realize that a cowboy's life was often quite difficult.  Understand that American cowboys were of many different races and ethnicities.  Know that much of the cowboy culture originated with the Spanish. Click in the small window above to show a preview of The American Vision video. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. TAV Video 1

122 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
Life in the West Discussion Questions Why did many African Americans become cowboys? As slaves, they grew up around horses. After the Civil War, when they obtained freedom, they became cowboys because they were already familiar with many aspects of the way of life. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. TAV Video 2

123 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
Life in the West Discussion Questions What goods did California produce? What region of the country wanted California’s goods and why? How did the goods get there? California produced hides and tallow. The leather was sent to the Northeast where it became the basis for the shoe industry. Traders went from California to the Northeast by going “around the horn,” which means sailing around South America. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. TAV Video 3

124 M/C 1-1

125 M/C 3-1

126 Technology and History 1
Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Technology and History 1

127 Why It Matters Transparency

128 Daily Focus Skills Transparency 1
Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Daily Focus Skills Transparency 1

129 Daily Focus Skills Transparency 2
Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Daily Focus Skills Transparency 2

130 Daily Focus Skills Transparency 3
Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Daily Focus Skills Transparency 3

131 End of Custom Shows WARNING! Do Not Remove
This slide is intentionally blank and is set to auto-advance to end custom shows and return to the main presentation. End of Custom Shows

132 End of Slide Show


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