2Historical, Social, and Cultural Forces World War IBegan in 1914Allies v. Central PowersU.S. joined war in 1917 (Lusitania)Allies won November 11, 191810 million soldiers died
3Historical, Social, and Cultural Forces Roaring TwentiesU.S. soldiers returning homeBooming economyJazzLate night partiesFlappersProhibitionGangsters (Al Capone)
4Historical, Social, and Cultural Forces Women’s Rights19th Amendment passed in 1920Better job opportunities and military opportunitiesGreat MigrationAfrican Americans left the rural South for the North.Better jobs and living conditionsHarlem, New York was a popular place to relocate.
5Historical, Social, and Cultural Forces Pop CultureAutomobiles (1913)Radios (1920)Movies (Talkies- 1927)Baseball (Babe Ruth)The Great DepressionBlack Tuesday Stock Market CrashBy 1933 a quarter of the population was unemployed
6Modern Poetry Characteristics Make it new: break away from traditional poetryImagist movement: Direct presentation of imagesBreaking the rules: Ignored all writing rules
7Modern Poetry Poets Ezra Pound T.S. Eliot William Carlos Williams Amy LowellE.E. CummingsCarl SandburgRobert Frost
8The ImagistsImagist presented a concrete tangible image that appears frozen in time.Imagist method is similar to photography
9Imagist Principles/Manifestos The image is the essence, the raw material, of poetry.Poetry should be expressed in brief, clear, concrete language that forms precise images.Images should convey poems meaning and emotion.Language should sound like simple speech.Topics should not be “high-minded” or poetic. No topic is unsuitable.
10Modern Fiction The Modern American Short Story Modern writers experimented with new ways of capturing the rich complexity of human life and responded to a world that was starting over after World War I.
11Modern Fiction Sherwood Anderson Ernest Hemingway* Important AuthorsSherwood AndersonErnest Hemingway*F. Scott Fitzgerald*Henry JamesKatherine Anne Porter*
12Modern Fiction Stream of Consciousness A reoccurring element in modern American fiction.William James (brother of author Henry James) an American psychologist coined the phrase in He believed that people had a constant stream of thoughts that flow through their minds without clear logic order.
13Modern Fiction Stream of Consciousness Story Elements First person point of viewLack of conventional sentence structure or grammarFree associations that flow through a character’s mind and link distinctly separate events.Interior monologue
14Modern Fiction The Lost Generation Many writers left the United States during this period and established new lives in Europe.International perspective contrasted with the regionalism that dominated literature following the Civil War.Themes of change, indecision, and broken attachments dominate modern fiction.
15Modern Fiction Features of the Modern Short Story Understatement (de-emphasis on the importance of something or someone)Irony (contrast between appearance and reality)Stream of ConsciousnessAntiheroes (conflicted characters engulfed by indecision)Everyday settingsThemes of instability and lossPlots without clear climax or resolution
16Harlem RenaissanceRepresented the coming of age of the African American culture.Influenced by jazz music. The music was largely improvisational/spontaneous. Jazz inspired a an energetic social life and filled the clubs.
17Harlem Renaissance The Neighborhood Harlem became a main destination during the great migration. It was a haven for African Americans. They were able to escape the restrictions in Harlem.
18Important Writers Zora Neale Hurston Claude McKay * Robert Hughes Langston Hughes*Georgia DouglasCountee Cullen *
19Claude McKay Born and educated in rural Jamaica. Won an award for his poetry in He used his prize money to come to the US- the land of opportunity.He was shocked by the racisim and violence he found in the US.His poem “If We Must Die” is said to be the spark that ignited the Harlem Renissance.Spent most of his life looking for ways to counter the “ignoble cruelty” of racism.
21Langston Hughes Born in Joplin Missouri in 1902 Traveled around the U.S. and lived in six different cities by the time he was 12.His writing celebrated the dignity of ordinary, working-class African Americans.His poetry helped many people to look past stereotypical views of African Americans.He is considered the poet laureate of Harlem.