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Noun: person, place, thing, or idea Proper noun: name of a specific person, place, thing, or idea – should be CAPITALIZED Proper noun: name of a specific.

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Presentation on theme: "Noun: person, place, thing, or idea Proper noun: name of a specific person, place, thing, or idea – should be CAPITALIZED Proper noun: name of a specific."— Presentation transcript:

1 Noun: person, place, thing, or idea Proper noun: name of a specific person, place, thing, or idea – should be CAPITALIZED Proper noun: name of a specific person, place, thing, or idea – should be CAPITALIZED Common noun: a general noun – should NOT be capitalized Common noun: a general noun – should NOT be capitalized

2 Examples of common nouns actor actor singer singer magazine magazine author author school school

3 Examples of proper nouns Johnny Depp Johnny Depp Britney Spears Britney Spears Sports Illustrated Sports Illustrated Nicholas Sparks Nicholas Sparks Hazel Green High School Hazel Green High School

4 Singular, Plural, and Collective Nouns singular: only one singular: only one plural: more than one (usually but not always end in s or es) plural: more than one (usually but not always end in s or es) collective: names a group, and can be thought of as plural or singular depending on the meaning in the sentence collective: names a group, and can be thought of as plural or singular depending on the meaning in the sentence

5 Examples of Singular Nouns and their Plurals cat – cats cat – cats desk – desks desk – desks child – children child – children box – boxes box – boxes student – students student – students holiday - holidays holiday - holidays

6 Examples of Collective Nouns class – used as singular My first block class is always on time. class – used as singular My first block class is always on time. class – used as plural The class turned in their homework. class – used as plural The class turned in their homework. committee – used as singular The committee wants our attention. committee – used as singular The committee wants our attention. committee – used as plural The committee have gone their separate ways. committee – used as plural The committee have gone their separate ways.

7 Compound Nouns One-word compound nouns: form the plural like other nouns blackberry = blackberries penknife = penknives One-word compound nouns: form the plural like other nouns blackberry = blackberries penknife = penknives Hyphenated compound nouns: make the most important word plural father-in-law = fathers-in-law Hyphenated compound nouns: make the most important word plural father-in-law = fathers-in-law

8 Singular & Plural Verbs verbs in singular form for singular nouns = opposite verbs in singular form for singular nouns = opposite verbs in plural forms for plural nouns = opposite ex. The boy walks to school. The boys walk to school. verbs in plural forms for plural nouns = opposite ex. The boy walks to school. The boys walk to school.

9 Verb Tense: When Do I… Present tense: this is what I do now I walk, I run, I carry, I yell, I teach Present tense: this is what I do now I walk, I run, I carry, I yell, I teach Past tense: this is what I did yesterday I walked, I ran, I carried, I yelled, I taught Past tense: this is what I did yesterday I walked, I ran, I carried, I yelled, I taught Future tense: this is what I will do tomorrow I will walk, I will run, I will carry, I will yell, I will teach Future tense: this is what I will do tomorrow I will walk, I will run, I will carry, I will yell, I will teach

10 Verb Shift If it is happening now, it should keep happening now. I woke up late this morning and brushed my teeth in a hurry. NOT I woke up late this morning and brush my teeth in a hurry. If it is happening now, it should keep happening now. I woke up late this morning and brushed my teeth in a hurry. NOT I woke up late this morning and brush my teeth in a hurry. This applies to sentences AND to paragraphs. This applies to sentences AND to paragraphs.

11 Subject / Verb Agreement P. 380 P. 380 P. 575 P. 575 Recognize prepositional phrases and MARK THEM OUT! Recognize prepositional phrases and MARK THEM OUT!

12 Pronoun / Antecedent Number & Gender The girls forgot their lunches. That man dropped his wallet. They mean… The girls forgot the girls lunches. That man dropped that mans wallet. Number & Gender The girls forgot their lunches. That man dropped his wallet. They mean… The girls forgot the girls lunches. That man dropped that mans wallet.

13 Pronoun Mistakes Ours, hers, theirs are not words Ours, hers, theirs Ours, hers, theirs are not words Ours, hers, theirs Subtract, subtract: when you have more than one or with prepositional phrases (used the pencil) Subtract, subtract: when you have more than one or with prepositional phrases (used the pencil) Say it out loud (at least until Ms. Jacobs tells you to shush) Say it out loud (at least until Ms. Jacobs tells you to shush)

14 Active & Passive Voice By By If the subject is DOING something it is ACTIVE. If the subject is DOING something it is ACTIVE. If the subject is getting something done TO it the verb is PASSIVE. If the subject is getting something done TO it the verb is PASSIVE. If you hit something, you are active. If you get hit by something, you are passive. If you hit something, you are active. If you get hit by something, you are passive.

15 Modifiers Most of these start with a clause and a comma…HINT! Most of these start with a clause and a comma…HINT! Can you think of a way to take the sentence as a bad English teachers joke? Can you think of a way to take the sentence as a bad English teachers joke? Hanging on the wall, John liked his new poster. John is not hanging on the wall, is he? Hanging on the wall, John liked his new poster. John is not hanging on the wall, is he? By paying attention in class, the test was really pretty easy. Who is paying attention in this sentence? No one. By paying attention in class, the test was really pretty easy. Who is paying attention in this sentence? No one.

16 Commonly Confused Words (p. 653) Already means it has happened once All ready means she can finally leave Already means it has happened once All ready means she can finally leave Lose means you cant find it or you dont find it Loose means not tight (like those baggy pants) Lose means you cant find it or you dont find it Loose means not tight (like those baggy pants) Principal means main or Mr. Fanning principle means ethics Principal means main or Mr. Fanning principle means ethics Affect is a verb meaning to change or influence effect is a noun, like SFX effect is a verb meaning to cause Affect is a verb meaning to change or influence effect is a noun, like SFX effect is a verb meaning to cause

17 Clear, Vivid Language Does she want nice flowers, or does she want the deepest red flowers with the most romantic vase and the most delicious smell? Nice could mean a lot of things. Does she want nice flowers, or does she want the deepest red flowers with the most romantic vase and the most delicious smell? Nice could mean a lot of things. Would you rather be (or have your boyfriend be) attractive or, as you say, swole? Attractive could be a lot of things. Would you rather be (or have your boyfriend be) attractive or, as you say, swole? Attractive could be a lot of things. Use the five senses: sight, sound, smell, taste, touch Use the five senses: sight, sound, smell, taste, touch Avoid extra words (PIN number, ATM machine, the brand new car I just got) Avoid extra words (PIN number, ATM machine, the brand new car I just got)

18 Formal / Informal Language Formal: business, the president, how would you want to talk to your great- grandmothers preacher in front of the whole church, a job application Formal: business, the president, how would you want to talk to your great- grandmothers preacher in front of the whole church, a job application Informal: txt/sms, passing notes, IM, slang…swole, aint, ballin, holla, trippin Informal: txt/sms, passing notes, IM, slang…swole, aint, ballin, holla, trippin

19 Sentence Structure Run-on, and on, and on, and on… Run-on, and on, and on, and on… Sentence fragments: I think they. Sentence fragments: I think they. Comma splice: You take two sentence, you stick them together. Comma splice: You take two sentence, you stick them together. Fragments: missing a subject or a verb Fragments: missing a subject or a verb CS: add a conjunction, make it two sentences, or change the comma to a semicolon ; CS: add a conjunction, make it two sentences, or change the comma to a semicolon ;

20 Parallelism / Parallel Structure -ed, -ed, -ed -ing, -ing, -ing noun, noun, noun -ed, -ed, -ed -ing, -ing, -ing noun, noun, noun I like hunting, fishing, and camping. I like hunting, fishing, and camping. I like to hunt, fish, and camp. NOT I like to hunt, fish, and camp. NOT I like to hunt, fishing, and camping. I like to hunt, fishing, and camping.

21 Capitalization Names Names First words: sentences and quotations First words: sentences and quotations Titles Titles

22 Commas Items in a series Items in a series Direct address, appositives, parenthetical expression (pencil) Direct address, appositives, parenthetical expression (pencil) Introductory adverbial clauses (pencil) Introductory adverbial clauses (pencil) Instead of a period, if the quotation doesnt end the sentence Instead of a period, if the quotation doesnt end the sentence Before conjunction in compound sentence (remember the comma splice) Before conjunction in compound sentence (remember the comma splice)

23 ; : Semicolon and Colon ; : Semicolon and Colon Series, when you are already using commas Series, when you are already using commas Instead of a comma splice Instead of a comma splice Before a conjunctive adverb Before a conjunctive adverb Introduce a list…NEVER following a verb Introduce a list…NEVER following a verb

24 Quotation Marks and Underlining quotation marks if it is short (think a piece of the whole) quotation marks if it is short (think a piece of the whole) Underlining if it is long (think of the big piece made of the little ones) Underlining if it is long (think of the big piece made of the little ones) quotation marks if the words are the exact ones said by someone quotation marks if the words are the exact ones said by someone

25 Apostrophe Possessive singular nouns: my only dogs bowl Possessive singular nouns: my only dogs bowl Possessive plural nouns: my two dogs bowls Possessive plural nouns: my two dogs bowls If two things are possessing, they both have to show it Mr. Cases and Mrs. Bradys rooms If two things are possessing, they both have to show it Mr. Cases and Mrs. Bradys rooms When letters are missing in contractions: dont, cant, wont, musnt, isnt When letters are missing in contractions: dont, cant, wont, musnt, isnt

26 Logical Progression Introduction Introduction Conclusion Conclusion Sequence Sequence Transitions Transitions Irrelevant (unimportant) or redundant (you already said that) sentences Irrelevant (unimportant) or redundant (you already said that) sentences


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