Presentation on theme: "Noun: person, place, thing, or idea"— Presentation transcript:
1 Noun: person, place, thing, or idea Proper noun: name of a specific person, place, thing, or idea – should be CAPITALIZEDCommon noun: a general noun – should NOT be capitalized
2 Examples of common nouns actorsingermagazineauthorschool
3 Examples of proper nouns Johnny DeppBritney SpearsSports IllustratedNicholas SparksHazel Green High School
4 Singular, Plural, and Collective Nouns singular: only oneplural: more than one (usually but not always end in “s” or “es”)collective: names a group, and can be thought of as plural or singular depending on the meaning in the sentence
5 Examples of Singular Nouns and their Plurals cat – catsdesk – deskschild – childrenbox – boxesstudent – studentsholiday - holidays
6 Examples of Collective Nouns class – used as singular My first block class is always on time.class – used as plural The class turned in their homework.committee – used as singular The committee wants our attention.committee – used as plural The committee have gone their separate ways.
7 Compound NounsOne-word compound nouns: form the plural like other nouns blackberry = blackberries penknife = penknivesHyphenated compound nouns: make the most important word plural father-in-law = fathers-in-law
8 Singular & Plural Verbs verbs in singular form for singular nouns = oppositeverbs in plural forms for plural nouns = opposite ex. The boy walks to school. The boys walk to school.
9 Verb Tense: When Do I…Present tense: this is what I do now I walk, I run, I carry, I yell, I teachPast tense: this is what I did yesterday I walked, I ran, I carried, I yelled, I taughtFuture tense: this is what I will do tomorrow I will walk, I will run, I will carry, I will yell, I will teach
10 Verb ShiftIf it is happening now, it should keep happening now. I woke up late this morning and brushed my teeth in a hurry. NOT I woke up late this morning and brush my teeth in a hurry.This applies to sentences AND to paragraphs.
11 Subject / Verb Agreement P. 380P. 575Recognize prepositional phrases and MARK THEM OUT!
12 Pronoun / AntecedentNumber & Gender The girls forgot their lunches. That man dropped his wallet. They mean… The girls forgot the girls’ lunches. That man dropped that man’s wallet.
13 Pronoun MistakesOur’s, her’s, their’s are not words Ours, hers, theirsSubtract, subtract: when you have more than one or with prepositional phrases (used the pencil)Say it out loud (at least until Ms. Jacobs tells you to shush)
14 Active & Passive Voice By If the subject is DOING something it is ACTIVE.If the subject is getting something done TO it the verb is PASSIVE.If you hit something, you are active. If you get hit by something, you are passive.
15 Modifiers Most of these start with a clause and a comma…HINT! Can you think of a way to take the sentence as a bad English teacher’s joke?Hanging on the wall, John liked his new poster. John is not hanging on the wall, is he?By paying attention in class, the test was really pretty easy. Who is paying attention in this sentence? No one.
16 Commonly Confused Words (p. 653) Already means it has happened once All ready means she can finally leaveLose means you can’t find it or you don’t find it Loose means not tight (like those baggy pants)Principal means main or Mr. Fanning principle means ethicsAffect is a verb meaning to change or influence effect is a noun, like SFX effect is a verb meaning to cause
17 Clear, Vivid LanguageDoes she want “nice” flowers, or does she want the deepest red flowers with the most romantic vase and the most delicious smell? Nice could mean a lot of things.Would you rather be (or have your boyfriend be) “attractive” or, as you say, “swole”? Attractive could be a lot of things.Use the five senses: sight, sound, smell, taste, touchAvoid extra words (PIN number, ATM machine, the brand new car I just got)
18 Formal / Informal Language Formal: business, the president, how would you want to talk to your great-grandmother’s preacher in front of the whole church, a job applicationInformal: txt/sms, passing notes, IM, slang…swole, ain’t, ballin’, holla, trippin’
19 Sentence Structure Run-on, and on, and on, and on… Sentence fragments: I think they.Comma splice: You take two sentence, you stick them together.Fragments: missing a subject or a verbCS: add a conjunction, make it two sentences, or change the comma to a semicolon ;
20 Parallelism / Parallel Structure -ed, -ed, -ed -ing, -ing, -ing noun, noun, nounI like hunting, fishing, and camping.I like to hunt, fish, and camp. NOTI like to hunt, fishing, and camping.
21 CapitalizationNamesFirst words: sentences and quotationsTitles
22 Commas Items in a series Direct address, appositives, parenthetical expression (pencil)Introductory adverbial clauses (pencil)Instead of a period, if the quotation doesn’t end the sentenceBefore conjunction in compound sentence (remember the comma splice)
23 ; : Semicolon and Colon Series, when you are already using commas Instead of a comma spliceBefore a conjunctive adverbIntroduce a list…NEVER following a verb
24 “Quotation Marks” and Underlining “quotation marks” if it is short (think a piece of the whole)Underlining if it is long (think of the big piece made of the little ones)“quotation marks” if the words are the exact ones said by someone
25 Apostrophe Possessive singular nouns: my only dog’s bowl Possessive plural nouns: my two dogs’ bowlsIf two things are possessing, they both have to show it Mr. Case’s and Mrs. Brady’s roomsWhen letters are missing in contractions: don’t, can’t, won’t, musn’t, isn’t
26 Logical Progression Introduction Conclusion Sequence Transitions Irrelevant (unimportant) or redundant (you already said that) sentences