2World History -Renaissance The Renaissance – means “rebirth”; in Europe was the rebirth of ideas and culture connected with ancient Greece and Rome. Mainly in urban centers.Florence – where the Renaissance began; spread to other areas of Europe over 200 years.Politics – Medici family (wealthy merchants) ruled FlorenceEconomy – based on shipping trade with Byzantine & Islamic Empires as well as England and the Netherlands.Socially– time of recovery from Black Plague & political instability. Importance of the individual. Material comforts, art emphasizing positive human qualities, and humanistic ideas.
3Renaissance MenRenaissance Man describes a well educated person who excels in many fields and has many talents.Machiavelli – From Florence; Wrote The Prince, describing the skills required by a ruling prince to maintain power and order.Leonardo da Vinci – The original Renaissance Man; expert in painting, sculpting, engineering, physics, anatomy, and other subjects. He is most known for the Mona Lisa and The Last Supper.Michelangelo – Renaissance artist who is best known for idealized paintings and sculptures of the human body. Reflected the beauty of God.
4Renaissance Humanists Humanists studied history, philosophy, and poetry of the ancient Greeks and Romans.Petrarch – argued that no conflict existed between secular achievements and a person’s relationship with God. He believed that God gave people intelligence and talents that they should use to the fullest.Dante – Took humanist ideas and incorporated them into literature written in the common language of his day; not in Latin.Erasmus – was a Dutch Christian Humanist who believed in reforming the Catholic Church from within. He believed in free will instead of predestination ideas found in the Protestant movement.
5Protestant Reformation A movement against certain practices of the Catholic Church which had dominated religious practice & politics in Europe for hundreds of years.Martin Luther – his ideas were considered a catalyst of the Protestant Reformation. He publicly protested and posted the 95 Theses attacking the selling of Indulgences for the release from the punishment of sin. He broke from the Catholic Church, and the Lutheran Church was formed as the first Protestant faith.John Calvin – Leader in the Protestant faith; believed in predestination (God is all powerful and has already decided who will receive salvation & who won’t)
6Protestant Reformation Henry VIII – established the Anglican Church in England (Protestant Church) so he could divorce his wife. He remained very Catholic in his beliefs.Elizabeth I – Henry VIII’s daughter turned the Anglican Church to moderate Protestantism during her reign.Johannes Gutenberg – printed the first Bible in Europe with moveable type. This allowed the ideas of the Protestant Reformation to spread rapidly. The printing industry encouraged people to learn to read, and gave them access to a variety of religious texts, literature, and scholarship.
7The Counter Reformation (Catholic Reformation) Jesuits – group of Catholics who believed in restoring Catholicism to newly Protestant areas of Europe. Were recognized as a new religious order within the Catholic Church. They turned many parts of Europe back to Catholicism through education.Council of Trent – body of Catholic Bishops who met for 18 years to work on reforming corrupt practices within the Catholic faith. Stopped the selling of indulgences.
8Age of ExplorationVasco da Gama – sailed to Eastern Africa & Western India; helped Portugal establish strategic positions along Indian Ocean. Portuguese controlled trade routes in this area.Christopher Columbus – Italian sailing for Spain; looked for route from Spain to India; helped establish a permanent European settlement on Hispaniola; connected Europe with the Americas.Ferdinand Magellan – sailed for Spain; 1st explorer to successfully sail around the earth. Helped prove that the earth was round.
9Age of ExplorationSamuel de Champlain – sailed for France; established the first French colony in North America. His colony in New France was called Quebec City. Helped establish trade routes between France and New France.Mercantilism – idea that countries need a large supply of gold and silver to have prosperity. They earn the gold and silver by exporting goods. Colonies provided European nations the raw materials they needed to make finished goods. The colonies then were a market for these finished goods.
10Age of ExplorationColumbian Exchange – large scale exchange of plants, diseases, animals, and people between the eastern and western hemispheres following Columbus’ first voyage to the AmericasAstrolabe – technology that allowed sailors to locate and predict the position of the moon, sun, stars making navigation more efficient.
11Enlightenment In Europe Copernicus – believed in heliocentric solar system (the earth revolved around the sun); this challenged the Catholic Church’s opposite belief.Galileo Galilei – proved Copernicus’ theory through use of the telescope.Johannes Kepler – astronomer who believed that the planets in the solar system moved in an elliptical orbit around the sun.Sir Isaac Newton – considered the father of calculus; famous for his laws of gravity and motion; proved Kepler’s theory of elliptical orbit through mathematics.
12US History Colonial History European SettlementGPS: SSUSH 1a, 1b, 1c, 1d
13Jamestown, VirginiaFounded by the Virginia Company of London as a business venture.First permanent English colony in North America.Settled on a swampy site on the James River in Virginia.Problems:Settled on a swampIllnessLack of food & fresh waterFights with Native AmericansWanted to look for gold instead of workThe colony almost did not survive.
14Jamestown is saved by Tobacco 1614 – Pocahontas married John Rolfe, an English tobacco grower.The marriage led to good will between the colonists & the Powhatans for a while.Conflict began again when colonists expanded onto Powhatan lands to grow tobacco.Virginia’s economy became dependent on tobacco for its existence.
15Jamestown becomes self -governing 1619 – VA Company let Jamestown establish its own government with the right to create colonial laws.Residents elected representatives, called burgesses to the House of Burgesses.The VA House of Burgesses was the first representative government in America.The governor was appointed by the VA Company.This elected body acted on behalf of the colonists.
16Bacon’s RebellionPoor English and slave colonists staged an uprising against the governor and his landowning supporters. The landless rebels wanted harsher action against the Native Americans so more land would be available to the colonists. The rebellion was put down, and the VA House of Burgesses passed laws to regulate slavery so poor white colonists would no longer side with slaves against rich white colonists.
17NEW ENGLAND SETTLEMENT New England coloniesEstablished by Puritans in present day Massachusetts.Strict religious beliefs.Not tolerant of differing religious beliefs.
18New England Settlement Rhode Island was founded by religious dissenters from Massachusetts who were more tolerant of different religious beliefs.Many New England communities were run through town meetings.In colonies run by the King, a royal governor was appointedChurch membership was required for men to have voting rights.Church membership was tightly controlled by the minister and congregation. As more children were born in America, many grew up to be adults who lacked a personal covenant (relationship) with God.
19Events in Massachusetts Mid-1600’s – the Puritan ideal was under pressure to change.1662- church ministers agreed to the “Half - Way Covenant”Children of church members were admitted as “half way” members who could be baptized into the church, but did not have the right to vote or take communion. Hope was to increase church membership with these 2nd and 3rd generation Puritans.Late 1600’s – a fear of witchcraft was prevalent in New England.1692- in Salem, MA – dozens of women, men & children were accused of witchcraft & jailed.During the 10 months of the Salem Witch Trials, nineteen people were found guilty of practicing witchcraft and were hanged.
20Mid – Atlantic Colonies PENNSYLVANIA1681 – William Penn got a large piece of land from King Charles II and founded Pennsylvania.Quakers settled PennsylvaniaPracticed religious toleranceWere pacifistsReligious equality for womenNo established church ministryQuakers were often persecuted for they way of life.1683 – Pennsylvania established a legislative assembly.
21Mid – Atlantic Colonies NEW YORK1626 – Dutch settlement of New Amsterdam was founded after buying Manhattan Island from the Manhattan people (Native Americans) for some beads and other goods.It became a major trading port.Dutch governor Peter Stuyvesant turned the colony over to England in 1664.It was renamed New York after the Duke of York, who was the brother of King Charles II.Tolerant of different religions.
22Trans-Atlantic TradeMercantilism – inspired Parliament to control the trans-Atlantic trade with its American colonies.All goods shipped to or from British North America had to travel in British ships, and goods exported to Europe were subject to British taxes.These restrictions were designed to keep the colonies from competing with Britain.
23SLAVERY IS INTRODUCEDTobacco & other cash crops required a large labor force.African slaves were used for this work.In 1607, there were no African slaves in North America, but by 1700, there were thousands.Most of them were found in the Southeast, where the economy was agriculturally based.The Middle Passage was the part of the triangular trade through which the slaves came to North America.
24African American Culture African American culture grew in America.Slave communities were rich with music, dance, basket weaving, and pottery making.Slaves brought these skills with them from their various cultures.
25The enlightenment Influences in America The Enlightenment was a new way of thinking that came about during the scientific revolution in Europe. It was based on reason.John Locke and others talked about the natural rights of individuals.Rousseau- argued in favor of the social contract, allowing governments to exist and rule only with the consent of the people.
26THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION US HISTORYTHE AMERICAN REVOLUTIONGPS SSUSH 3A, 3B, 3C
27CAUSES OF THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION THERE WAS A GROWING BELIEF THAT COLONISTS’ RIGHTS AS ENGLISHMEN WERE BEING VIOLATED.French & Indian War – 1754 – 1763: Fought between Great Britain, the French & their Native American allies. It was fought over territory in the Ohio Valley. Native Americans supported the French because they built forts for trade instead of permanent settlements. Great Britain won the war, but would need money to help pay war debts. Was called the 7 Years War in Europe.
28Treaty of Paris: 1763 - Ended the French and Indian War Treaty of Paris: Ended the French and Indian War. France lost Canada to Great Britain. France also gave up all land east of the Mississippi River except New Orleans. The British kept control of all American colonies, which colonists resented.RESULT: Redrew the entire political map of North America & brought Great Britain into conflict with both France and the colonies.
29Proclamation of 1763: Parliament told the colonists they could not purchase land west of the Appalachian Mountains. Britain sent 10,000 troops to the colonies. Western settlers were ordered to vacate Indian land, and only those British settlers with licenses could trade.
30GREAT BRITAIN NEEDED MONEY FOR THE FRENCH AND INDIAN WAR TO REPAY WAR DEBTSFOR THE FRENCH AND INDIAN WARStamp Act (1765) – was passed to raise money for defending the colonies. Taxed legal documents, newspapers, pamphlets, etc. It was the first direct tax ever placed on the colonies & a violation of the principle that only the colonies’ legislative assemblies could impose taxes.Colonists opposed taxation without representation & boycotted the stamps. No taxes were ever paid and the tax was finally repealed.
31COLONIAL RESISTANCESons of Liberty – secret organization formed to show colonists’ dislike for British policies. They were led by Sam Adams. They damaged British property and promoted civil disobedience.Daughters of Liberty - protest group of females. Helped make homemade items so that colonists could continue to boycott British goods.
32Committees of Correspondence – formed because American patriots could not communicate publicly. They would exchange written communication with each other. They were the first organization linking the colonies in their opposition to British rule. They played an important role in planning for the First Continental Congress.Intolerable Acts – passed by Britain to punish Massachusetts for the Boston Tea Party. Closed Boston Harbor, and required colonists to house British soldiers in their homes. Reduce colonists’ rights to self government.
33Common SenseCommon Sense – Thomas Paine published this pamphlet encouraging Americans to support independence from Great Britain.
34Declaration of Independence – written by Thomas Jefferson using the ideas of John Locke and Charles de Montesquieu. The language of it was very direct and simple for everyone to understand. It explained the reasons for the colonies seeking independence from Great Britain. It listed examples of how King George III had violated colonists’ rights. It discussed the colonists’ many unsuccessful attempts to get relief from Great Britain, and ended by stating that the only way for the colonists to restore their rights was to do it themselves by declaring independence.
35Important PeopleBenjamin Franklin – American ambassador to France. The French began to secretly support the Americans in early 1776.Marquis de Lafayette – French soldier who joined the war against the British. He helped train American forces and was a key strategist in the Yorktown campaign that led to the British surrender.Lord Cornwallis – was the commander of the British forces during the American Revolution. He surrendered at Yorktown and returned to Britain.e had a good chance of being badly hurt or dying in battle.
36George Washington Named commander in Chief of the Continental Army. Extraordinary leadership abilitiesReorganized the armyGot additional equipment and suppliesStarted a training program for a professional military.
37Important EventsCrossing the Delaware River – Christmas Eve – Was the turning point of the Revolutionary War. Washington & his men crossed the river during a snowstorm for a surprise attack on a fort held by Hessian mercenaries working for the British. The American victory there proved that American troops were a serious opponent. THIS VICTORY RAISED AMERICAN MORALE.Valley Forge -Washington’s troops spent a harsh winter in there. Problems for the army were at their worst during that time. Disease spread through the camp. 4,000 men were too weak or ill to fight. Even though, Washington ordered an intense training program that made the Continental Army much more confident and capable.
38Important EventsYorktown , VA– British General Cornwallis planned to move the battles to the south in an attempt to separate the southern & northern states. He followed American troops into VA, where he was defeated by the American-French alliance. He surrendered, and the Revolutionary War ended.1783 Treaty of Paris – Ended the Revolutionary war.America now had independence without qualification.
39Ideas of Liberty Begin to Spread FranceHaitiLatin AmericaOther areas that experienced revolution
40France (1789) French Revolution Moderate Phase – constitutional monarchyRadical Phase – Reign of TerrorFinal Moderate Phase – RepublicCaused by a lack of central leadership.Extreme margin between rich and poor.Estates General met & promised to double the vote of the common people against the votes of the clergy and nobility.This failed, and the Third Estate (commoners) rebelled and took the “Tennis Court Oath” that they would be the national assembly & would not separate until a constitution was established.
41France (1798) France got a constitution in 1791 Reign of Terror began when Louis XVI tried to flee. Tens of thousands were executed (mostly nobility and clergy)A new constitution was written in 1795.The government was unstable, and people wanted a strong political figure.Napoleon entered the scene and established the French Empire.
42Haiti (1791)Haitian Revolution (1791) was similar to US Revolution in its causes.Haiti was controlled by FranceStrict mercantilist policiesDenied them a voice in governmentSlaveryDivision in Haiti over issues.Declaration of the Rights of man issued by the Estates General in 1789.Raised issue of slavery for France and her colonies.Slave rebellions started in 17911794 – all free people in colonies were considered equalSlavery did not end thereInspired slave rebellions around the worldLoss of Haiti as a colony led to France giving up much territory in Western Hemisphere.
43Latin America (1808 – 1825)Early 19th century was dominated by revolutions throughout Latin America.These revolutions led to the establishments of the independent territories of Mexico, Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Argentina, Chile, Brazil and Bolivia.Many began after the success of the American and French Revolutions.The revolutions revolved around issues of mercantilism, slavery and self-government.Many were influenced or inspired by the efforts of Simon Bolivar, who believed in self government of the Spanish colonies.He established the Gran-Colombia, (a federal republic); it was his dream of a Latin-American state, and lasted until 1830,when it dissolved after his resignation.
44Creating a New Government US HistoryCreating a New GovernmentGPS: SSUSH 5a, 5b, 5c, 5d, 5e
45Articles of Confederation Written by the 2nd Continental Congress to establish a new central government for America.Was the first constitution (written plan for government) for our nation.Made sure that the central government was WEAK, and state governments were STRONG.No federal power to tax, regulate commerce, or establish a national currency.Led to conflicts among the states that threatened the existence of the nation.
46Shay’s RebellionAn attempt by a group of indebted farmers to secure weapons from a Federal Armory.Became the catalyst for the US to recognize the need for a new constitution.With no power to tax, the federal government could not repair the national economy.
47Federalists vs. Anti-Federalists Federalists (pro Constitution) focused on weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation, and the benefits of a national government as formed by the Constitution.They believed a strong central government would foster the commercial growth of the new country.Anti-Federalists (against Constitution) feared too much power in the new central government.They worried that the rights of common people would be suppressed by those in power.
48Alexander Hamilton & James Madison Authors of the Federalist PapersThese papers communicate the central ideas of the Federalists:The benefits of a union between the statesThe problems with the confederation as it stood at the timeThe importance of an effective federal governmentDefense of republicanismThe need for a federal government to preserve order and secure liberty.
49The Great Compromise Settled dispute between large and small states. Combined Virginia Plan and New Jersey PlanEstablished a national legislature with elected representatives based on a state’s population.Two house legislatureHouse of Representatives: representation based on populationSenate – equal representation for all states.
50Slavery Issue3/5 Compromise:3/5 of a state’s slaves would count as part of the populationCounting formula to be used for calculating taxation & representationSlave Trade:Congress would not interfere with the slave trade for 20 years.Congress could limit the slave trade after that timeReturn of runaway slaves by Northern states.
51Division of PowerFederalism (sharing power between federal and state governments) was the basis for the new government.Constitution would be the supreme law of the land.Limited government with divided powers.Powers divided between national and state governmentPower of national government was divided between the executive, legislative and judicial branches.Checks and balances – ensured that none of the 3 branches became too powerful (example- President can veto a bill passed by Congress)
52The Bill of Rights (1st ten amendments to the Constitution) was added in 1791. Guarantees personal freedoms such as freedom of speech and religion; right to bear arms, etc.The Constitution took effect in 1789
53The New Government in Action George Washington became America’s first presidentHe set important precedents for other presidents to follow.Was a period of booming trade with Great Britain.The US did not get involved in foreign conflicts. (neutrality)He warned against political parties and foreign entanglements.Tax policies were a major issue; taxes were passed on liquor; this hit the small whiskey makers in western settlements hard.
54Whiskey RebellionFarmers in western Pennsylvania rose up to protest the government over taxation.They attacked federal tax collectors.Washington showed the power of the federal government when he sent troops in to stop the protest.He said if Americans did not like a law, they should petition Congress peacefully.
55Political Parties Emerge 1796 – two political parties had emergedAlexander Hamilton led the FederalistsBelieved the Constitution granted the federal government implied powers (not specifically mentioned in the Constitution)Thomas Jefferson and James Madison were RepublicansBelieved in a strict interpretation of the Constitution. No powers not specifically mentioned in the Constitution.1796 Election – John Adams (Federalist) was elected President, and Thomas Jefferson (Republican) was elected Vice President. Political parties had begun to play an important role in the government process.
56Presidency of John Adams 1796 Election – John Adams (Federalist) was elected PresidentPlagued by conflicts with France and Great Britain that crippled the nation’s economy.Received harsh criticism from supporters of Vice President Thomas Jefferson.Congress passed a law that increased citizenship requirements so that Jefferson would lose support from the immigrant community.Congress also tried to stop the criticism with limits on speech and press rights of Jefferson’s followers.
57US HistoryAmerican ExpansionGPS SSUSH 6a, 6b, 6c, 6d, 6e
58Napoleon Bonaparte Positive changes in France Higher education Civil law (Napoleonic Code)Declared himself Emperor and established a hereditary monarchy.Established a modern secular stateDevelopment of modern warfareHis military strength motivated other European nations to form alliances & lay the foundation for many of today’s international systems.
59Louisiana Purchase1800 – Thomas Jefferson was elected 3rd president of the USHe was very curious about undiscovered “treasures” of the western lands.Jefferson sent ambassadors James Monroe & Robert Livingston to France to purchase New Orleans & West Florida for $10 million.Napoleon Bonaparte sold the Louisiana Territory to the US for 3 cents an acre ($15 million).The Louisiana Purchase more than doubled the size of the US (1803)
60Lewis and Clark Expedition Meriwether Lewis & William Clark were chosen by Jefferson to explore the Louisiana Purchase and lands west.They led 50 other explorers in the Corps of Discovery.Started at St. Louis and traveled up the Missouri River28 months8,000 milesWent to the Pacific Ocean and back.RESULT of the expedition – Opened the door to western expansion and brought a huge change to the lifestyle of Native Americans on both sides of the Mississippi River.
61Causes of The War of 1812Control of Atlantic Trade continued to create conflict between France and England.American merchant ships were caught in the middle of the conflict.1807 – Congress imposed an embargo (halt) of foreign trade directed against France and Great Britain.The embargo stopped trade for American merchants and farmers, causing a severe economic depression in the United States.American merchant ships were seized at sea by both France and Great Britain.The British forced thousands of American sailors into service in the British Royal Navy (impressment)Members of Congress believed that the British were arming Native Americans & causing their aggression toward the US.
62Results of the War of 1812June 18, 1812 – Congress declared war on Great Britain.Two years later, the Treaty of Ghent was signed to end the war.Military stalemateWhite House was burnedBrought a new spirit of nationalism that expanded trade & westward movement
63Monroe Doctrine1823 – President James Monroe issued the Monroe Doctrine.Put Europe on notice that the US would not tolerate any additional European colonies in North America.Became the basis for US foreign policy in the Western Hemisphere
64Domestic IssuesAmerican domestic policy focused mainly on movement west1807- steamboat changed river travelBy 1830, the steam locomotive would lead to a railroad network stretching from the East Coast to the MS River.Erie Canal opened and connected Lake Erie to the Hudson RiverCanals and railroads allowed goods to move from east to westNew York was a central point for America’s trade and bankingNY had a population of over 200,000 by 1830.As the infrastructure developed, America’s inner cities began to grow.
65Economic Growth & Reform GPS: SSUSH 7a, 7b, 7c, 7d, 7e US HistoryEconomic Growth & ReformGPS: SSUSH 7a, 7b, 7c, 7d, 7e
66Industrial Revolution Brings Changes Began in England in 1700s & eventually spread to the United States.Advances in science & technologyHad far reaching socioeconomic effectsIndustrialization involved a transition from manual to power driven factory labor.Factories began producing goods such as cloth & furniture previously made by hand in small shops or at home.As industries grew, people began to leave rural farms & villages to move to the cities for factory work.
67The Cotton Gin & US Industrialization 1794 – Eli Whitney makes cotton production easier with the invention of the cotton gin, which separated seeds from cotton.This invention resulted in increased cotton production, which led to more fields being planted with cotton, and an increased need for slaves to pick the cotton.By 1840, cotton represented 52% of goods exported from the United States.US industrialization began in 1800 in New England, where coal and iron were plentiful.
68Interchangeable Parts Parts that can be used for more than one product, instead of parts made one at a time for individual machines.Eli Whitney used interchangeable musket parts, which resulted in a large musket contract for him.These parts became a key component of industrialization in both the United States and Europe.
69Reasons for Westward Growth Most Americans desired to own their own land.Gold and other valuable resources were discovered in the West.Manifest Destiny – belief ofAmericans that it was our“obvious fate” to expand fromcoast to coast.
70Jacksonian DemocracyTerm refers to the presidency of Andrew Jackson ( )He believed in Manifest DestinyJackson expanded the power of the presidencyEncouraged people from all social classes to be involved in government & voteHe used the spoils system, where he gave friends and political supporters jobs in the government (even if they weren’t qualified)Responsible for Indian Relocation
71Popular Political Culture Expanded during Jackson’s presidential campaigns.Accusations against each sideMud slingingThese were publicized in songs, pamphlets, posters, lapel buttons and posters.Campaign rallies and barbecues.
72American NationalismAs a people, Americans in Andrew Jackson’s day believed in Manifest Destiny.They believed their nation was different than, and superior to, other nations because most Americans of that time shared the Protestant religion, English ancestry, and culture.They believed it was their duty to expand the hold of their religion, language, ancestry and culture all the way to the Pacific Ocean.Together, these beliefs comprise American nationalism.
74Temperance MovementTemperance is the belief that people should limit or eliminate the use of alcoholic beverages.Impact – increased the size of Protestant religious organizations & their influence in western & rural sections of the country. Also laid the foundation for the women’s movement because women played such an important role in this movement.
75Abolition MovementIssue – Slavery should be abolished and not allowed in new states.Impact – made slavery and its expansion an important political issue. Women played an important role, which laid the foundation for the women’s movement.
76AbolitionistsAbolition movement was an effort to end slavery. It took place mainly in the North.William Lloyd Garrison – writer and editor; white radical abolitionist; published anti-slavery newspaper.Frederick Douglass – former slave; worked for Garrison; traveled and made speeches against slavery; later published his own newspaper.
77Women’s Suffrage Movement Until 1920, most women in the US did not have suffrage(right to vote).Elizabeth Cady Stanton organized a large assembly in Seneca Falls, NY in 1848.More than 2,000 people attended the Seneca Falls Convention.It was the first women’s rights convention in the US.They wrote & voted on the Declaration of Sentiments, which called for equal rights for women in education, property ownership, and voting.This convention kicked off the women’s suffrage movement, and conventions were held every year.Eventually (1920), 72 years of persistence would lead to the19th Amendment, which gave women the right to vote.
78Public School Movement Issue – all children should be required to attend free schools supported by taxpayers and staffed by trained teachers.Impact – Established education as a right for all children and as a state and local issue. Improved the quality of schools by requiring trained teachers.
79Missouri Compromise of 1820 Missouri wanted to enter the Union as a state.Their constitution allowed slavery. One half of the states in the Union were free and one half allowed slaves. Missouri would upset the balance.So, the Missouri Compromise was enacted.Missouri would enter the Union as a slave stateMaine entered the Union as a free stateNo slavery would be allowed in the northern part of the Louisiana Purchase except Missouri.
80Nullification CrisisVice President, John C. Calhoun disagreed with President Andrew Jackson over rights of states to nullify (cancel) federal laws that they opposed.Trouble started when southern states tried to nullify a high tax (tariff) placed on goods from Europe.The tax helped northern manufacturers, but hurt plantation owners.John C. Calhoun, who resigned from the VP, was from South Carolina, so that state led the fight for states’ rights against the federal government.RESULT (CONSEQUENCE) – SECTIONALISM GROWS STRONGER IN THE SOUTH.
81Mexican – American War In 1845, Texas became part of the United States (it had formerly been part of Mexico).The US then wanted the Mexican territoriesof California and New Mexico.War broke out between the US and Mexico in 1846.The US occupied much of northern Mexico during the war. The US eventually won the war, and this region was ceded (given) to the US in the Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo.
82Wilmot ProvisoDuring the Mexican – American War, Congress debated whether slavery would be allowed in New Mexico and California if these territories were gained from Mexico.The anti-slavery provision was outlined in a proposal called the Wilmot Proviso.The House of Representatives failed to approve it, and the question of slavery in those areas remained unanswered.
83Compromise of 1850Five laws written to deal with issue of slavery in new states.The state of New Mexico would be established by carving its borders from Texas.New Mexico voters would determine whether slavery would be permitted or prohibited.California would enter the Union as a free stateAll citizens would be required to catch runaway slaves & return them to their owners or face fines or imprisonment.The slave trade would be abolished in the District of Columbia, but the practice of slavery would be allowed to continue there.
84Kansas – Nebraska Act1854 – Congress had to deal with the question of slavery in the new territories of Kansas and Nebraska.The idea was suggested by Senator Stephen Douglas for two reasons:1) He wanted Chicago to benefit from western development (railroads could be built on Kansas & Nebraska land & crops could be sent to Chicago)2) He wanted support of Southern Democrats when he ran for President. Allowing the people to decide on slavery would make North & South happy.
85Kansas – Nebraska Act POPULAR SOVEREIGNTY HAD FAILED !! Established POPULAR SOVEREIGNTY (rule by the people) in all new territories for people to decide if the state would be free or slave.Pro – slavery & anti-slavery groups rushed to Kansas to try to create a voting majority there.Pro – slavery voters elected a legislature.Abolitionists elected a rival Kansas government with an anti-slavery constitution, established a different capital city, and raised an army.Pro-slavery Kansans raised their own army.Violence broke out between the two factions – Kansas was called “Bleeding Kansas”.POPULAR SOVEREIGNTY HAD FAILED !!
86Dred Scott Decision1857 – US Supreme Court issued the Dred Scott decision. A slave named Dred Scott had sued his owner for his freedom when his owner moved him to a free state. The Supreme Court’s ruling stated that a slave could not be a citizen, so he could not sue. The Court also said that Congress could not prohibit slavery in federal territories. The Court found that popular sovereignty and the Missouri Compromise were unconstitutional. SIGNIFICANCE – The US Constitution protected slavery..
87John Brown’s RaidJohn Brown was a famous abolitionist who decided to fight slavery with violence and killing.He thought he was chosen by God to end slavery.He led family members and other abolitionists in an attack on pro-slavery settlers in Kansas.In 1859, he led a group of black and white men in an attack on the federal armory at Harper’s Ferry, Virginia.He planned to deliver the weapons to slaves to use in an uprising against slaveholders & federal officials.The raid failed and Brown was captured.He was convicted of treason against VA & executed.In the North he was a martyr; in the South he was a traitor.
88Lincoln’s Efforts to Preserve the Union Lincoln was elected in 1860.South Carolina seceded from the Union (separated), followed by MS, FL, AL, GA, LA & TX.These states formed a new country called the Confederacy (Confederate States of America)They attacked the US Army baseat Fort Sumter, SC in 1861 andthe Civil War began.
89Lincoln’s Efforts to Preserve the Union Lincoln believed that preserving the Union was his most important job.He saw the southern states as merely rebelling against the government.Lincoln called for a volunteer army to preserve the Union, and more states joined the Confederacy: VA, AR, NC, & TN.At first, Lincoln only wanted to restrict the spread of slavery, but later decided to end it in the US.
90Lincoln’s Second Inaugural Address Lincoln was re-elected in 1864.The Union had a certain victory.Lincoln expressed sorrow that the states had not been able to resolve their differences peacefully.He stated that slavery was evil.He urged Americans not to seek revenge on slaveholders and Confederate supporters.He urged Reconstruction of the South with “malice toward none”.Said the war was fought to preserve the Union and end slavery.
91Habeas CorpusThe legal rule that anyone imprisoned must be taken before a judge to determine if they were being held in custody legally.Lincoln suspended this constitutional right in some states during the Civil War.He had the right to do this in times of national emergencies.This enabled over 13,000 Confederate sympathizers to be arrested and held in the North.
92Emancipation Proclamation Lincoln used his emergency powers to issue it.Freed (emancipated) all the slaves in the Confederate States.He hoped the news would reach the slaves in the South & they would flee to the North.He thought this would lessen the number of men able to join the Confederate Army.It did not free slaves living in the North.New goal for Union troops – abolishing slavery.
93Antietam Maryland – 1862 First major battle on Union soil. Bloodiest one day battle of the Civil WarRobert E. Lee’s Confederate forces retreated, and the Union claimed victory.Significance of this battle - Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation afterwards.
94Battle of Gettysburg Pennsylvania – 1863 – Three day battle that was the turning point of the warMore than 50,000 men killed or wounded.Lee failed to show Britain & France they should help the Confederacy.Devastating losses for the ConfederatesLee withdrew his forces back to VirginiaLee gave up attempts to invade the Union.
95Battle of Vicksburg1862 – Vicksburg was important to the Confederacy because it guarded the Mississippi River & access to New Orleans.In 1863, Union forces sneaked past the Confederates during the night, and set up south of Vicksburg, where they gained control of the Mississippi River.This basically cut the Confederacy in half.Vicksburg was lost on July 4, 1863.
96Battle of AtlantaSherman’s plan was to force the Confederate forces to stop his advance. If they refused to fight, he planned to seize Atlanta.Confederate General James Hood engaged Union forces, and lost thousands of soldiers.Sherman’s forces were able to capture Atlanta, a major rail and industrial center of the Confederacy.
97Gettysburg Address1863 – Lincoln’s speech to dedicate a military cemetery at the Gettysburg battlefield.Lincoln spoke for only two minutes, but his speech is considered to be one of the greatest in the English language.It shaped popular opinion in favor of preserving the Union.It helped raise the spirits of the northerners who had grown tired of the war.He was able to convince people that the US was one indivisible nation.
98Presidential Reconstruction President Johnson’s plan:Amnesty for Southerners who swore allegiance to the Union.Pardon high ranking Confederate soldiers.Voting rights for white menAll southern states would ratify the 13th Amendment.Johnson would appoint new southern governors.Re-admit southern states to the Union as quickly as possible.
99Radical Republican Reconstruction Republicans in Congress were angry because new southern state governments were denying newly freed slaves their rights.Congress forced southern states to re-apply for admission to the Union.They had to ratify (accept) three new amendments to the Constitution.
10013th Amendment Ended slavery in the US. Freedmen’s Bureau – to meet the needs of former slaves; food, land, shelter & medical care.It also established schools & made labor contracts for freedmen.Black colleges (Morehouse in Atlanta)
101Fourteenth & Fifteenth Amendments Granted full citizenship to all people born in the US. (14th)Gave all citizens the right to vote. (15th)
102Progress for African Americans During Reconstruction. Many children could attend school for the first time.African Americans started newspapers, served in public office, and attended new colleges and universities.Morehouse College was founded in Atlanta in 1867.Freedmen’s Bureau was created by Congress to help the newly freed slaves.Provided food, clothing, jobs, medicine and medical facilities.Congress did not grant them land or the absolute right to own land. Many worked as tenant farmers or sharecroppers.
103Impeachment of Andrew Johnson Johnson ignored laws passed by Congress to limit presidential powers.They passed these laws to stop Johnson from curbing Radical Republicans’ hostile treatment of former Confederate states and their leaders.Johnson missed conviction by one vote.He was impeached mainly because he had differing opinions than those who had the power to impeach him.
104Resistance to Equal Rights Black Codes (1865 – 1866) – Series of laws passed by Southern legislatures to restrict the rights of newly freed blacks.Vagrancy laws; banned from owning farmland; minors could be “indentured” until 21 years old.Black Codes would later be overturned.
105Ku Klux KlanFormed in 1866 in Tennessee as a social club. Then became a “white supremist group fighting to keep African Americans from receiving their rights.Terrorized African Americans as a way to maintain the segregation and disenfranchisement of blacks.Dressed in white robes & hoods depicting the “ghosts” of dead Confederate soldiers.Nathan Bedford Forrest
106Expansion after the Civil War RailroadsOil and Steel IndustryImmigrant LaborRise of Big BusinessLabor UnionsMovement WestProgressives
107Railroads Why were they important? Could cross long distances More reliable transportationIncreased westward expansionGovernment gave land grants to RR’s
108Who Worked on the Railroads? Mostly Chinese immigrantsThe work was harsh and dangerous.The pay was poor.They worked long hours in all kinds of weather.
109Carnegie SteelAndrew Carnegie – Used vertical integration to make his company grow.He bought all the supplies & gained control of all parts of the steel production process.He created more product more cheaply.He also attracted talent to work in his company.Carnegie gave away 90% of his wealth!!
110Standard OilJohn D. Rockefeller used horizontal integration to make his company grow & create a monopoly.He controlled 90% of all the oil refinery businesses in the US.He paid low wages & kept hisprofits high.Rockefeller also gave much of his wealth to charities.
111ImmigrationImmigrants from Europe arrived on the East Coast at Ellis IslandIt was called the Golden Door (New York City)They traveled 2 – 3 weeks to get here in terrible conditions; faced thieves and criminals who took advantage of them; settled together in communities; made low wages, and faced discrimination. Likely to be poor.Immigrants from Asia arrived on the West Coast at Angel Island.Chinese & Japanese were targets of suspicion, hostility & discrimination.They worked mostly for the railroads.American labor unions were against them.
112American Federation of Labor One of the leading labor unions in the USWas led by Samuel GompersUsed collective bargaining as a method to help workers – this was a negotiation tactic where each side makes compromises.Used strikes – all workers walked off the job until the company agreed to the Union’s requests.
113How Did Western Expansion Affect the Native Americans? Harmful effect on Native Americans.Settlers & railroads took their land.Violence occurred between US troops & Native Americans.They were relocated to reservations.Their way of life was disrupted.
114Muckrakers and ReformMuckrakers were journalists who alerted the public to wrongdoing in politics and business.Upton Sinclair wrote The Jungle about the meatpacking industry.Ida Tarbell exposed unethical business practices of Standard Oil.
115Progressive ReformsProgress of business and industry inspired reformers to make improvements in the political and social environment.Strengthened American democracy in ways we carry forward into our own time.Supported new ideas and policies they believed would improve people’s lives.Supported increase government regulation of business and industry, efforts to protect consumers and workers, and policies to conserve natural resources.
116Election ReformThere was corruption in the government; several reforms were made to end it.Initiative – Citizens can put proposal on ballot by petitionRecall – Voters can remove public officials from officeReferendum – Process allowing citizens to approve or reject a law.Direct election of Senators – 17th Amendment (1913) – Voters won the right to elect their US senators. Previously, each state’s legislature chose the senators.
117Chinese Exclusion ActAsian immigrants face discrimination in the 1880’s.Chinese workers accepted low wages for jobs whites had held, employers lowered the wages for all workers.The Chinese Exclusion Act was passed in 1882 and banned all future Chinese immigration.
118Debate Over Expansionism (Imperialism) Pro – ImperialistsGain new frontier to keep our competitive edgeA celebration of American traditions & spiritPracticality of gaining foreign marketsGood Military strategy
119Debate Over Expansionism (Imperialism) Anti – ImperialistsRejection of nation’s foundation of “liberty for all”Laws should follow the flag – areas controlled by the US should get the rights of its citizens.Threatened our democratic freedomRacism – fear that policies would encourage people of different racial backgrounds to move to the US.Economic reasons – too many costsCompetition for US jobs
120The Spanish-American War Background & Causes:US vs. Spain in 1898Fighting happened near Cuba & the Philippines.Spanish naval squadron was completely destroyed.Spain’s defeat marked the end of their colonial empire & established the US as a global military empire.Causes:Cuba was trying to gain independence from Spain; suffered brutalityYellow Journalism – American newspapers used sensationalism in reporting events & increased US sympathy for Cubans.US imperialismThe US battleship Maine exploded mysteriously in Havanna, Cuba
121Philippine – American War Philippine people wanted total independence from USWar lasted 2 yearsFilipino troops used guerilla warfareTeddy Roosevelt declared an end to the war in 1902.US controlled the Philippines until after WWII. (July 4, 1946)
122US action in Latin America Caribbean region and Latin America remained unstable.Teddy Roosevelt feared European countries would take advantage of the instability to gain power and influence in the region.Roosevelt Corollary to Monroe Doctrine – US would maintain stability in Latin America even with force.Panama Canal – created a faster route between the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans.Biggest engineering project of the era.
123WWI - CausesBalkan nationalism- people of the Balkans believed that Bosnia should be part of a new Slavic state. European powers placed Bosnia under Austro-Hungarian control. Russia secretly helped finance the assassination of Archduke Francis Ferdinand, which was a catalyst for WWI.Entangling Alliances – late 1800’s – early 1900’s; European nations began to ally with each other. This alliance system made some countries feel an obligation to aid their allies in the event of war.Militarism – late 1800’s and early 1900’s – countries like France, Germany, and Great Britain were engaged in an arms race. France and Germany doubled the size of their armies during this period. Great Britain and Germany fought for naval dominance by introducing battleships to the seas.
124WWIWestern front was characterized by trench warfare between German and French armies. They stayed in nearly the same positions for four years. (stalemate)On the eastern front, Germany was able to defeat Russian and Serbian forces decisively.This allowed the German army to focus more attention on the western front.
125WWITreaty of Versailles – peace treaty signed at the Palace of Versailles near Paris ended WWI.One of the most important aspects of the treaty was the reparations (payment of war debts) required of Germany.Reparations- Germany had to pay for the damages they had inflicted on the Allies. This would cause Germany much economic stress in the post war period. Many Germans felt that they were being punished personally for the actions of their government.
126WWIMandate System – To gain Arab support against the Ottoman Empire during the war, the Allies promised to recognize the independence of Arab states. Some western powers changed their minds and established the mandate system.France controlled Lebanon and Syria, while Great Britain controlled Palestine and Iraq.These nations did not officially “own” the territories.
127WWIFall of the Romanovs – Russian Czar Nicholas II was the last of the Romanov family to rule Russia. His downfall was his poor military leadership, his tendency to listen to his wife, and Rasputin. He was also unable to handle the economic crises facing Russia.He stepped down in 1917 and was assassinated in 1918.
128WWIFall of the Hapsburgs – the Hapsburgs had ruled the Austro-Hungarian Empire at the time of WWI. Archduke Francis Ferdinand was the heir to the empire (he was assassinated).Their downfall was due to the inability to create an identity among the people of the empire and their apathy toward including the growing middle class in decision making.
129US Involvement in WWI Neutrality at first Immigrants were sympathetic with their native countriesSocialists thought it was a struggle between European capitalists over Asian marketsPacifists thought the US should stay neutral to set an example of peaceUS mobilized for war by 1917Germany threatened the US with U-boat attacksThe passenger ship, Lusitania, was sunk & Americans killedZimmerman Note (Germany tried to get Mexico toattack the US)Russia withdrew from the war
130People on the MoveGreat Migration – 1.5 million southern blacks moved to the citiesFaced residential segregation ordinances & restrictive covenants, so access to housing was a problem.Created cities within cities during the 1920’s.Harlem was the largest
131Woodrow Wilson’s Peace Plan Allies won the war – Wilson devised a 14 Point Plan for peaceNo secret treatiesFree seas for all nationsFree trade for allLower arms for domestic safety onlyChange imperialistic policies# 6 – 13 dealt with boundary changes in Europe#14 – Create a League of Nations as a place to settle disputes and avoid wars.(Was rejected by other allied nations & US senators) US never joined.
13218th & 19th Amendments 1919 – the 18th Amendment was passed. Was the Prohibition Amendment that prohibited the manufacture, sale or transportation of alcohol. Was hard to enforce & led to bootlegging and organized crime.1920 – The 19th Amendment was passed.Gave women the right to vote.
133Events in the Aftermath of WWI Russian Revolution – Russia suffered military and economic failures during WWI. After Czar Nicholas II stepped down, a provisional government formed.The Bolsheviks were a party of soviets (councils of workers and soldiers)They were led by V.I. LeninThey took power away from the provisional government.
134Bolsheviks and LeninMade promises to the Russian workers to gain their support.Promised to transfer ownership of factories from capitalists to the workers.Also promised to end Russia’s involvement in WWI.
135Stalin & the Five Year Plan Leader of Soviet Union and Communist PartyHe took over after Lenin’s deathWas a dictator and governed a period that saw over 25 million Soviet people die from his policies and execution orders.Five Year Plan- Stalin’s plan to transform the Soviet Union from an agricultural into an industrial economy in a brief period of time. The policies hurt the average citizen because of low wages and lack of housing. Farms were taken away from private hands and collectivized. Peasants were forced to work on the collective farms.
136FascismPolitical philosophy that emphasizes the state over the individual.Propaganda is used to convince the people that a strong central government led by a dictator is the way to economic and military success.Opposition is suppressed by the threat of violence.
137Adolph Hitler - Germany Benito Mussolini - Italy Rise of DictatorsFascist dictators gained power in Europe during the Great Depression.Adolph Hitler - GermanyBenito Mussolini - ItalyHirohito - Japan
138Mussolini, Hitler, and Hirohito Benito Mussolini- Fascist leader of Italy; never achieved totalitarian control of Italy.Adolph Hitler – Fascist leader of the Nazi Party in Germany; wrote Mein Kampf, a book outlining his belief in Anti-Semitism (hatred for Jews), Anti-Communism, and the right of superior individuals to take control of the masses by force.Hirohito – Emperor of Japan from 1926 to Reign included internal conflicts, invasion of China, entry into WWII, surrender of Japan, and the growth of Japan into an industrial power. Between WWI and WWII he personally took control of the military.
139Types of GovernmentsTotalitarianism – government controls every aspect of public and private life in the country. Use propaganda and surveillance to control people. Opposition is suppressed through violence.Police state – No “rule of law” controlling the actions of the government. The “law” is the same as the personal beliefs of the dictator. (usually accompanies totalitarianism)Authoritarian government – leader lacks real legitimacy; is usually more private than public; lacks charisma that gets loyalty from the people; relies on behind the scenes corruption to maintain control.
140Communism & Socialism in the US Late 1800’s and early 1900’s – communism grew out of socialism.Communism – no private ownership; dictator rules a single partyWhen the communists took control in Russia, and called for a worldwide revolution to destroy capitalism, people in the US began to fear communists.Red Scare – fear of international communism. Red was the color of the communist flag. This led to the government pursuing suspected communists and socialists.
141Immigration Restriction in US Red Scare was one factor that led to new restrictions on immigration.Another factor was that people born in America were superior to immigrants.A third factor was that America should keep its traditional culture intact.Anti-immigrant, anti-Jewish, and anti-Catholic sentiments contributed to the popularity of a revived Ku Klux Klan throughout the nation.This conservative reaction against immigrants resulted in the passage of legislation that set limits on the number of immigrants who could come to the US from each country.
142Henry Ford, Mass Production & the Automobile 1920’s - automobile emerged as a replacement for the horse.Mass production made this possibleHenry Ford used mass production to make his Model T on the assembly line.
143Mass EntertainmentRadio had a major impact by bringing the nation together.It blurred regional differences & created similar tastes and lifestyles. Created a national culture.Phonograph caused piano sales to decrease; created the “Jazz Age”. Made Duke Ellington & Louis Armstrong popular.Movie attendance increased; created a new popular culture with common speech, dress, and behaviors.Spectator Sports were popular because people needed heroes. Favorite sports were boxing, football, and baseball.
144Louis Armstrong and Jazz Jazz combined themes and note patterns developed by enslaved African Americans with rhythms worked out by musicians in New Orleans and elsewhere in the South.Was very popular in the US in the 1920’s.Trumpet player Louis Armstrong was one of the biggest stars of jazz.
145Langston Hughes & the Harlem Renaissance Harlem Renaissance ’s wave of creativity in Harlem celebrating African American culture through literature and song.Best known poet of the movement was Langston Hughes, who wrote about the lives of working class African Americans and sometimes set his words to jazz or blues.
147Characteristics of the Great Depression The Great Depression (1929 – 1941) began with the Stock Market Crash on October 28, Stock prices fell drastically, and people withdrew their money from banks in a panic.Characteristics of the Depression included:Economic depressionHigh unemploymentDecline in industrial production98% decrease in US economicinvestment
148Causes of the Great Depression 1920’s economic problems:Gap between rich and poor grew widerBanks failed (people withdrew money)Industry was in troubleHigh tariffs to protect US trade led todecreased international tradeDecline in business investmentsToo many crops = less profits for farmersFarmers stopped buying productsDust Bowl in Great PlainsStock Market gambles (speculation)
149Causes of the Great Depression Weaknesses in the EconomyCompetition with foreign marketsNew transportation competed with RR’sNew methods of energy competed with coalFarm debts could not be repaidFederal Reserve Bank slowed the money supply instead of stimulating the economy.
150Causes of the Great Depression Consumer ProblemsHigh pricesLow wagesToo much buying on credit –people could not repay loans.False sense of prosperity in the 1920’sHigh unemployment = US had no system of unemployment insurance; no jobs meant that people couldn’t buy products.
151Negative Effects of the Great Depression Unemployment – by 1932 one fourth of the nation’s families had no wage earner.Loss of homes – vagrancy & hoboes; people lived in shantytowns and “Hoovervilles”Soup kitchens and breadlines = people were hungryFamilies were separated (many men deserted their wives and children) 200,000 kid with no home.
152Negative Effects of the Great Depression Increased racial violence over jobsMigration to CaliforniaHoboes on the RR’sMore diet related illness (rickets)Shorter school year; some schools closedIncreased suicide rate
153New Deal Programs Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) 21 dams were built to generate electricitywas created in 1933 as a way to bring electricity to thousands of farms in seven southern states.
154New Deal Programs Wagner Act – (National Labor Relations Act) Empowered labor unionsFederal government guaranteed the right of employees to form unions and use collective bargaining.Set up the National Labor Relations Board (NLRB) which had the power to prohibit unfair labor practices by employers.
155New Deal Programs Social Security Act – Workers 65 and older would get monthly stipends based on previous earnings.Gave indigent elderly small relief paymentsAssistance to the blind and handicappedAssistance to children who did not have a wage earning parent.Established the nation’s first federally sponsored system of unemployment insurance.
156Pearl HarborPearl Harbor (American naval base in Hawaii) was attacked by Japan on December 7, 1941.“A day that will live in infamy”.surprise attackUS Pacific fleet was almost entirely destroyedover 2,000 Americans died; 1178 wounded- only 55 Japanese deathsJapan awoke the “sleeping giant” – FDR asked Congress to declare war on Japan.
157Japanese-American Internment Internment Camps – Japanese-American citizens were forced to leave their homes and sell their property at great losses.They were relocated in 10 internment camps in seven western states. They lived behind barbed wire in tiny wooden barracks.Nearly 18,000 of the men joined the US Army, and their unit was one of the most decorated in WWII.The camps were finally closed after protests.
158Nazis and the Holocaust Hitler wanted to build a German empire in Europe & began to demand that Europe’s German populated areas be united with Germany. (Nazi Party ideology)Holocaust – Planned internment, enslavement, and murder of Jews and other religious and ethnic minorities perpetrated by Hitler’s Nazi Party.
159Major Events Lend – Lease Act: FDR entered his 3rd term as president He wanted to help Britain in the war effort.Act was signed in 1941 and allowed the US to aid any nation whose defense was vital to the US.
160On the Homefront How we mobilized for war federal government played important roleauto industry converted from cars to tanks & planeswomen went to work in factoriescrop prices were set at high levels – more cash for farmerssmall farmers left farms to work in defense plants or armed serviceswe rationed scarce items (sugar, meat, coffee, tires, gas, shoes)government levied a 5% withholding tax on anyone earning over $642 a year to reduce purchasing power.
161Major Events D –Day – June 6, 1944 Allied forces launched sea-born invasion of France called Operation OverlordAllied forces were led by Dwight D. Eisenhowerthey invaded from the English ChannelFrance was liberated from Germany on August 25, 1944Germany was militarily defeated by the spring of 1945.The Soviet Union crushed Berlin (Hitler’s stronghold)Hitler committed suicideGermany surrendered (May 7, 1945)The war in Europe was over, but the Japanese pressed on.
162Manhattan Project $2 billion dollar secret project centered at Los Alamos, New Mexicogoal was to develop the atomic bombinvasion of Japan would be deadly and costlyPresident Harry Truman approved use of the bomb on Japan.August 6, 1945 – the first bomb was dropped on HiroshimaAugust 9, 1945 – a second bomb was dropped on NagasakiThe cities were annihilated and thousands diedAugust 15, Japan surrendered
163Teheran, Yalta, PotsdamMeetings of Allied leaders (Churchill, Stalin, FDR/Truman) where discussions occurred regarding plans for post war Europe.Soviet Union played a key role in defeating Germany, so the Allies couldn’t completely ignore Stalin’s demands for what became a “sphere of influence” in many Eastern European countries.
164Marshall PlanEuropean Recovery Plan – named for US Secretary of State George Marshall.Was America’s main program for rebuilding Western Europe and opposing communism after WWII.Plan was in place 4 years.US spent 13 billion dollars on economic and technical assistance for European nations that had been nearly destroyed in the war.Plan offered the same aid to the Soviet Union and its allies if they would make political reforms.Soviets rejected the proposal.
165MacArthur and JapanGeneral Douglass MacArthur was appointed Supreme Commander of the Allied Powers in Japan after WWII.
166Cold WarTo halt the spread of communism to Western Europe from the Soviet controlled nations of Eastern Europe, the US formed the North Atlantic Treaty Organization. (NATO)Soviet Union created the Warsaw Pact, an alliance of communist nations.US adopted a policy of containment – determination to stop the spread of communism. Basis of many US foreign policy decisions in the Cold War period.
167Truman DoctrineTruman Doctrine proposed military and economic aid to countries threatened by Communist takeoverIt committed the US to providing aid to countries resisting communism & provided the first step toward what would become the containment policy.
168Chinese RevolutionMao Zedong & Chinese Communists started the People’s Republic of China.The fall of China to Communists shocked Americans & there was some blame placed on US government officials for loss of the country to Communists.The US feared that country after country in Asia would fall to Communism. (domino theory)
169Korean WarCommunist forces from North Korea invaded South Korea & a 3 year war began.US air and sea forces helped Korean troops.300,000 Chinese forces entered KoreaUS decided not to attack ChinaWas the first of the Cold War conflicts to test the Truman Doctrine.The 38th parallel divided Korea into North (communist) and South (free) before the war.It also was the dividing line after the war.
170McCarthyism1950 to 1954 – Senator Joseph McCarthy led a hunt for Communist infiltrators in America.He accused people from artists to the top level of military of having Communist ties or being a sympathizer.2nd Red ScareHe was very careless and cruel in accusing people of being Communist.In November, 1954, he was censured (punished) by the US Senate.
171The Space RaceOctober 4, 1957, the Soviet Union launched the world’s first artificial satellite into space. (Sputnik I)Americans were alarmed that the Soviets could spy on us from space.We wanted to stay ahead of the Soviet UnionJanuary, 1958, the US launched Explorer IThe space race had officially begun.First man to orbit Earth was Yuri Gagarin (S.U. 1961) in the capsule Vostok I.1962- John Glenn was the first American to orbit Earth in Friendship 7
172Arms RaceTerm describing the Cold War competition between the US and the Soviet Union for military superiority. Weapons became increasingly complex and destructive.Hydrogen Bomb – became the basis of “mutually assured destruction”. Knowing that if the US or Soviets used the bomb, the other nation would use theirs.Helped maintain a balance of power.
173Post WWIIIndian Independence – British government peacefully transferred power to India.Conflicts created the need for separate nations for Hindus and Muslims.Pakistan – primarily MuslimIndia –primarily HinduMuch violence inflicted on each other as millions of people left their homes to enter the state that reflected their religion.
174Post WWII Gandhi – Primary leader of the Indian Independence movement. Known for his belief in non-violent changeUsed civil disobedience and unarmed demonstrations to shame British rulers into granting India’s independence.
175State of IsraelEstablished in the British mandate of Palestine by a United Nations resolution following WWII.Palestine was divided into an Arab state and a Jewish state.The West was sympathetic toward the Jewish people after the Holocaust.Many Palestinians had to flee their homes and live in refugee camps.Conflicts among Israel, the Palestinians, and neighboring Arab states continue to be a major foreign policy issue for countries around the world.
176Social Change Movements 1945 - 1970 Truman’s integration order – 1948; President Truman issued an executive order to integrate the US Armed Forces and end discrimination in the hiring of US government employees.This led to the civil rights laws enacted in the 1960s.
177Brown vs. Board of Education 1954 Supreme Court caseState laws establishing “separate but equal” public schools denied African American students the equal education promised in the 14th Amendment.Reversed “Plessy vs. Ferguson” rulingGovernor of Arkansas tried to keep nine African Americans from enrolling in high school.President Eisenhower sent in federal troops to force the high school to integrate.
178Martin Luther King, Jr. 1963 – arrested in Birmingham, AL Wrote “Letter from Birmingham Jail” to address fears white religious leaders had that he was moving too fast toward desegregation.His writing explained why it was hard for African Americans to wait for discrimination and violence toward them to end.Later, he delivered his “I Have a Dream” speech in Washington, DC to ask for peace and racial harmony.
179Civil Rights Act of 1964 Signed by President Lyndon Johnson Prohibited discrimination based on race, religion, national origin, and gender.Prompted by :Long struggle by African Americans for equal rightsMartin Luther King, Jr.’s speechNews reports of presidential actions that combated civil rights violations.
180Voting Rights Act of 1965Outlawed the requirement for would-be voters in the US to take literacy tests.Provided money for programs to register voters in areas with large numbers of unregistered minorities.Gave the Department of Justice the right to oversee the voting laws in certain districts known to use literacy tests and poll taxes.
181N.O.W National Organization of Women: founded in 1966. Goal was to promote equal rights and opportunities for women.Origins in civil rights and anti-war movements of early 60’s.Goals included equality in employment, political and social equality, and passage of the Equal Rights Amendment.
182Environmental Movement Silent Spring was a book written by Rachel Carson in 1962 exposing the dangers of pesticides.Led to the Water Quality Act of 1965First Earth Day was celebrated in 1970.Communities organized to raise awareness about the environmentPresident Nixon created the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to set limits on pollution, conduct environmental research, and assist state and local governments clean up polluted sites.
183Contemporary WorldEthnic conflicts: In the mid to late 20th century and early 21st century, ethnic conflicts have arisen around the world.Many are tied to the artificial boundaries set by European imperialists in Asia, Africa, and the Middle East.In some places, such as Cambodia, Bosnia, and Sudan, there have been ethnic conflicts resulting in genocide.
184Contemporary WorldNew Nationalism: in places like India, South Africa, and Kenya, nationalism helped end colonial (European) rule.For example, the nationalist African National Congress worked against the system of Apartheid for years, eventually toppling the minority government and making a relatively peaceful transfer of power.
185Contemporary World Impact of Terrorism Terrorism is basically a synthesis of war and theater. It is a dramatization of the kind of violence that is perpetrated on innocent lives.It is played before an audience in the hope of creating a mood of fear for political purposes.Some most recognized groups in the 20th century are Shining Path, Red Brigade, Hamas, and Al Qaeda.
186Contemporary WorldMultinational corporations: 20th and 21st centuries have seen the growth of companies, often based in North America and Europe, with worldwide influence.Examples: Coca Cola and UPS have operations and sales all over the world.
187Contemporary WorldUnited Nations: many nations came together following WWII with the goals of promoting peaceful settlement of international issues/conflicts and working toward greater dignity for all humans.OPEC: Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries. US is not a member. OPEC tries to control the world petroleum market through changes in output.World Trade Organization: (WTO) was established following WWII to promote free trade between nations. Wants to reduce trade barriers such as tariffs, quotas, and subsidies.