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Chapter 9 Sustaining Biodiversity: The Species Approach.

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1 Chapter 9 Sustaining Biodiversity: The Species Approach

2 Chapter Overview Questions How do biologists estimate extinction rates, and how do human activities affect these rates? How do biologists estimate extinction rates, and how do human activities affect these rates? Why should we care about protecting wild species? Why should we care about protecting wild species? Which human activities endanger wildlife? Which human activities endanger wildlife?

3 Chapter Overview Questions How can we help prevent premature extinction of species? How can we help prevent premature extinction of species? What is reconciliation ecology, and how can it help prevent premature extinction of species? What is reconciliation ecology, and how can it help prevent premature extinction of species?

4 Core Case Study: The Passenger Pigeon - Gone Forever Once the most numerous bird on earth. Once the most numerous bird on earth. In 1858, Passenger Pigeon hunting became a big business. In 1858, Passenger Pigeon hunting became a big business. By 1900 they became extinct from over- harvest and habitat loss. By 1900 they became extinct from over- harvest and habitat loss. Figure 11-1

5 Case Study: Passenger Pigeon

6 Why Should We Care About Biodiversity? Use Value: usefulness in terms of economic and ecological services. Use Value: usefulness in terms of economic and ecological services. Nonuse Value: ·existence value Nonuse Value: ·existence value (a.k.a. intrinsic value) ·aesthetic value ·bequest value (for future generations) (for future generations) Figure : 315,000 wild orangutans 2007: <20,000 (losing 2000/yr)

7 SPECIES EXTINCTION Species can become extinct: Species can become extinct: Locally: A species is no longer found in an area it once inhabited but is still found elsewhere in the world. Locally: A species is no longer found in an area it once inhabited but is still found elsewhere in the world. Ecologically: Occurs when so few members of a species are left they no longer play its ecological role. Ecologically: Occurs when so few members of a species are left they no longer play its ecological role. Biologically: Species is no longer found on the earth. Biologically: Species is no longer found on the earth.

8 Global Extinction Some animals have become prematurely extinct because of human activities. Some animals have become prematurely extinct because of human activities. The large, the slow, and the tasty The large, the slow, and the tasty-E.O.Wilson next

9 Fig. 11-2, p. 223 Aepyornis (Madagascar) Passenger pigeonGreat aukDodoDusky seaside sparrow

10 Endangered and Threatened Species: Ecological Smoke Alarms Endangered species: so few individual survivors that it could soon become extinct. Endangered species: so few individual survivors that it could soon become extinct. Threatened species: still abundant in its natural range but is likely to become endangered in the near future (high current losses) Threatened species: still abundant in its natural range but is likely to become endangered in the near future (high current losses) next

11 Fig. 11-3, p. 224 Grizzly bear Kirklands warbler Knowlton cactus Florida manatee African elephant Utah prairie dog Swallowtail butterfly Humpback chub Golden lion tamarin Siberian tiger

12 Fig. 11-3, p. 224 Hawksbill sea turtle Giant panda Black-footed ferret Whooping crane Northern spotted owl Blue whale Mountain gorilla Florida panther California condor Black rhinoceros

13 Some species have characteristics that make them vulnerable to ecological and biological extinction. Some species have characteristics that make them vulnerable to ecological and biological extinction. SPECIES EXTINCTION Next

14 Fig. 11-4, p. 225 Low reproductive rate (K-strategist) Specialized niche Narrow distribution Feeds at high trophic level Fixed migratory patterns Rare Commercially valuable Large territories Characteristic Blue whale, giant panda, rhinoceros Blue whale, giant panda, Everglades kite Many island species, elephant seal, desert pupfish Bengal tiger, bald eagle, grizzly bear Blue whale, whooping crane, sea turtles, many songbirds Many island species, African violet, some orchids Snow leopard, tiger, elephant, rhinoceros, rare plants and birds California condor, grizzly bear, Florida panther Examples

15 Estimating Species Extinction It is very difficult to catalogue extinction It is very difficult to catalogue extinction Extinction takes a long time to happen and is difficult to measure (need long term pop. data) Extinction takes a long time to happen and is difficult to measure (need long term pop. data) We have only identified 1.7 million of the worlds 4 to 100 million species (likely about 14 million) We have only identified 1.7 million of the worlds 4 to 100 million species (likely about 14 million) We know little about most of the species that have been identified We know little about most of the species that have been identified Figure 11-5

16 SPECIES EXTINCTION Scientists use measurements and models to estimate extinction rates. Scientists use measurements and models to estimate extinction rates. The International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) publishes an annual Red List, listing the worlds threatened species. The International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) publishes an annual Red List, listing the worlds threatened species. The 2004 Red List contains 15,589 species at risk for extinction. The 2004 Red List contains 15,589 species at risk for extinction. Figure 11-5

17 SPECIES EXTINCTION Percentage of various species types threatened with premature extinction from human activities. Percentage of various species types threatened with premature extinction from human activities. Next

18 Fig. 11-5, p % Birds Plants Reptiles Mammals Fish 34% (51% of freshwater species) 25% 20% 14%

19 SPECIES EXTINCTION Scientists use models to estimate the risk of particular species becoming extinct or endangered. Scientists use models to estimate the risk of particular species becoming extinct or endangered. Next

20 Fig. 11-6, p million Number of years until one million species are extinct 100,000 extinct per year 50,000 extinct per year 14,000 extinct per year Number of species existing Effects of a 0.1% extinction rate 5,000 extinct per year 100 million 50 million 14 million

21 IMPORTANCE OF WILD SPECIES We should not cause the premature extinction of species because of the economic and ecological services they provide. We should not cause the premature extinction of species because of the economic and ecological services they provide. Some believe that each wild species has an inherent right to exist. Some believe that each wild species has an inherent right to exist. Some people distinguish between the survival rights among various types of species (plants vs. animals). Some people distinguish between the survival rights among various types of species (plants vs. animals).

22 HABITAT LOSS, DEGRADATION, AND FRAGMENTATION Conservation biologists summarize the most important causes of premature extinction as HIPPO: Conservation biologists summarize the most important causes of premature extinction as HIPPO: Habitat destruction, degradation, and fragmentation Habitat destruction, degradation, and fragmentation Invasive species Invasive species Population growth Population growth Pollution Pollution Climate Change Climate Change Overharvest Overharvest

23 HABITAT LOSS, DEGRADATION, AND FRAGMENTATION The greatest threat to a species is the loss, degradation, and fragmentation of where it lives. The greatest threat to a species is the loss, degradation, and fragmentation of where it lives. Next

24 Fig. 11-7, p. 229 Introducing nonnative species BASIC CAUSES Secondary Causes Population growth Rising resource use Poverty No environmental accounting Predator and pest control Climate change Overfishing Pollution Commercial hunting and poaching Sale of exotic pets and decorative plants Habitat loss Habitat degradation and fragmentation

25 HABITAT LOSS, DEGRADATION, AND FRAGMENTATION Reduction in ranges of four wildlife species, mostly due to habitat loss and overharvest. Reduction in ranges of four wildlife species, mostly due to habitat loss and overharvest. NEXT

26 Fig. 11-8a, p. 230 Range 100 years ago Indian Tiger Range today (about 2,300 left)

27 Fig. 11-8b, p. 230 Range in 1700 Black Rhino Range today (about 3,600 left)

28 Fig. 11-8c, p. 230 Probable range 1600 African Elephant Range today

29 Fig. 11-8d, p. 230 Range today (34,000–54,000 left) Asian or Indian Elephant Former range

30 Case Study: A Disturbing Message from the Birds Human activities are causing serious declines in the populations of many bird species. Human activities are causing serious declines in the populations of many bird species. Especially true of migratory bird species A.K.A. Neotropical migrants Especially true of migratory bird species A.K.A. Neotropical migrants Next

31 Fig , p. 232 Bachmans warbler Cerulean warblerSpragues pipit Bichnells thrush Black-capped vireo Golden-cheeked warbler Florida scrub jayCalifornia gnatcatcher Kirtlands warbler Henslows sparrow

32 Case Study: A Disturbing Message from the Birds Worldwide, 70% of the worlds 10,000 bird species are declining Worldwide, 70% of the worlds 10,000 bird species are declining The majority of the worlds bird species are found in South America. The majority of the worlds bird species are found in South America. Threatened with habitat loss and invasive species. Threatened with habitat loss and invasive species. NEXT

33 Fig. 11-9, p Number of bird species

34 INVASIVE SPECIES Many nonnative species provide us with food, medicine, and other benefits but a few can wipe out native species, disrupt ecosystems, and cause large economic losses. Many nonnative species provide us with food, medicine, and other benefits but a few can wipe out native species, disrupt ecosystems, and cause large economic losses. Kudzu vine was introduced in the southeastern U.S. to control erosion. It has taken over native species habitats. Figure 11-A

35 USES FOR KUDZU Almost every part of the plant is edible. Almost every part of the plant is edible. Provides a starch used in beverages and gourmet confections. Provides a starch used in beverages and gourmet confections. Provides herbal remedies for several diseases. Provides herbal remedies for several diseases. It is a source of fiber for paper that could replace use of trees. It is a source of fiber for paper that could replace use of trees. Figure 11-A

36 KUDZU!

37 INVASIVE SPECIES Many invasive species have been introduced intentionally. Many invasive species have been introduced intentionally. Figure 11-11

38 Fig a, p. 234 Deliberately Introduced Species Purple loosestrife European starling African honeybee (Killer bee) Nutria Salt cedar (Tamarisk) European wild boar (Feral pig) Marine toad (Giant toad) Water hyacinth Japanese beetle Hydrilla

39 INVASIVE SPECIES Many invasive species have been introduced unintentionally. Many invasive species have been introduced unintentionally. Figure 11-11

40 Fig b, p. 234 Gypsy moth larvae Accidentally Introduced Species Sea lamprey (attached to lake trout) Argentina fire ant Brown tree snake Eurasian ruffe Common pigeon (Rock dove) Formosan termite Zebra mussel Asian long- horned beetle Asian tiger mosquito

41 Fig , p. 234

42 INVASIVE SPECIES The Argentina fire ant was introduced to Mobile, Alabama in 1932 from South America. The Argentina fire ant was introduced to Mobile, Alabama in 1932 from South America. Most probably from ships. Most probably from ships. No natural predators. No natural predators. Figure 11-12

43 Fire Ants! Figure 11-12

44 INVASIVE SPECIES Prevention is the best way to reduce threats from invasive species, because once they arrive it is almost impossible to slow their spread. Prevention is the best way to reduce threats from invasive species, because once they arrive it is almost impossible to slow their spread. Figure 11-13

45 Fig , p. 236 Do not allow wild animals to escape. Do not spread wild plants to other areas. Do not dump the contents of an aquarium into waterways, wetlands, or storm drains. When camping use wood near your campsite instead of bringing firewood from somewhere else. Do not dump unused bait into the water. After dogs visit woods or the water brush them before taking them home. After each use clean your vehicle, mountain bike, surfboard, kayaks, canoes, boats, tent, hiking boots, and other gear before heading for home. Empty all water from canoes, kayaks, dive gear, and other outdoor equipment before heading home. Plant a variety of trees, shrubs, and other plants in your yard to reduce losses from invasive species. Do not buy plants from overseas or swap them with others using the Internet. What Can You Do? Invasive Species

46 Fig , p. 236 Climate similar to habitat of invader Absence of predators on invading species Early successional systems Low diversity of native species Absence of fire Disturbed by human activities Characteristics of Successful Invader Species High reproductive rate, short generation time (r-selected species) Pioneer species Long lived High dispersal rate Release growth-inhibiting chemicals into soil Generalists High genetic variability Characteristics of Ecosystems Vulnerable to Invader Species

47 POPULATION GROWTH, POLLUTION, AND CLIMATE CHANGE Population growth, affluenza, and pollution have promoted the premature extinction of some species. Population growth, affluenza, and pollution have promoted the premature extinction of some species. Projected climate change threatens a number of species with premature extinction. Projected climate change threatens a number of species with premature extinction.

48 Pollution Each year pesticides: Each year pesticides: Kill about 1/5 th of the U.S. honeybee colonies. Kill about 1/5 th of the U.S. honeybee colonies. 67 million birds. 67 million birds million fish million fish. Threaten 1/5 th of the U.S.s endangered and threatened species. Threaten 1/5 th of the U.S.s endangered and threatened species. Example of biomagnification of DDT in an aquatic food chain. NEXT Note: Toxins bioaccumulate in the tissues of an individual organism, but biomagnify through a food chain.

49 Fig , p. 237 DDT in water ppm, DDT in fish-eating birds (ospreys) 25 ppm DDT in large fish (needle fish) 2 ppm DDT in small fish (minnows) 0.5 ppm DDT in zooplankton 0.04 ppm

50 OVEREXPLOITATION Some protected species are killed for their valuable parts or are sold live to collectors. Some protected species are killed for their valuable parts or are sold live to collectors. Killing predators and pests that bother us or cause economic losses threatens some species with premature extinction. Killing predators and pests that bother us or cause economic losses threatens some species with premature extinction. Legal and illegal trade in wildlife species used as pets or for decorative purposes threatens some species with extinction. Legal and illegal trade in wildlife species used as pets or for decorative purposes threatens some species with extinction.

51 OVEREXPLOITATION Rhinoceros are often killed for their horns and sold illegally on the black market for decorative and medicinal purposes. Rhinoceros are often killed for their horns and sold illegally on the black market for decorative and medicinal purposes. Figure 11-16

52 Case Study: Rising Demand for Bushmeat in Africa Bushmeat hunting has caused the local extinction of many animals in West Africa. Bushmeat hunting has caused the local extinction of many animals in West Africa. Can spread disease such as HIV/AIDS and ebola virus. Can spread disease such as HIV/AIDS and ebola virus. Figure 11-17

53 Why is Demand for Bushmeat Rising in Africa? Human population growth Human population growth Making $ supplying restaurants with exotic meat Making $ supplying restaurants with exotic meat Roads: Accessibility to remote areas Roads: Accessibility to remote areas European companies overfishing coastal African waters European companies overfishing coastal African waters Figure 11-17

54 PROTECTING WILD SPECIES: LEGAL AND ECONOMIC APPROACHES International treaties have helped reduce the international trade of endangered and threatened species, but enforcement is difficult. International treaties have helped reduce the international trade of endangered and threatened species, but enforcement is difficult. One of the most powerful is the 1975 Convention on International Trade of Endangered Species (CITES). One of the most powerful is the 1975 Convention on International Trade of Endangered Species (CITES). Signed by 169 countries, lists 900 species that cannot be commercially traded.Signed by 169 countries, lists 900 species that cannot be commercially traded.

55 INTERNATIONAL TREATIES Convention on Biodiversity- Goals: reverse delcines in biodiversity & share the benefits of genetic resources Convention on Biodiversity- Goals: reverse delcines in biodiversity & share the benefits of genetic resources Problems: Problems: Lack of enforcement Lack of enforcement Lack of severe penalties Lack of severe penalties Implementation delays Implementation delays U.S. has not ratified U.S. has not ratified

56 Case Study: The U.S. Endangered Species Act One of the worlds most far-reaching and controversial environmental laws is the 1973 U.S. Endangered Species Act (ESA). One of the worlds most far-reaching and controversial environmental laws is the 1973 U.S. Endangered Species Act (ESA). ESA forbids federal agencies (besides defense department) to carry out / fund projects that would jeopardize an endangered species. ESA forbids federal agencies (besides defense department) to carry out / fund projects that would jeopardize an endangered species. ESA makes it illegal for Americans to engage in commerce associated with or hunt / kill / collect endangered or threatened species. ESA makes it illegal for Americans to engage in commerce associated with or hunt / kill / collect endangered or threatened species.

57 Case Study: The U.S. Endangered Species Act Attempts have been made since to change the ESA: Attempts have been made since to change the ESA: Make protection of endangered species voluntary on private land Make protection of endangered species voluntary on private land Make it harder and more expensive to list a species Make it harder and more expensive to list a species Eliminate the need to designate critical habitats Eliminate the need to designate critical habitats Allow the Secretary of the Interior to permanatly exempt landowners Allow the Secretary of the Interior to permanatly exempt landowners

58 Case Study: The U.S. Endangered Species Act Biodiversity hotspots in relation to the largest concentrations of rare and potentially endangered species in the U.S. Biodiversity hotspots in relation to the largest concentrations of rare and potentially endangered species in the U.S. Figure 11-18

59 Fig , p. 241 Top Six Hot Spots 1 Hawaii 2 San Francisco Bay area 3 Southern Appalachians 4 Death Valley 5 Southern California 6 Florida Panhandle Concentration of rare species High Low Moderate

60 Because of scarcity of inspectors, probably no more than 1/10 th of the illegal wildlife trade in the U.S. is discovered. Because of scarcity of inspectors, probably no more than 1/10 th of the illegal wildlife trade in the U.S. is discovered. Figure 11-19

61 For every live and exotic animal captured & sold in the pet market, _______ are killed during capture or die in transit. For every live and exotic animal captured & sold in the pet market, _______ are killed during capture or die in transit. 50

62 Fig , p. 246 Do not buy furs, ivory products, and other materials made from endangered or threatened animal species. Do not buy wood and paper products produced by cutting remaining old- growth forests in the tropics. Do not buy birds, snakes, turtles, tropical fish, and other animals that are taken from the wild. Do not buy orchids, cacti, and other plants that are taken from the wild. Spread the word. Talk to your friends and relatives about this problem and what they can do about it. What Can You Do? Protecting Species

63 PROTECTING WILD SPECIES: THE SANCTUARY APPROACH The U.S. has set aside 544 federal refuges for wildlife, but many refuges are suffering from environmental degradation. The U.S. has set aside 544 federal refuges for wildlife, but many refuges are suffering from environmental degradation. Pelican Island was the nations first wildlife refuge. Figure 11-20

64 PROTECTING WILD SPECIES: THE SANCTUARY APPROACH Gene banks, seed banks, botanical gardens and using farms to raise threatened species can help prevent extinction, but these options lack funding and storage space. Gene banks, seed banks, botanical gardens and using farms to raise threatened species can help prevent extinction, but these options lack funding and storage space. Zoos and aquariums can help protect endangered animal species by preserving some individuals with the long-term goal of reintroduction, but suffer from lack of space and money. Zoos and aquariums can help protect endangered animal species by preserving some individuals with the long-term goal of reintroduction, but suffer from lack of space and money.

65 RECONCILIATION ECOLOGY Reconciliation ecology involves finding ways to share places we dominate with other species. Reconciliation ecology involves finding ways to share places we dominate with other species. Replacing monoculture grasses with native species. Replacing monoculture grasses with native species. Maintaining habitats for insect eating bats can keep down unwanted insects. Maintaining habitats for insect eating bats can keep down unwanted insects. Reduction and elimination of pesticides to protect non-target organisms (such as vital insect pollinators). Reduction and elimination of pesticides to protect non-target organisms (such as vital insect pollinators).

66 Using Reconciliation Ecology to Protect Bluebirds Putting up bluebird boxes with holes too small for (nonnative) competitors in areas where trees have been cut down have helped reestablish populations. Putting up bluebird boxes with holes too small for (nonnative) competitors in areas where trees have been cut down have helped reestablish populations. Figure 11-B

67 Updates Online The latest references for topics covered in this section can be found at the book companion website. Log in to the books e-resources page at to access InfoTrac articles. InfoTrac: Domestic cats serve as add-on predators. Paducah Sun (Paducah, KY), July 26, InfoTrac: Domestic cats serve as add-on predators. Paducah Sun (Paducah, KY), July 26, InfoTrac: Invasion of the habitat snatchers. Wichita Eagle, August 6, InfoTrac: Invasion of the habitat snatchers. Wichita Eagle, August 6, InfoTrac: Group pulls for native Denali plants. Anchorage Daily News, June 26, InfoTrac: Group pulls for native Denali plants. Anchorage Daily News, June 26, Union of Concerned Scientists: Invasive Species Union of Concerned Scientists: Invasive Species PBS: Strange Days on Planet Earth PBS: Strange Days on Planet Earth USGS: Nonindigenous Aquatic Species USGS: Nonindigenous Aquatic Species


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