2 Holocaust Key Facts Holocaust: systematic killing of 6 million Jews Key person: Adolph HitlerTime prd: WWIIGenocide: planned killing of a race of peopleHow:1. identified Jews with yellow star2. took away rights/freedoms3. gathered/imprisoned Jews in ghettos4. shipped Jews to concentration camps
3 Concentration Camps Left Old, weak, young Sent to “showers” Gassed to deathcrematedRightWorkersSent to showersHeads shavedGiven prison clothesTattooed with numberWorked to death
4 Not Just Jews Killed Political prisoners Mentally ill Disabled Gypsies, Poles, and others
5 After Survivors – no homes left United Nations divided Palestine into Arab and Jewish “states” (countries)Israel became a Jewish nation
7 Cold War Key Facts When: end of WWII – 1945 What: period of distrust and misunderstandingWho: between Soviet Union & U.S.A (and former allies)Why: Soviet Union was communist (strong central gov’t controls everything). U.S.A. believed businesses should be privately owned
9 Eastern Bloc vs. Western Bloc Eastern (red)Western (blue)Soviet UnionMost eastern European countriesU.S.A.Most western European countriesIRON CURTAIN
10 Germany Divided after WWII into 4 parts 1948: divided into West Germany (free) and East Germany (Soviet controlled)Capital – Berlin – divided into East Berlin and West Berlin1961: Berlin Wall built to separate city
11 Fears Each side believed the other wanted to rule the world People feared a nuclear war would happenCountries formed alliances for protection1949Western Bloc plus Canada formed North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)Eastern Bloc formed Warsaw Pact
12 Rise of the Superpowers U.S.A.Soviet UnionDemocracyFree marketPermanent seat on U.N. Security Council4th most populated country in worldPowerful military support from NATOLargest navy in worldMilitary bases all over worldCIA (spies)Large reserve of nukesCommunistSocialistPermanent seat on U.N. Security CouncilLargest country in the world3rd largest population in the worldMilitary and space technologyWorld-wide spy network (KGB)One of largest stockpiles of nukes in worldInfluenced communist countries and dictatorships
13 Collapse of the Soviet Union and German Reunification Problem: Soviet Union spent $$$$$$$Putting down revolts in its countriesprotecting its borderskeeping up with the arms race against the U.S.A
14 1985 leader Mikhail Gorbachev reduced gov’t control of businessincreased freedom for citizens
15 Result: improved relations with U.S.A. inspired other Eastern Bloc countries to demand freedom
16 Nov 1989: Berlin Wall torn down Germany began to reunifyGermany was 1 country again in 1990Cold War was overSoviet republics gained freedom from Soviet Union.Many new countries were made. Russia is the largest.
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