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Presentation on theme: "Please answer these questions honestly."— Presentation transcript:

1 Please answer these questions honestly.
3 things you are looking forward to in this class or semester 2 things you are NOT looking forward to (or are nervous about) in this class or semester 1 thing you want us to know about you

2 Vocab Preview Assignment
Create vocab flashcards on the cards provided. The list of terms (9 total) is on p. 22. To get credit, you must put the term on one side and the definition/description on the other side.

3 Vocab Practice ____ is the productive area of Earth needed to support the lifestyle of 1 person. ____ describe the number and variety of species that live in an area. ____ is the study of human impact on the environment. ____ is the study of how living things interact with each other & their nonliving environment. The practice of growing, breeding, & caring for plants or animals that are used for food, clothing, housing, etc. is _____. An undesired change in air, water, or soil that has a negative affect on health, survival or activities of organisms is _____. Any natural material we use is a ______. The greater the demand for a limited supply of something, the more it is worth. This is the ____. ____ when human needs are met in a way that our population can survive forever.

4 Do-Now: Define environmental science. Contrast environmental science with ecology. Why do you think it is important to study environmental science in today’s world?

5 Essential Questions Define environmental science & compare environmental science with ecology. List the 5 major fields of study that contribute to environmental science. Describe the major environmental effects of hunter-gatherers, the agricultural revolution, & the Industrial Revolution. Distinguish between renewable & nonrenewable resources. Classify environmental problems into three major categories.

6 Standards SEV4a SEV5d, e

7 What Is Environmental Science?
The study of the air, water, & land surrounding an organism or a community Ranges from a small area to Earth’s entire biosphere Includes the study of human impact on environment

8 The Goals of Environmental Science
Understand & solve environmental problems Study 2 main types of interactions between humans & their environment: Use of natural resources How our actions alter our environment


10 Hunter-Gatherers Obtain food by collecting plants & by hunting wild animals or scavenging their remains Environmental affects: Native American tribes hunted buffalo, etc. to (or nearly to) extinction Set fires to burn prairies & prevent the growth of trees.

11 Hunter-Gatherers Overhunting may have led to the disappearance of some large mammal species, including: giant sloths giant bison mastodons cave bears saber-toothed cats


13 1. List the 5 major fields of study that contribute to Env. Science.
Do-Now: 1. List the 5 major fields of study that contribute to Env. Science. 2. The suffix ‘-ology’ means _______. 3. Describe the lifestyle of the hunter-gatherers. 4. Describe the environmental impact of the hunter-gatherers.

14 The Agricultural Revolution
Agriculture is the raising of crops & livestock for food or for other products useful to humans. Started over 10,000 years ago Had a dramatic impact on human societies & their environment Allowed human populations to grow at an unprecedented rate As populations grew, they began to concentrate in smaller areas placing increased pressure on the local environments.

15 Black Death—the Plague
? Billions of people Figure 1.1 Exponential growth: the J-shaped curve of past exponential world population growth, with projections to Exponential growth starts off slowly, but as time passes the curve becomes increasingly steep. Unless death rates rise, the current world population of 6.6 billion people is projected to reach 8–10 billion people sometime this century. (This figure is not to scale.) (Data from the World Bank and United Nations; photo courtesy of NASA) Black Death—the Plague Time Industrial Revolution Hunting and Gathering Agricultural revolution Fig. 1-1, p. 6 15

16 The Agricultural Revolution
Changed the food we eat The plants we grow & eat today are descended from wild plants. Farmers collected seeds from plants that exhibited the qualities they desired, such as large kernels. These seeds were then planted and harvested again. Overtime, the domesticated plants became very different from their wild ancestors.

17 The Agricultural Revolution
Many habitats were destroyed as grasslands, forests, & wetlands were replaced with farmland. Can cause soil loss, floods, & water shortages The slash-and-burn technique was one of the earliest ways that land was converted to farmland. Much of this converted land was poorly farmed & is no longer fertile.

18 The Industrial Revolution
Involved a shift from energy sources such as animals & running water to fossil fuels Changed society & greatly increased the efficiency of agriculture, industry, & transportation For example, motorized vehicles allowed food to be transported cheaply across greater distances.

19 The Industrial Revolution
In factories, the large-scale production of goods became less expensive than the local production of handmade goods. On the farm, machinery reduced the amount of land & human labor needed to produce food. With fewer people producing their own food, the populations in urban areas steadily grew.

20 The Industrial Revolution
The Industrial Revolution introduced many positive changes light bulbs Agricultural productivity increased Sanitation nutrition medical care

21 The Industrial Revolution
Environmental problems pollution & habitat loss In the 1900s, we began to use artificial substances in place of animals & plant products. We now have materials such as plastics, artificial pesticides, & fertilizers.

22 The Industrial Revolution
Many of these products make life easier, but we are now beginning to understand some of the environmental problems they present. Much of environmental science is concerned with the problems associated with the Industrial Revolution.

23 Do-Now: 1. Which of the three lifestyles we have discussed (HG, AG, IR) has had the LARGEST impact on Earth’s environment? WHY? 2. The study of the interactions of the biological, cultural, geographical, and historical aspects of human kind is ______________.

24 Population Growth The Industrial Revolution, modern medicine, & sanitation all allowed the human population to grow faster than it ever had before. In the past 50 years, nations have used vast amounts of resources to meet the worlds need for food. Producing enough food for large populations has environmental consequences such as habitat destruction & pesticide pollution. Most scientists think that the human population will almost double in the 21st century before it begins to stabilize. Because of these predictions, we can expect the pressure on the environment will continue to increase and the human population & its need for food & resources grow.

25 Black Death—the Plague
? Billions of people Figure 1.1 Exponential growth: the J-shaped curve of past exponential world population growth, with projections to Exponential growth starts off slowly, but as time passes the curve becomes increasingly steep. Unless death rates rise, the current world population of 6.6 billion people is projected to reach 8–10 billion people sometime this century. (This figure is not to scale.) (Data from the World Bank and United Nations; photo courtesy of NASA) Black Death—the Plague Time Industrial Revolution Hunting and Gathering Agricultural revolution Fig. 1-1, p. 6 25

26 This photograph was taken during the Apollo 8 mission in December 1968, seven months before
the first lunar landing. The image shows our entire world as a small blue and very finite globe, with our nearest celestial neighbor a desolate presence in the foreground. This image has been described as "the most influential environmental photograph ever taken". It is an image which still speaks to us today.

27 Spaceship Earth Earth can be compared to a spaceship traveling through space as it cannot dispose of its waste or take on new supplies. Earth is essentially a closed system. The only thing that enters the Earth’s atmosphere is large amounts of energy from the sun, & the only thing that leaves it is large amounts of heat.

28 About 40,000 tons of space dust accumulates each year on Earth
About 40,000 tons of space dust accumulates each year on Earth. That’s like one oz per square mile per year. We loose mass as hydrogen & helium escape our upper atmosphere into space. According to scientists, meteorites do hit the earth regularly. Pea-sized meteorites land some where on earth at the rate of about 10 per hour, walnut-sized land at the rate of about 1 per hour, grapefruit-sized about 1 time every 10 hours, basketball-sized about 1 time per month, 50 meter-size (this would wipe out an area about the size of New Jersey) about once per century, 1 kilometer-size (this would be an asteroid) about once every 100,000 years, and 2 kilometer-size about once every 500,0000 years.

29 Earth as a CLOSED system
Potential problems: Some resources are limited & as the population grows the resources will be used more rapidly. We produce wastes more quickly than we can dispose of them.

30 Environmental Problems
Occur on 3 scales: A local example would be your community discussing where to build a new landfill. A regional example would be a polluted river 1000 miles away affecting the region’s water. A global example would be the depletion of the ozone layer.

31 What are our Main Environmental Problems?
Environmental problems can generally be grouped into 3 categories: Resource Depletion Pollution Loss of Biodiversity

32 Resource Depletion Natural Resources are any natural materials that are used by humans water, petroleum, minerals, forests, & animals Said to be depleted when most of the resource has been used up Either renewable or nonrenewable resources Nonrenewable resources take millions of years to be replaced if depleted. (Oil) Renewable resources can be replaced relatively quickly by natural process. (Trees)


34 Pollution An undesirable change in the natural environment that is caused by the introduction of substances that are harmful to living organisms. Can also be excessive wastes, heat, noise, or radiation Much of the pollution that troubles us today is produced by human activities & the accumulation of wastes.

35 2 main types of pollutants:
Biodegradable pollutants Can be broken down by natural processes Example: newspaper Only a problem if they accumulate faster than they can be broken down Nonbiodegradable pollutants can’t be broken down by natural processes Example: mercury Can build up to dangerous levels in the environment

36 Loss of Biodiversity Biodiversity is the variety of organisms in a given area. There is: genetic variation within a population A variety of species in a community A variety of communities in an ecosystem

37 The organisms that share the world with us can be considered natural resources.
We depend on them for: food, the oxygen we breathe, & for their potential economic, scientific, aesthetic, & recreational value. Scientists think that species extinction may cause problems for the human population.

38 Biodiversity Loss and Species Extinction: Remember HIPPO
H for habitat destruction and degradation I for invasive species P for pollution P for human population growth O for overexploitation 38

39 Objectives List three differences between developed and developing countries. Explain the law of supply and demand. Describe “The Tragedy of the Commons.” Explain what sustainability is, and describe why it is a goal of environmental science.

40 Standards SEV4d, f SEV5c, f

41 “The Tragedy of the Commons”
In his essay, ecologist Hardin argued that the main difficulty in solving environmental problems is the conflict between the short-term interests of the individual & the long-term welfare of society. The example he used was the commons, or the areas of land that belonged to the whole village.

42 It was in the best interest of the individual to put as many animals in the commons as possible.
However, if too many animals grazed on the commons, they destroyed the grass. Once the grass was destroyed, everyone suffered because no one could raise animals on the commons. The commons were eventually replaced by closed fields owned by individuals. Owners were now careful not to but too many animals on their land, because overgrazing wouldn’t allow them to raise as many animals next year. Hardin’s point being that someone or some group must take responsibility for maintaining a resource or it will become depleted. Hardin’s point can be applied to our modern commons, natural resources. Humans live in societies, & in societies, we can solve environmental problems by planning, organizing, considering the scientific evidence, & proposing a solution. The solution may be to override the short-term interests of the individual &improve the environment for everyone in the long run.

43 Supply and Demand Supply and Demand is a law of economics that states as the demand for a good or service increases, the value of it also increases. Example: world oil production STELLA MODEL


45 Costs and Benefits The cost of environmental solutions can be high.
A cost-benefit analysis balances the cost of the action against the benefits one expects from it. The results depend on who is doing the analysis. For example, pollution control may be too costly to an industry, but to a nearby community, the price may well be worth it. Often, environmental regulations are passed on to the consumer or taxpayer.

46 Risk Assessment One of the costs of any action is the risk of an undesirable outcome. Risk assessment is a tool that helps us create cost effective ways to protect our health & environment. To come up with an effective solution to an environmental problem, the public must perceive the risk accurately.

47 Do-Now: Questions: p. 15 #3 only
Read pages of your text. Questions: p. 15 #3 only Contrast renewable & nonrenewable resources. List 2 examples of each. Contrast biodegradable & nondegradable pollutants. List 2 examples of each. Define biodiversity.

48 Developed and Developing Countries
The unequal distribution of wealth & resources around the world influence the environmental problems & solutions a society can make. Developed countries have higher incomes, slower population growth, diverse industrial economies, & stronger social support. Developing countries have lower average incomes, simple agriculture-based economies, & rapid population growth.

49 Ecological Footprints
Ecological footprints are calculations that show the productive area of Earth needed to support one person in a particular country. Estimates land used for crops, grazing, forest products, & housing Includes the ocean area used to harvest seafood & the forest area needed to absorb the air pollution caused by fossil fuels.

50 An ecological footprint is one way to express the differences in consumption between nations.

51 Consumption Trends

52 Population and Consumption
Almost all environmental problems can be traced back to 2 root causes: The human population in some areas is growing too quickly for the local environment to support. People are using up, wasting, or polluting many natural resources faster than they can be renewed, replaced, or cleaned up.

53 Local Population Pressures
When the population in an area grows rapidly, there may not be enough natural resources for the everyone to live a healthy, productive life. In severely overpopulated regions, forests are stripped bare, topsoil is exhausted, & animals are driven to extinction. In these areas, malnutrition, starvation, & disease can be constant threats.

54 Consumption Trends To support the higher quality of life, developed countries are using much more of Earth’s resources. Developed nations use about 75% of the world’s resources, although they make up only 20% of the world’s population. This rate of consumption creates more waste & pollution per person then in developing countries.

55 Critical Thinking & the Environment
People may feel passionately about their cause & can distort information to mislead people about the issue. Research is often used to make a political point or is misinterpreted to support controversial data. The economic dimension of an environmental issue may be oversimplified. The media often sensationalizes environmental issues. You must use your critical thinking skills when making decisions about environmental issues.

56 Remember a few things as you explore environmental science further:
First, be prepared to listen to many viewpoints over a particular issue. Second, investigate the source of the information you encounter. Third, gather all the information you can before drawing a conclusion.

57 A Sustainable World Sustainability is the condition in which human needs are met in such a way that a human population can survive indefinitely (FOREVER!). A key goal of environmental science

58 A Sustainable World A sustainable world is not unchanging as technological advances & human civilizations continue to be productive. However, our current world is not sustainable as the developed countries are using resources faster than they can be replaced. Achieving a sustainable world requires everyone’s participation including individual citizens, industry, & the government.

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