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Chapter 19 Air Pollution. Core Case Study: South Asias Massive Brown Cloud.

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1 Chapter 19 Air Pollution

2 Core Case Study: South Asias Massive Brown Cloud

3 Case Study: South Asias Massive Brown Cloud A huge dark brown cloud of industrial smog, caused by wood fires, cars, and coal-burning in countries such as China and India, stretches over much of southeastern Asia. A huge dark brown cloud of industrial smog, caused by wood fires, cars, and coal-burning in countries such as China and India, stretches over much of southeastern Asia. In areas beneath the cloud, photosynthesis is reduced interfering with crop development. In areas beneath the cloud, photosynthesis is reduced interfering with crop development. Fine particles and droplets in the cloud appear to be changing regional climates (including rainfall). Fine particles and droplets in the cloud appear to be changing regional climates (including rainfall). May have contributed to floods in 2002 and 2005 which killed thousands of people in India & BangladeshMay have contributed to floods in 2002 and 2005 which killed thousands of people in India & Bangladesh

4 Case Study: South Asias Massive Brown Cloud

5 China

6 Case Study: South Asias Massive Brown Cloud India

7 Chapter Overview Questions What layers are found in the atmosphere? What layers are found in the atmosphere? What are the major outdoor air pollutants, and where do they come from? What are the major outdoor air pollutants, and where do they come from? What are two types of smog? What are two types of smog? What is acid deposition, and how can it be reduced? What is acid deposition, and how can it be reduced? What are the harmful effects of air pollutants? What are the harmful effects of air pollutants? How can we prevent and control air pollution? How can we prevent and control air pollution?

8 Case Study: When Is a Lichen Like a Canary? Lichens can warn us of bad air because they absorb it as a source of nourishment. Lichens can warn us of bad air because they absorb it as a source of nourishment. Figure 19-1

9 Core Case Study: When Is a Lichen Like a Canary? Some lichen species are sensitive to specific air-polluting chemicals. Some lichen species are sensitive to specific air-polluting chemicals. After the Chernobyl nuclear power plant explosion (1986), more than 70,000 reindeer had to be killed because they ate highly radioactive lichens. After the Chernobyl nuclear power plant explosion (1986), more than 70,000 reindeer had to be killed because they ate highly radioactive lichens. Because lichens are widespread, long-lived, and anchored in place, they can help track pollution to its source. Because lichens are widespread, long-lived, and anchored in place, they can help track pollution to its source.

10 STRUCTURE AND SCIENCE OF THE ATMOSPHERE The atmosphere consists of several layers with different temperatures, pressures, and compositions. The atmosphere consists of several layers with different temperatures, pressures, and compositions. Figure 19-2

11 Fig. 19-2, p. 440 Atmospheric pressure (millibars) Temperature Thermosphere Pressure Mesopause Heating via ozone Mesosphere Stratopause Altitude (kilometers) Stratosphere Altitude (miles) Tropopause Ozone layer Heating from the earth Troposphere Temperature (˚C) Pressure = 1,000 millibars at ground level (Sea level) Exosphere

12 STRUCTURE AND SCIENCE OF THE ATMOSPHERE The atmospheres innermost layer (troposphere) is made up mostly of nitrogen (78%) and oxygen (21%), with smaller amounts of argon (0.93%) and The atmospheres innermost layer (troposphere) is made up mostly of nitrogen (78%) and oxygen (21%), with smaller amounts of argon (0.93%) and CO 2 (0.038% = 380 ppm), plus 0.01% to 4% water vapor. Ozone (0 3 ) in the atmospheres second layer (stratosphere) filters out 95% of the suns UV radiation that is harmful to us and most other species. Ozone (0 3 ) in the atmospheres second layer (stratosphere) filters out 95% of the suns UV radiation that is harmful to us and most other species.

13 AIR POLLUTION Some primary air pollutants may react with one another or with other chemicals in the air to form secondary air pollutants (see below). Some primary air pollutants may react with one another or with other chemicals in the air to form secondary air pollutants (see below). Figure 19-3

14 Fig. 19-3, p. 442 Primary Pollutants COCO 2 Secondary Pollutants SO 2 (NO & NO 2 ) Most hydrocarbons SO 3 Most suspended particles HNO 3 H2O2H2O2 O3O3 PANs Most NO 3 – and SO 4 2– salts 3 Sources: Natural Stationary Mobile H 2 SO 4 NO x

15 Major Air Pollutants Carbon oxides: Carbon oxides: Carbon monoxide (CO) is a highly toxic gas that forms during the incomplete combustion of carbon-containing materials (such as…?) Carbon monoxide (CO) is a highly toxic gas that forms during the incomplete combustion of carbon-containing materials (such as…?) 93% of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) in the troposphere occurs as a result of the natural carbon cycle. 93% of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) in the troposphere occurs as a result of the natural carbon cycle. 7% of CO 2 in the troposphere occurs as a result of human activities (mostly burning fossil fuels). 7% of CO 2 in the troposphere occurs as a result of human activities (mostly burning fossil fuels). It is not regulated as a pollutant under the U.S. Clean Air Act.It is not regulated as a pollutant under the U.S. Clean Air Act.

16 Carbon Dioxide CO 2 Concentration CO 2 Concentration 280 ppm prior to the Industrial Revolution 280 ppm prior to the Industrial Revolution (about 275 years ago) 384 ppm in ppm in 2007 Increasing exponentially, currently by 2 ppm per year Increasing exponentially, currently by 2 ppm per year

17 Major Air Pollutants Nitrogen oxides and nitric acid: Nitrogen oxides and nitric acid: Nitric oxide (NO) forms when nitrogen and oxygen gas in air react at the high-combustion temperatures in automobile engines and coal- burning plants. NO can also form from lightning and certain soil bacteria. Nitric oxide (NO) forms when nitrogen and oxygen gas in air react at the high-combustion temperatures in automobile engines and coal- burning plants. NO can also form from lightning and certain soil bacteria. NO reacts with O 2 in the air to form NO 2.NO reacts with O 2 in the air to form NO 2. NO 2 reacts with water vapor in the air to form nitric acid (HNO 3 ) and nitrate salts (NO 3 - ) which are components of acid deposition.NO 2 reacts with water vapor in the air to form nitric acid (HNO 3 ) and nitrate salts (NO 3 - ) which are components of acid deposition. Together, NO (primary) and NO 2 (secondary) are generically labeled as NO xTogether, NO (primary) and NO 2 (secondary) are generically labeled as NO x

18 Major Air Pollutants Sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) and sulfuric acid: Sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) and sulfuric acid: About one-third of SO 2 in the troposphere occurs naturally through the sulfur cycle. About one-third of SO 2 in the troposphere occurs naturally through the sulfur cycle. Two-thirds come from human sources, mostly combustion of sulfur-containing coal Two-thirds come from human sources, mostly combustion of sulfur-containing coal (S+ O 2 SO 2 ) and from oil refining and smelting of sulfide ores. SO 2 in the atmosphere can be converted to sulfuric acid (H 2 SO 4 ) and sulfate salts (SO 4 2- ) that return to earth as a component of acid deposition. SO 2 in the atmosphere can be converted to sulfuric acid (H 2 SO 4 ) and sulfate salts (SO 4 2- ) that return to earth as a component of acid deposition.

19 Major Air Pollutants Suspended particulate matter (SPM): Suspended particulate matter (SPM): Consists of a variety of solid particles and liquid droplets small and light enough to remain suspended in the air. Consists of a variety of solid particles and liquid droplets small and light enough to remain suspended in the air. The most harmful forms of SPM are fine particles (PM-10), with an average diameter < 10 micrometers, and ultrafine particles (PM-2.5). The most harmful forms of SPM are fine particles (PM-10), with an average diameter < 10 micrometers, and ultrafine particles (PM-2.5).

20 Major Air Pollutants Suspended particulate matter (SPM): Suspended particulate matter (SPM): According to the EPA, SPM is responsible for about 60,000 premature deaths a year in the U.S. According to the EPA, SPM is responsible for about 60,000 premature deaths a year in the U.S. SPM can: irritate nose and throat, damage lungs, and aggravate asthma and bronchitis SPM can: irritate nose and throat, damage lungs, and aggravate asthma and bronchitis Toxic particles of lead, cadmium, and PCBs can cause mutations, birth defects, and cancer Toxic particles of lead, cadmium, and PCBs can cause mutations, birth defects, and cancer

21 Major Air Pollutants Ozone (O 3 ): Ozone (O 3 ): Is a highly reactive gas that is a major component of photochemical smog. Is a highly reactive gas that is a major component of photochemical smog. Ground level ozone is a strong oxidizer and damages living tissue when breathed. Ground level ozone is a strong oxidizer and damages living tissue when breathed. It can It can Cause and aggravate respiratory illness.Cause and aggravate respiratory illness. Can aggravate heart disease.Can aggravate heart disease. Damage plants, rubber in tires, fabrics, and paints.Damage plants, rubber in tires, fabrics, and paints.

22 Major Air Pollutants Volatile organic compounds (VOCs): Volatile organic compounds (VOCs): Most are hydrocarbons emitted by the leaves of many plants, and methane (CH 4 ). Most are hydrocarbons emitted by the leaves of many plants, and methane (CH 4 ). About two thirds of global methane emissions comes from human sources. About two thirds of global methane emissions comes from human sources. Other VOCs include industrial solvents such as trichlorethylene (TCE), benzene, and vinyl chloride. Other VOCs include industrial solvents such as trichlorethylene (TCE), benzene, and vinyl chloride. Long-term exposure to benzene can cause cancer, blood disorders, and immune system damage.Long-term exposure to benzene can cause cancer, blood disorders, and immune system damage.

23 Major Air Pollutants Radon (Rn): Radon (Rn): Radon occurs naturally when Uranium-238 undergoes radioactive decay. Radon occurs naturally when Uranium-238 undergoes radioactive decay. Some types of soil and rock, such as granite, are relatively high in U-238 Some types of soil and rock, such as granite, are relatively high in U-238 Radon can seep into homes and buildings sitting above these deposits of U-238 containing rocks. Radon can seep into homes and buildings sitting above these deposits of U-238 containing rocks.

24 URBAN OUTDOOR AIR POLLUTION Industrial smog (gray smog) is a mixture of sulfur dioxide, droplets of sulfuric acid, and a variety of suspended solid particles emitted mostly by burning coal. Industrial smog (gray smog) is a mixture of sulfur dioxide, droplets of sulfuric acid, and a variety of suspended solid particles emitted mostly by burning coal. In most developed countries where coal and heavy oil is burned, industrial smog is not a problem due to reasonably good pollution control or with tall smokestacks that transfer the pollutant to rural areas. In most developed countries where coal and heavy oil is burned, industrial smog is not a problem due to reasonably good pollution control or with tall smokestacks that transfer the pollutant to rural areas.

25 Sunlight plus Cars Equals Photochemical Smog Photochemical smog is a mixture of air pollutants formed by the reaction of nitrogen oxides (NO x ) and volatile organic hydrocarbons (VOCs) under the influence of sunlight. Photochemical smog is a mixture of air pollutants formed by the reaction of nitrogen oxides (NO x ) and volatile organic hydrocarbons (VOCs) under the influence of sunlight.

26 Sunlight plus Cars Equals Photochemical Smog Mexico City is one of the many cities in sunny, warm, dry climates with many motor vehicles that suffer from photochemical smog. Mexico City is one of the many cities in sunny, warm, dry climates with many motor vehicles that suffer from photochemical smog. Figure 19-4

27 Factors Influencing Levels of Outdoor Air Pollution Outdoor air pollution can be reduced by: Outdoor air pollution can be reduced by: settling out, precipitation, sea spray, winds, and chemical reactions. settling out, precipitation, sea spray, winds, and chemical reactions. Outdoor air pollution can be increased by: Outdoor air pollution can be increased by: urban buildings (slow wind dispersal of pollutants), mountains (promote temperature inversions), and high temperatures (promote photochemical reactions). urban buildings (slow wind dispersal of pollutants), mountains (promote temperature inversions), and high temperatures (promote photochemical reactions).

28 Temperature Inversion Smoke rising in Lochcarron, Scotland is stopped by an overlying layer of warmer air.LochcarronScotland

29 Temperature Inversion

30 Fig. 19-5, p. 447 Cooler air Descending cold air mass Inversion layer Sea breeze Increasing altitude Decreasing temperature Denver: Cold, cloudy, surrounded by mountains LA: Hot, sunny, ocean on one side, mountains on 3 other sides

31 Temperature Inversions Cold, cloudy weather in a valley surrounded by mountains can trap air pollutants (left). Cold, cloudy weather in a valley surrounded by mountains can trap air pollutants (left). Areas with sunny climate, light winds, mountains on three sides & an ocean on the other (right) are also susceptible to inversions. Areas with sunny climate, light winds, mountains on three sides & an ocean on the other (right) are also susceptible to inversions. Figure 19-5

32 ACID DEPOSITION These trees look bad, but…

33 ACID DEPOSITION …the worst threat of acid deposition is to human health, when toxic metals such as lead & mercury are leached from soils into the water supply, where they threaten: …the worst threat of acid deposition is to human health, when toxic metals such as lead & mercury are leached from soils into the water supply, where they threaten: Drinking water Drinking water Food supplies via biomagnification Food supplies via biomagnification

34 ACID DEPOSITION Primary pollutants: Sulfur dioxides (SO 2 ), nitrogen oxides (NO x ), and particulates can react in the atmosphere to produce… Primary pollutants: Sulfur dioxides (SO 2 ), nitrogen oxides (NO x ), and particulates can react in the atmosphere to produce… Secondary pollutants: acidic chemicals that can travel long distances before returning to the earths surface. Secondary pollutants: acidic chemicals that can travel long distances before returning to the earths surface. H 2 SO 4, HNO 3, and SO 4 2- and NO 3 - salts H 2 SO 4, HNO 3, and SO 4 2- and NO 3 - salts Tall smokestacks reduce local air pollution but can increase regional air pollution. Tall smokestacks reduce local air pollution but can increase regional air pollution.

35 ACID DEPOSITION Acid deposition consists of rain, snow, dust, fog, dew, or gas with a pH lower than 5.6. Acid deposition consists of rain, snow, dust, fog, dew, or gas with a pH lower than 5.6. Figure 19-6

36 Fig. 19-6, p. 448 Wind Transformation to sulfuric acid (H 2 SO 4 ) and nitric acid (HNO 3 ) Windborne ammonia gas and particles of cultivated soil partially neutralize acids and form dry sulfate and nitrate salts Wet acid deposition (droplets of H 2 SO 4 and HNO 3 dissolved in rain and snow) Nitric oxide (NO) Sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) and NO Dry acid deposition (sulfur dioxide gas and particles of sulfate and nitrate salts) Acid fog Farm Ocean Lakes in deep soil high in limestone are buffered Lakes in shallow soil low in limestone become acidic

37 ACID DEPOSITION pH measurements in relation to major coal- burning and industrial plants. pH measurements in relation to major coal- burning and industrial plants. Figure 19-7

38 Effects of Acid Deposition… Dead or Severely Damaged Forests and Lakes, (especially in the Northeast US and Canada)

39 More Acid Deposition Damage

40 SO 2 NO x H 2 SO 4 HNO 3 Sulfuric Acid Nitric Acid

41 Acid Rain in the US

42 Specific Effects of Acid Deposition in a Vermont Lake

43 Acid Deposition in Western Europe

44 Effects of Acid Rain on Stone Sculpture

45 This photo, from 1910, shows the effect of 400 years of weathering on a grotesque which decorates Lincoln Cathedral in England. In 1984, only 74 years later, acid rain and other atmospheric pollution have worn the figure to a barely recognizable remnant.

46 ACID DEPOSITION Contributes to chronic respiratory disease Contributes to chronic respiratory disease Can leach toxic metals (such as lead and mercury) from soils and rocks into acidic lakes used as sources for drinking water. Can leach toxic metals (such as lead and mercury) from soils and rocks into acidic lakes used as sources for drinking water.

47 ACID DEPOSITION Figure 19-8

48 ACID DEPOSITION Air pollution is one of several interacting stresses that can damage, weaken, or kill trees and pollute surface and groundwater. Air pollution is one of several interacting stresses that can damage, weaken, or kill trees and pollute surface and groundwater. Figure 19-9

49 Fig. 19-9, p. 451 Emissions SO 2 NO x Acid deposition H2O2H2O2 O3O3 Others Direct damage to leaves & bark Reduced photo- synthesis and growth Susceptibility to drought, extreme cold, insects, mosses, & disease organisms Soil acidification Tree death Leaching of soil nutrients Release of toxic metal ions Root damage Reduced nutrient & water uptake Acids Lake Groundwater PANs

50 Fig , p. 452 Solutions Acid Deposition PreventionCleanup Reduce air pollution by improving energy efficiency Add lime to neutralize acidified lakes $$$$$$$$$$$$$! Reduce coal use Add phosphate fertilizer to neutralize acidified lakes $$$$$$$$$$$$$! Increase natural gas use Increase use of renewable energy resources Burn low-sulfur coal Remove SO 2 particulates & NO x from smokestack gases (scrubbers) Remove NO x from motor vehicular exhaust Tax emissions of SO 2

51 INDOOR AIR POLLUTION Indoor air pollution usually is a greater threat to human health than outdoor air pollution. Indoor air pollution usually is a greater threat to human health than outdoor air pollution. According to the EPA, the four most dangerous indoor air pollutants in developed countries are: According to the EPA, the four most dangerous indoor air pollutants in developed countries are: Tobacco smoke. Tobacco smoke. Formaldehyde (upholstery, paneling, particle board, carpet, and foam insulation) Formaldehyde (upholstery, paneling, particle board, carpet, and foam insulation) Radioactive radon-222 gas (natural- must be vented) Radioactive radon-222 gas (natural- must be vented) Very small fine and ultrafine particles. Very small fine and ultrafine particles.

52 Chloroform Benzo- -pyrene Styrene Radon-222 Methylene Chloride Tobacco Smoke Carbon Monoxide Asbestos Nitrogen Oxides 1, 1, 1- Trichloroethane Particulates FormaldehydeTetrachloroethylene TCE Para-dichlorobenzene See p. 484

53 INDOOR AIR POLLUTION Household dust mites that feed on human skin and dust, live in materials such as bedding and furniture fabrics. Household dust mites that feed on human skin and dust, live in materials such as bedding and furniture fabrics. Can cause asthma attacks and allergic reactions in some people. Can cause asthma attacks and allergic reactions in some people. Figure 19-12

54 Case Study: Radioactive Radon Radon-222, a radioactive, carcinogenic gas found in some soils and rocks, can seep into some houses and increase the risk of lung cancer. Radon-222, a radioactive, carcinogenic gas found in some soils and rocks, can seep into some houses and increase the risk of lung cancer. Radon comes from the radiactive decay of Uranium-238 Radon comes from the radiactive decay of Uranium-238 Sources and paths of entry for indoor radon-222 gas Sources and paths of entry for indoor radon-222 gas. Next

55 Fig , p. 454 Outlet vents for furnaces and dryers Open window Openings around pipes Cracks in wall Slab joints Wood stove Cracks in floor Clothes dryer Sump pump Furnace Slab Radon-222 gas Uranium-238 Soil

56 HEALTH EFFECTS OF AIR POLLUTION Your respiratory system can help protect you from air pollution, but some air pollutants can overcome these defenses. Your respiratory system can help protect you from air pollution, but some air pollutants can overcome these defenses. Figure 19-14

57 Fig , p. 455 Epithelial cell Cilia Nasal cavity Oral cavity Goblet cell (secreting mucus) Pharynx (throat) Mucus Trachea (windpipe) Bronchus Bronchioles Right lung Bronchioles Alveolar sac (sectioned) Alveoli Alveolar duct

58 HEALTH EFFECTS OF AIR POLLUTION Normal human lungs (left) and the lungs of a person who died of emphysema (right).

59 Air Pollution is a Big Killer Each year, air pollution prematurely kills about 3 million people, mostly from indoor air pollution in developing countries. Each year, air pollution prematurely kills about 3 million people, mostly from indoor air pollution in developing countries. In the U.S., the EPA estimates that annual deaths related to indoor and outdoor air pollution range from 150,000 to 350,000. In the U.S., the EPA estimates that annual deaths related to indoor and outdoor air pollution range from 150,000 to 350,000. According to the EPA, each year more than 125,000 Americans get cancer from breathing diesel fumes. According to the EPA, each year more than 125,000 Americans get cancer from breathing diesel fumes.

60 Air Pollution is a Big Killer Spatial distribution of premature deaths from air pollution in the United States. Spatial distribution of premature deaths from air pollution in the United States. Figure 19-16

61 PREVENTING AND REDUCING AIR POLLUTION The Clean Air Act (1970, 77, 90) in the United States have greatly reduced outdoor air pollution from six major pollutants: The Clean Air Act (1970, 77, 90) in the United States have greatly reduced outdoor air pollution from six major pollutants: Carbon monoxideCO Carbon monoxideCO Nitrogen oxidesNO x Nitrogen oxidesNO x Sulfur dioxidesSO 2 Sulfur dioxidesSO 2 Suspended particulate matter (less than PM-10) Suspended particulate matter (less than PM-10) LeadPb LeadPb Ozone O 3 Ozone O 3

62 PREVENTING AND REDUCING AIR POLLUTION Environmental scientists point out several deficiencies in the Clean Air Act: Environmental scientists point out several deficiencies in the Clean Air Act: The U.S. continues to rely on cleanup rather than prevention. The U.S. continues to rely on cleanup rather than prevention. The U.S. Congress has failed to increase fuel- efficiency standards for automobiles. The U.S. Congress has failed to increase fuel- efficiency standards for automobiles. Regulation of emissions from motorcycles and two-cycle engines remains inadequate. Regulation of emissions from motorcycles and two-cycle engines remains inadequate. There is little or no regulation of air pollution from oceangoing ships in American ports. There is little or no regulation of air pollution from oceangoing ships in American ports.

63 PREVENTING AND REDUCING AIR POLLUTION- Deficiencies in the Clean Air Act of 1970 Airports are exempt from many air pollution regulations. Airports are exempt from many air pollution regulations. The Act does not regulate the greenhouse gas CO 2. The Act does not regulate the greenhouse gas CO 2. The Act has failed to deal seriously with indoor air pollution. The Act has failed to deal seriously with indoor air pollution. There is a need for better enforcement of the Clean Air Act. There is a need for better enforcement of the Clean Air Act.

64 PREVENTING AND REDUCING AIR POLLUTION Executives of companies claim that correcting these deficiencies would: Executives of companies claim that correcting these deficiencies would: cost too much cost too much harm economic growth harm economic growth and cost jobs. and cost jobs.

65 Using the Marketplace to Reduce Outdoor Air Pollution To help reduce SO 2 emissions, the Clean Air Act authorized an emission trading (cap-and- trade) program. To help reduce SO 2 emissions, the Clean Air Act authorized an emission trading (cap-and- trade) program. Enables the 110 most polluting power plants to buy and sell SO 2 pollution rights. Enables the 110 most polluting power plants to buy and sell SO 2 pollution rights. Between , the emission trading system reduced emissions. Between , the emission trading system reduced emissions. In 2002, the EPA reported the cap-and-trade system produced less emission reductions than were projected. In 2002, the EPA reported the cap-and-trade system produced less emission reductions than were projected.

66 Solutions: Reducing Outdoor Air Pollution There are a number of ways to prevent and control air pollution from coal-burning facilities. There are a number of ways to prevent and control air pollution from coal-burning facilities. Electrostatic precipitator: are used to attract negatively charged particles in a smokestack into a collector. Electrostatic precipitator: are used to attract negatively charged particles in a smokestack into a collector. Wet scrubber: fine mists of water vapor trap particulates and convert them to a sludge that is collected and disposed of usually in a landfill. Wet scrubber: fine mists of water vapor trap particulates and convert them to a sludge that is collected and disposed of usually in a landfill.

67 Fig a, p. 460 Clean gas out Negatively charged electrode Positively charged precipitator wall Dirty gas (smoke) in Dust falls off into collector Taken to landfill Electrostatic Precipitator

68 Can remove 99% of particulate matter Can remove 99% of particulate matter Does not remove hazardous ultrafine particles. Does not remove hazardous ultrafine particles. Produces toxic dust that must be safely disposed of. Produces toxic dust that must be safely disposed of. Uses large amounts of electricity Uses large amounts of electricity Figure 19-18

69 Fig b, p. 460 Clean gas out Separator Liquid water in Dirty gas (smoke) in Polluted liquid (sludge) out Wet Scrubber

70 Can remove 98% of SO 2 and particulate matter. Can remove 98% of SO 2 and particulate matter. Not very effective in removing hazardous fine and ultrafine particles. Not very effective in removing hazardous fine and ultrafine particles. Figure 19-18

71 Fig , p. 459 Solutions Stationary Source Air Pollution Prevention Burn low-sulfur coal Disperse emissions above thermal inversion layer with tall smokestacks Remove sulfur from coal Convert coal to a liquid or gaseous fuel Remove pollutants after combustion Shift to less polluting fuels Tax each unit of pollution produced Dispersion or Cleanup

72 Solutions: Reducing Outdoor Air Pollution In 2003, fourteen states and a number of U.S. cities sued the EPA to block new rules that would allow older coal-burning power plants to modernize without having to install the most advanced air pollution controls. In 2003, fourteen states and a number of U.S. cities sued the EPA to block new rules that would allow older coal-burning power plants to modernize without having to install the most advanced air pollution controls.

73 Solutions: Reducing Outdoor Air Pollution There are a number of ways to prevent and control air pollution from motor vehicles. There are a number of ways to prevent and control air pollution from motor vehicles. Because of the Clean Air Act, a new car today in the U.S. emits 75% less pollution than did pre cars. Because of the Clean Air Act, a new car today in the U.S. emits 75% less pollution than did pre cars. There is an increase in motor vehicle use in developing countries and many have no pollution control devices and burn leaded gasoline. There is an increase in motor vehicle use in developing countries and many have no pollution control devices and burn leaded gasoline.

74 Fig , p. 460 Solutions Motor Vehicle Air Pollution PreventionCleanup Emission control devices Mass transit Bicycles and walking Less polluting engines Less polluting fuels Improve fuel efficiency Car exhaust inspections twice a year Get older, polluting cars off the road Give buyers large tax write-offs or rebates for buying low-polluting, energy efficient vehicles Stricter emission standards

75 Indoor Air Pollution Little effort has been devoted to reducing indoor air pollution even though it poses a much greater threat to human health than outdoor air pollution. Little effort has been devoted to reducing indoor air pollution even though it poses a much greater threat to human health than outdoor air pollution. Environmental and health scientists call for us to focus on preventing air pollution (especially indoor) in developing countries. Environmental and health scientists call for us to focus on preventing air pollution (especially indoor) in developing countries.

76 Fig , p. 461 Solutions Indoor Air Pollution Prevention Cover ceiling tiles & lining of AC ducts to prevent release of mineral fibers Use adjustable fresh air vents for work spaces Increase intake of outside air Ban smoking or limit it to well ventilated areas Change air more frequently Set stricter formaldehyde emissions standards for carpet, furniture, and building materials Circulate a buildings air through rooftop green houses Prevent radon infiltration Use exhaust hoods for stoves and appliances burning natural gas Use office machines in well ventilated areas Use less polluting substitutes for harmful cleaning agents, paints, and other products Install efficient chimneys for wood-burning stoves Cleanup or Dilution

77 Fig , p. 461 What Can You Do? Indoor Air Pollution Test for radon and formaldehyde inside your home and take corrective measures as needed. Do not buy furniture and other products containing formaldehyde. Remove your shoes before entering your house to reduce inputs of dust, lead, and pesticides. Test your house or workplace for asbestos fiber levels and for any crumbling asbestos materials if it was built before Don't live in a pre-1980 house without having its indoor air tested for asbestos and lead. Do not store gasoline, solvents, or other volatile hazardous chemicals inside a home or attached garage. If you smoke, do it outside or in a closed room vented to the outside. Make sure that wood-burning stoves, fireplaces, and kerosene- and gas-burning heaters are properly installed, vented, and maintained. Install carbon monoxide detectors in all sleeping areas.

78 Fig , p. 462 Solutions Air Pollution OutdoorIndoor Improve energy efficiency to reduce fossil fuel use Reduce poverty Rely more on lower-polluting natural gas Distribute cheap & efficient cookstoves or solar cookers to poor families in developing countries Rely more on renewable energy (especially solar cells, wind, & solar-produced hydrogen) Reduce or ban indoor smoking Transfer technologies for latest energy efficiency, renewable energy, & pollution prevention to developing countries Develop simple and cheap tests for indoor pollutants such as particulates, radon, and formaldehyde

79 Updates Online The latest references for topics covered in this section can be found at the book companion website. Log in to the books e-resources page at to access InfoTrac articles. InfoTrac: Indoor air pollution. Eva Rehfuess, Carlos Corvalan, Maria Neira. Bulletin of the World Health Organization, July 2006 v84 i7 p508(1). InfoTrac: Risks of cleaning house disclosed. San Jose Mercury News (San Jose, CA), May 23, InfoTrac: Pollution From Chinese Coal Casts Shadow Around Globe. Keith Bradsher, David Barboza. The New York Times, June 11, 2006 pA1(L). American Industrial Hygiene Association: Do I Work in a Sick Building? PBS: Deadly Smog EPA: Toxic Air Pollutants

80 Video: Air Pollution This video clip is available in CNN Today Videos for Environmental Science, 2004, Volume VII. Instructors, contact your local sales representative to order this volume, while supplies last.

81 Video: Smog Pollution This video clip is available in CNN Today Videos for Environmental Science, 2004, Volume VII. Instructors, contact your local sales representative to order this volume, while supplies last.

82 How Would You Vote? To conduct an instant in-class survey using a classroom response system, access JoinIn Clicker Content from the PowerLecture main menu for Living in the Environment. Should carbon dioxide be regulated as an air pollutant? –a. No. Because funds are limited, they should be spent on regulating and reducing more toxic air pollutants, such as mercury. –b. Yes. Carbon dioxide is a serious greenhouse gas and its emissions must be regulated and reduced.

83 How Would You Vote? To conduct an instant in-class survey using a classroom response system, access the Polls Clicker Questions from the PowerLecture main menu. Should the 1990 U.S. Clean Air Act be strengthened? –a. No. Strengthening the Act would be too expensive and would harm the economy. –b. Yes. Strengthening the Act would improve the environment and people's health, save energy, and ultimately save money.

84 How Would You Vote? To conduct an instant in-class survey using a classroom response system, access the Polls Clicker Questions from the PowerLecture main menu. Should emissions trading be used to help control emissions of all major air pollutants? –a. No. Emissions trading has no system for verifying compliance and eliminating "hot spots" of air pollution. –b. Yes. Emissions trading is an efficient and effective way of reducing air pollution.

85 How Would You Vote? To conduct an instant in-class survey using a classroom response system, access JoinIn Clicker Content from the PowerLecture main menu for Living in the Environment. Should older coal-burning power and industrial plants have to meet the same air pollution standards as new facilities? –a. No. The private sector should not have to upgrade existing facilities every time the regulations change. –b. Yes. All facilities should comply with current regulations so that the environment and human health are effectively protected.


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