Presentation on theme: "Trustee Georgia and Royal Georgia"— Presentation transcript:
1Trustee Georgia and Royal Georgia 1730-1761 Colonial GeorgiaTrustee Georgia andRoyal Georgia
2What was happening in England to create the need for a colony… England has agricultural/land problemsEngland needs raw materials, resourcesPeople moving to the cities and out of the farmsNot enough food producedNot enough work, homelessness in the citiesPrison for those who couldn’t pay debts
4James Edward Oglethorpe British Parliament 1722Wanted prison reformOrigin of debtors’ colony idea, help people who could not support themselves,work in the colony to send back raw materialsCompassionate attitude, against slaveryAs a former soldier, knew the defensive value for Carolinas
5Creation of GeorgiaGroup of 21 Trustees created the plan and presented to the kingTrustee -person whom you have trusted with something of importanceNamed Georgia for King George IILand between Altamaha and Savannah Rivers1732, the charter signed by king$- from parliament, most from private sources
6Reasons for the Colony of GA Charitable: to provide relief for debtors or “worthy poor”Economics: a self-supporting colony that would provide natural resources for Britain, raw goodsDefensive: a protective barrier between Florida and South Carolina
7The Debtors’ colony changed to become the colony for the “worthy poor” Great promotional campaign to encourage settlersSo many applicants that they screened for good character and work abilityMost had a trade (a job): carpenters, wood workers, small business ownersSome came for religious reasons
8What were the colonists promised? Free boat ride to the new colony50 acres of land1 year’s supply of food & supplies for each familyThose who paid to go were given 500 acres of land & could bring 10 indentured servants to help youLIFE IN COLONIAL GEORGIA
9RULES and REQUIREMENTS Trustees - not own land or make a profitNo rum or hard liquor allowed in GANo slaves allowedOnly men could own or inherit landNo attorneysNo CatholicsMake silk and wine for EnglandEQUALITY and GOOD OF THE COLONY
10Establishing the Colony November 17, people sailed on the Anne, landed in the New World winter of 1733 Landed in Charles Town, SCLanded in Jan of 1733Colonists stayed behind while Oglethorpe and 2 colonels with Georgia Guard to look for a site to settleWhat things did Oglethorpe and his men look for in deciding where to settle???
11Savannah Oglethorpe met with Creek Chief- Tomochichi Establish peace and friendshipHelped by Mary Musgrove, operated a trading post and interpretedCreek agree give land at Yamacraw BluffEnglish agree to trade at set prices and not to move into other Creek landsFebruary 1, 1733 colonists arrived in Savannah ready to settle
12Important PeopleJohn and Mary Musgrove – Ran a trading post near the Yamacraw Village and helped to interpret for Oglethorpe. CoosaponakeesaChief Tomochichi – Leader of the Yamacraw tribe; gave land overlooking the Savannah River (Yamacraw Bluff) to Oglethorpe,James Oglethorpe – Leader of the trustees; established the GA colony
13Savannah Tythings, wards, public squares & house lots. Contaminated water & disease-carrying insects.Forts built for protectionColonel BullMany died in the first year
15More settlements in Georgia Oglethorpe returns to England in 1734 for more military support, takes Tomochichi and ToonahowiReturns in Feb of 1736 –Landing at FredericaScottish Highlanders went to DarienOver a hundred at Frederica, built a large fort to protect southern borderSends men to start a settlement in up country, Augusta
16The “Others” Highland Scots settled in Darien, GA Salzburgers settled in New Ebenezer from Austria/GermanyMoravians from Czech Rep. (then to PA)Jews settled in GA, NO Catholics
17Economic Plans and Problems Wine and SilkPLAN: Georgia colonists were toplant Mulberry Trees- silkworms would eat the leaves and spin silk and plant Grapes for winePROBLEMS: The colonists didn’t know how to take care of silkworms, mulberries wouldn’t grow, wrong climateNo profit was made from these.
18Complaints and Petitions- the “MALCONTENTS” Land Problems – poor soil, too many restrictions on selling, leasing and inheriting land, & difficulty growing what England wantedSlavery – Many of the crops were labor-intensive. They wanted slaves like S.C.Rum – Rum was cheap to buy and could be traded as well. They wanted to be able to drink.Provisions and Food- not enough supplies, starvingGovernment- no say in what to do, no control
19Military and Defense in Georgia- (Oglethorpe in charge of southern part of the colony) Fort King George- Darien, Highland Scots, 1735Fort Frederica- northern SSIFort St Simons- southern SSI, village areaFort St. Andrew’s- northern CumberlandFort William- south end of Cumberland,
20Fighting Again Attack on St Augustine, Brits lost 2 years later- Spanish move into GA area:Oglethorpe, the Brits, the Scots Highlanders & the Native American allies set up an ambush near Ft Frederica. This attack was the Battle of Bloody Marsh (1742)
21Battle of Bloody Marsh 1742, only Spanish attack in GA area Oglethorpe outnumbered- 650 to 20002 small units ambush Spanish on their way to Ft Frederica50 dead, mostly SpanishSpanish retreat 3 days laterBattle over before Oglethorpe gets thereResults in Georgia being England’s as undisputed
22Changing RulesWomen could inherit land & people could own up to 2,000 acres of land.Allowed the drinking & sale of rum, 1742Allowed slavery, but the Scots Highlanders of Darien and the Salzburgers were still opposed to it.
23Royal Colony- Changing Gov’t Due to constant complaining, the Trustees turned the colony over to King George III1752, 1 year before the charter expiredCommons House of Assembly, voice in gov’tJohn Reynolds - first appointed governor of GA. (Reynolds Street?), dislikedHenry Ellis – 2nd governor. (Ellis Street!)James Wright - third governor.Parishes divided GA into 8, like counties, centers for gov’t
24The Royal GovernorsJohn Reynolds: Under his rule, a Commons House of Assembly was established (legislative branch). They did 4 things for the colony:1. Reorganized the militia (volunteer army)2. Provided funding for roads and bridges3. Created paper bills of credit4. Approved a slave code
25Governor #2Henry Ellis: Was a well respected governor till the day he retired1. Restored the colony to good order2. Reformed the government3. Divided GA into parishes4. Settled land claims5. Kept the Creek Indians neutral during the French and Indian War
26Governor # 3 Sir James Wright Most popular and effective Governor for almost 20 yearsAttracted more settlersExpanded GA’s landTried to keep GA as a Royal Colony when Rev War issues beganLeft after Patriots took over Sav.