Presentation on theme: "Colonial Georgia Trustee Georgia and Royal Georgia 1730-1761."— Presentation transcript:
Colonial Georgia Trustee Georgia and Royal Georgia
What was happening in England to create the need for a colony… England has agricultural/land problems England needs raw materials, resources People moving to the cities and out of the farms Not enough food produced Not enough work, homelessness in the cities Prison for those who couldnt pay debts
James Edward Oglethorpe
British Parliament 1722 Wanted prison reform Origin of debtors colony idea, help people who could not support themselves,work in the colony to send back raw materials Compassionate attitude, against slavery As a former soldier, knew the defensive value for Carolinas
Creation of Georgia Group of 21 Trustees created the plan and presented to the king Trustee -person whom you have trusted with something of importance Named Georgia for King George II Land between Altamaha and Savannah Rivers 1732, the charter signed by king $- from parliament, most from private sources
Reasons for the Colony of GA Charitable: to provide relief for debtors or worthy poor Economics: a self-supporting colony that would provide natural resources for Britain, raw goods Defensive: a protective barrier between Florida and South Carolina
The Debtors colony changed to become the colony for the worthy poor Great promotional campaign to encourage settlers So many applicants that they screened for good character and work ability Most had a trade (a job): carpenters, wood workers, small business owners Some came for religious reasons
What were the colonists promised? Free boat ride to the new colony 50 acres of land 1 years supply of food & supplies for each family Those who paid to go were given 500 acres of land & could bring 10 indentured servants to help you LIFE IN COLONIAL GEORGIA
RULES and REQUIREMENTS Trustees - not own land or make a profit No rum or hard liquor allowed in GA No slaves allowed Only men could own or inherit land No attorneys No Catholics Make silk and wine for England EQUALITY and GOOD OF THE COLONY
Establishing the Colony November 17, people sailed on the Anne, landed in the New World winter of 1733 Landed in Charles Town, SC Landed in Jan of 1733 Colonists stayed behind while Oglethorpe and 2 colonels with Georgia Guard to look for a site to settle What things did Oglethorpe and his men look for in deciding where to settle???
Savannah Oglethorpe met with Creek Chief- Tomochichi Establish peace and friendship Helped by Mary Musgrove, operated a trading post and interpreted Creek agree give land at Yamacraw Bluff English agree to trade at set prices and not to move into other Creek lands February 1, 1733 colonists arrived in Savannah ready to settle
Important People John and Mary Musgrove – Ran a trading post near the Yamacraw Village and helped to interpret for Oglethorpe. Coosaponakeesa Chief Tomochichi – Leader of the Yamacraw tribe; gave land overlooking the Savannah River (Yamacraw Bluff) to Oglethorpe, James Oglethorpe – Leader of the trustees; established the GA colony
Savannah Tythings, wards, public squares & house lots. Contaminated water & disease-carrying insects. Forts built for protection Colonel Bull Many died in the first year
Established in 1733 Squares in Savannah
More settlements in Georgia Oglethorpe returns to England in 1734 for more military support, takes Tomochichi and Toonahowi Returns in Feb of 1736 –Landing at Frederica Scottish Highlanders went to Darien Over a hundred at Frederica, built a large fort to protect southern border Sends men to start a settlement in up country, Augusta
The Others Highland Scots settled in Darien, GA Salzburgers settled in New Ebenezer from Austria/Germany Moravians from Czech Rep. (then to PA) Jews settled in GA, NO Catholics
Economic Plans and Problems Wine and Silk PLAN: Georgia colonists were to plant Mulberry Trees- silkworms would eat the leaves and spin silk and plant Grapes for wine PROBLEMS: The colonists didnt know how to take care of silkworms, mulberries wouldnt grow, wrong climate No profit was made from these.
Complaints and Petitions- the MALCONTENTS Land Problems – poor soil, too many restrictions on selling, leasing and inheriting land, & difficulty growing what England wanted Slavery – Many of the crops were labor- intensive. They wanted slaves like S.C. Rum – Rum was cheap to buy and could be traded as well. They wanted to be able to drink. Provisions and Food- not enough supplies, starving Government- no say in what to do, no control
Military and Defense in Georgia- (Oglethorpe in charge of southern part of the colony) Fort King George- Darien, Highland Scots, 1735 Fort Frederica- northern SSI Fort St Simons- southern SSI, village area Fort St. Andrews- northern Cumberland Fort William- south end of Cumberland,
Fighting Again Attack on St Augustine, Brits lost 2 years later- Spanish move into GA area: –Oglethorpe, the Brits, the Scots Highlanders & the Native American allies set up an ambush near Ft Frederica. This attack was the Battle of Bloody Marsh (1742)
Battle of Bloody Marsh 1742, only Spanish attack in GA area Oglethorpe outnumbered- 650 to small units ambush Spanish on their way to Ft Frederica 50 dead, mostly Spanish Spanish retreat 3 days later Battle over before Oglethorpe gets there Results in Georgia being Englands as undisputed
Changing Rules Women could inherit land & people could own up to 2,000 acres of land. Allowed the drinking & sale of rum, 1742 Allowed slavery, but the Scots Highlanders of Darien and the Salzburgers were still opposed to it.
Royal Colony- Changing Govt Due to constant complaining, the Trustees turned the colony over to King George III 1752, 1 year before the charter expired Commons House of Assembly, voice in govt John Reynolds - first appointed governor of GA. (Reynolds Street?), disliked Henry Ellis – 2 nd governor. (Ellis Street!) James Wright - third governor. Parishes divided GA into 8, like counties, centers for govt
The Royal Governors John Reynolds: Under his rule, a Commons House of Assembly was established (legislative branch). They did 4 things for the colony: 1. Reorganized the militia (volunteer army) 2. Provided funding for roads and bridges 3. Created paper bills of credit 4. Approved a slave code
Governor #2 Henry Ellis: Was a well respected governor till the day he retired 1. Restored the colony to good order 2. Reformed the government 3. Divided GA into parishes 4. Settled land claims 5. Kept the Creek Indians neutral during the French and Indian War
Governor # 3 Sir James Wright Most popular and effective Governor for almost 20 years Attracted more settlers Expanded GAs land Tried to keep GA as a Royal Colony when Rev War issues began Left after Patriots took over Sav.