2GPS Standards Physical Science S5P1. Students will verify that an object is the sum of its parts.Demonstrate that the mass of an object is equal to the sum of its parts bymanipulating and measuring different objects made of various parts.b. Investigate how common items have parts that are too small to be seen withoutmagnification.S5P2. Students will explain the difference between a physical change and achemical change.Investigate physical changes by separating mixtures and manipulating (cutting,tearing, folding) paper to demonstrate examples of physical change.b. Recognize that the changes in state of water (water vapor/steam, liquid, ice) are dueto temperature differences and are examples of physical change.c. Investigate the properties of a substance before, during, and after a chemicalreaction to find evidence of change.
3CRCT Content Descriptors: Domain: Physical ScienceDomain DescriptionPhysical Science refers to explaining that objects are made of parts and the mass of an object is the sum of its parts. This domain also refers to comparing and contrasting physical and chemical changes, and describing the relationship between electricity and magnetism.Standards Associated with DomainS5P1 S5P2 S5P3Associated Concepts, Skills, and Abilities• Demonstrate understanding that the mass of an object is equal to the sum of its parts bymanipulating and measuring different objects made of various parts• Determine that common items have parts that are too small to be seen without magnification• Identify examples of physical change, such as:○ separating mixtures○ manipulating paper (cutting, tearing, and folding)• Explain that temperature differences can cause a physical change/change of state in water, suchas:○ water vapor/steam○ liquid○ ice• Investigate the properties of a substance before, during, and after a chemical reaction to findevidence of change
4Basic Properties of Matter Parts of MatterUnit ActivatorBasic Properties of MatterWhat do your bed, the water in the ocean, and the air in this classroom all have in common? Not much, really. In fact, they have only one thing in common—they are all examples of matter. Matter is anything that has mass and takes up space.Sunlight is not matter. A lighted room does not have more mass than a dark room. An idea is also not made of matter. Your brain does not take up more space when you think hardWhat is matter made of? How does it come together to make the things you see and touch?Like matter, these blocks can be put together to form objects of many shapes and sizes. Each object has mass and takes up space.
5Basic Properties of Matter Parts of MatterUnit ActivatorBasic Properties of MatterThe ball at the right has more mass than the ball on the left. Where does the extra mass come from?Air is something around you everywhere. You need it to breathe. You know it is matter. The 2 soccer balls in the picture show that you can squeeze different amounts of it into a container.The fact that you can squeeze more and more air into a container gives a hint as to what matter is made of. It hints at the size of the particles of matter. You can’t see the particles. With an air pump you can pack more and more of them into the same space. So they must be very small.Other properties of matter also provide hints. Substances have properties such as solubility, mass, and hardness. For example, you know that metal knives are heavier and harder than plastic ones. So, some particles must be heavier or hold together more tightly. These differences are due to the fact that the tiny particles that make up each substance are different.
6Parts of Matter Particles of Matter Unit Activator Different kinds of matter are made up of different kinds of particles. These particles can be broken down – BUT only so far! If you continue to divide something smaller and smaller, you end up with an atom. An atom is the smallest possible particle of a substance.A molecule is made up of 2 or more atoms joined together. Atoms and molecules are very, very small. In fact, they are so small that you cannot see them. Even with a regular microscope you couldn’t see an atom or a molecule. Why? Because single atoms and molecules are too small to reflect light! So, there’s no way you can see an atom or a molecule at all unless you use a special microscope.
7Parts of Matter Particles of Matter Let’s Zoom In On Matter Unit ActivatorParticles of MatterThe word atom comes from a word that means “cannot be divided.” Think about a tank of oxygen. You can divide all of the oxygen inside into smaller and smaller parts. But when you get to an oxygen atom, you have to stop. If you break it up further, it won’t be oxygen anymore.Let’s Zoom In On Matter1. How small can something get? Start with a bag of charcoal briquets. It is about a half meter long, and it has a fair amount of mass.3. Can you break the briquets into smaller pieces? Yes. Each chunk is smaller in size and has a smaller mass than the whole briquet.2. It’s easy to break down the contents of the bag into smaller parts. This is one briquet. It is about 5 cm square, and it has a small mass.4. If you break the chunks further, you end up with dust. A dust grain is very tiny. It’s so small that you can barely see it. Look at it under a microscope. You’ll see that even it can be broken into smaller pieces.5. This diagram shows the atoms that make up the dust grain. This is as far as you can go and still have charcoal.
8Parts of Matter Elements Unit Activator You just read that if you were to break all the oxygen inside a tank into smaller and smaller parts, you would end up with an oxygen atom. What if you did the same thing with a drop of water? Would you end up with a single water atom?No, because there is no such thing as an atom of water. The smallest possible particle of water is a molecule made up of two different kinds of atoms—two hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom.Hydrogen and oxygen are elements. An element is a substance that is made up of just one kind of atom. A sample of oxygen is made up of many billions of oxygen atoms only. But a sample of water is made up of billions of oxygen atoms and hydrogen atoms joined together. So, water is NOT an element.
9Parts of Matter Elements Unit Activator Scientists have identified 116 elements. Some of them are familiar to you. For example, iron is an element. Useful items such as horseshoes can be made from iron. Gold is another element. People make jewelry from gold.
10Here are more elements that you may be familiar with. Parts of MatterUnit ActivatorElementsHere are more elements that you may be familiar with.Remember the atoms in charcoal? They were carbon atoms. Carbon is also the element that makes up the point of a pencil.Another shiny, silver-colored element is silver. Silver is somewhat rare. Many people call forks and spoons “silverware.” However, only fancy, expensive silverware is really made of silver.You’ve already read that oxygen is an element. It is one of several elements that people must have in order to live.Have you ever seen mercury in a thermometer? As you can see, mercury is a shiny, silver-colored element.Gold is an element and a metal. It can be drawn out into thin wire and it is used in jewelry, coins, and electronics.
11Parts of MatterLesson 1All matter is made of small parts. Sometimes you need to magnify an object to see its parts. To magnify means to use a tool to make things look larger. Mass is the total amount of matter in an object. The mass of an object equals the total mass of its parts.
12EQ: Vocabulary: What is matter made of? Magnify Mass Balance Parts of MatterEQ:What is matter made of?Vocabulary:MagnifyMassBalance
13Parts of Matter Magnifying Objects You can see the different parts of some objects. For example, a book has a cover, pages, and glue to hold everything together. Some objects may not seem to be made of parts. A page in the book may look like a single object, but it is really made of small parts.
14Parts of Matter Magnifying Objects A magnifying glass is useful for taking a closer look at objects. You can see that sugar and salt, for example, are made of small crystals that look like blocks. You may see that a rock is made of tiny pieces. Dirt may have tiny sticks and rock in it. You can see that a smooth surface such as the top of a desk has small bumps and holes.granitesugarsaltdirt
15Parts of Matter Magnifying Objects You can use a microscope to see smaller parts. You can see that a leaf is divided into small blocks called cells. If you look at pond water, you can see tiny living things that are much too small to see with just your eyes. Scientists use stronger microscopes to see parts of matter that are even smaller, such as atoms and molecules.Pond WaterLeaf
16The Mass of an Object and Its Parts Parts of MatterThe Mass of an Object and Its PartsA balance is a tool that measures the mass of an object. You can describe an objects mass using grams (g) or kilograms (kg). A dollar bill has a mass of about a gram. A liter of milk has a mass of about a kilogram.= 1 gram= 1 kilogram
17Parts of Matter The Mass of an Object and Its Parts The mass of an object equals the total mass of its parts. This is true for all types of matter.Suppose you use a balance to measure the mass of a wooden block. You find that its mass is 25 g. If you make a stack of 5 blocks, the mass of the stack is 25 grams multiplied by 5, or 125 g.25 grams25 grams25 grams25 grams25 grams25 grams5 g x 25 g = 125 gThe total mass of the parts equals the mass of the entire object.
18Parts of Matter The Mass of an Object and Its Parts If you mix 100 g of oil and 200 g of vinegar, the total oil and vinegar mixture has a mass of 300 g.300 g100 g g = 300 g200 gVinegar100 gOilThe total mass of the parts equals the mass of the entire object.
19Parts of Matter The Mass of an Object and Its Parts 400 g 200 g 200 g Suppose you have a ball of clay that has a mass of 400 g. If you split it into 2 equal parts, each part will have a mass of 200 g.The total mass of the parts equals the mass of the entire object.
20Parts of Matter The Mass of an Object and Its Parts Sometimes it may seem that mass is lost, but it isn’t. This happens when matter changes to a different form. For example, if you set a bowl of water outside on a hot day, the mass of the water will be less and less. The missing water is not lost. It is the mass of the water that evaporates into the air.AfterBefore
21Parts of Matter The Mass of an Object and Its Parts Discussion QuestionWhen a log burns, it forms ashes and releases gases into the air. Describe a simple way that a scientist could use a balance to figure out what the mass of the gases must be.Answer:The scientist can measure the mass of the log before it burns and then measure the mass of the ashes. The mass of the gases is the mass of the log minus the mass of the ashes.
22Physical Changes in Matter Lesson 2A physical property is a feature of matter that you can recognize with your senses. A physical change is a change in matter in which the type of matter stays the same. Only physical properties change during a physical change.A physical change is a change that does not result in a new substance.
23Physical Changes in Matter EQ:What are physical changes in matter?Vocabulary:Physical PropertyPhysical ChangeTextureDissolveState of MatterVibrateMixtureFilter
24Physical Changes in Matter Changes in Physical Properties Breaking glass into pieces is a physical change. The pieces are a different size, but they are still glass.
25Physical Changes in Matter You change the shape of modeling clay if you push and pull on it. You can change its color by mixing different colors. The ball of clay may have a rough texture. Texture is the feel of a surface. You can make it smooth by pushing on it. The shape, color, or texture of the clay changes, but it is still clay. You know a physical change takes place if the type of matter is not changed.
26Physical Changes in Matter Changes in Physical PropertiesSome Physical PropertiesSome Physical ChangesShape VolumeColor TextureSmell TemperatureMass HardnessWeight State of MatterLengthCutting BoilingBending WarmingTearing CoolingBreaking FreezingMelting EvaporatingDissolving SeparatingMagnetizing
27Physical Changes in Matter Changes in Physical PropertiesSometimes it is hard to tell that the type of matter is not changed. Mixing chocolate powder into milk is a physical change. The powder is still chocolate and the milk is still milk after they mix.If you stir salt into water, the salt will dissolve, or break apart, in the water. The two types of matter are still salt and water.
28Physical Changes in Matter Changes in StateThe state of matter is the form that matter has. Three states of matter solid, liquid, and gas.The milk in this glass is a liquid. It changes shape. Think about spilled milk and why we cry over it. It flows everywhere if it is not contained.This glass appears empty but it is filled with gas. Air is gas.An iPod is a solid. It has a fixed shape.
29Physical Changes in Matter Can you find the three states of matter in this photo?Study this picture. It contains all three states of matter. What represents each state in the photo? Discuss with your closest neighbor.29
30Physical Changes in Matter Changes in StateMatter is made of tiny particles that are always moving. In a solid, the particles can only vibrate, or move back and forth quickly. They cannot move from their fixed location. The particles in a liquid move enough to slide past each other. In a gas, the particles are free to move around freely.
31Physical Changes in Matter Solids, Liquids, and Gases OH MY!!!
32Physical Changes in Matter Changes in StateMatter can change state if you raise or lower its temperature. When the temperature increases, matter has more energy. The extra energy causes the particles to move more. When the particles in a solid have energy, the solid can change to a liquid. If the temperature keeps rising, the particles will reach a point when the liquid can change to gas. The table on the next slide explains the points at which matter can change state.
33Physical Changes in Matter Changes in StateChange of StateNameTemperature for WaterSolid LiquidLiquid SolidMeltFreeze0°CLiquid GasGas LiquidBoilCondense100°CA change in state is a physical change. When ice melts or when liquid boils, the type of matter doesn’t change. Solid water, liquid water, and water vapor (water in its gas form) are all the same type of matter.
34Physical Changes in Matter Separating MixturesA mixture is two or more kinds of matter that are mixed but not joined. You can see the parts of some mixtures. A salad is a mixture, but you can see the tomatoes, carrots, and lettuce. Other mixtures, such as salt mixed in water, look like they are made of just one type of matter. You can separate some mixtures just by taking out the parts. If you don’t like tomatoes, you can take them out of the salad. Other mixtures can be separated in other ways.
35Physical Changes in Matter Separating MixturesA filter is a paper or other type of screen with small holes in it. The pictures show types of filters that help to separate some mixtures.Large particles, such as pebbles are stopped by the filter, but small particles such as sand are not.
36Physical Changes in Matter Separating MixturesIf you mix sugar in water, the sugar dissolves. To separate them, you can boil the mixture. The water will change to water vapor, leaving the sugar behind.Iron filings are small bits of iron that are attracted to a magnet. If you mix iron filings with sulfur, you make a solid mixture. You can remove the filings by dragging a magnet through the mixture.Floating is another way to separate some mixtures. Salt and pepper make a solid mixture. To separate the mixture, put it in a glass of water. The salt falls to the bottom of the glass, but the pepper floats. You can remove the floating pepper.
37Physical Changes in Matter Remember…During a physical change…Although some properties (like shape, phase, etc.) of the material change, the material itself is the same before and after the change. A physical change can be “undone.”
38Physical Changes in Matter Separating MixturesDiscussion Question: Describe how you can separate a mixture of sand, pebbles, and sugar.Answer:You can pour the mixture through a filter to remove the pebbles. You can then pour the remaining mixture into water, dissolve the sugar, and pour off the sugar and water mixture to leave the sand. You can then evaporate the water to leave the sugar.
39Chemical Changes in Matter Lesson 2A chemical change is a change that forms a new type of matter. A chemical property is a feature of matter that can cause a chemical change. You can look for clues to find out if a chemical change has occurred.
40Chemical Changes in Matter EQ:What are chemical changes in matter?Vocabulary:Chemical ChangePhysical Change
41Chemical Changes in Matter Changes in Type of Matter Unlike physical changes, a different type of matter forms during a chemical change. The pictures below show some examples:As the log burns, it forms ashes and releases oxygen. The apple turns brown in the air. Part of the metal spoon and part of the metal in the tricycle change to a brown coating. In each case, you can tell a chemical change takes place. The physical properties change, and the type of matter also changes.
42Chemical Changes in Matter Evidence of Chemical ChangesClues tell you that a chemical change takes place. The table below lists some of these clues:Changing color (food rots, metal rusts or tarnishes)Having an unusual smellChanging textureBecoming more or lessacidic(acid rain deteriorates)Getting hot or cold without being heated or cooled(red and green liquid causedry ice to erupt)Bubbles forming because a gas is given off
43Chemical Changes in Matter Evidence of Chemical ChangesRemember that the previous slide was only clues. Those clues do not always mean that a chemical change took place. Some of those clues occur during a physical change. For example, bubbles form when water boils, but this is not a chemical change. Modeling clay changes color if you mix 2 colors of clay. This does not form a new type of matter.
44Chemical Changes in Matter Evidence of Chemical ChangesIt may be hard to tell a chemical change from a physical change. Mixing salt in water is a physical change. A new type of matter does not form. Cooking an egg is a chemical change because the cooked egg is not the same as it was before. Chewing a cracker is a chemical change. The saliva in your mouth breaks down the cracker.
45Chemical Changes in Matter Evidence of Chemical ChangesDiscussion Question:You go on vacation and forget you have a bowl of fruit on the table. When you get back, the fruit has begun to rot. What are some clues that a chemical change has occurred?Answer:The fruit has probably begun to change color, smell bad, and change texture.