2 Guiding QuestionWhy should we learn about the Middle East?
3 GPS and E.Q.GPS SS7G8: The student will describe the diverse cultures of the people who live in Southwest Asia (Middle East). a. Explain the differences between an ethnic group and a religious group.E.Q.: How does an ethnic group differ from a religious group?
4 Vocabulary Ethnic group: people united by common culture Religious group: people united by common religious beliefsCaliph: leader in the Sunni Islam religionImam: Leader in the Shi’a Islam religionMonotheism: belief in one godLiteracy rate: number of people age 15 and up who can read and writeStandard of Living: how comfortably you live (based on life expectancy, infant mortality (death) rate, income, and poverty rate)
5 Differences Between Ethnic Groups and Religious Groups Group of people with shared cultural beliefs (language, religion, shared history, types of foods, traditional stories and celebrations)Examples: Arabs, Kurds, Persians, CherokeeReligious GroupGroup of people who shares a belief system in a god or gods, with a specific set of rituals and holy book (religion).Can be from different ethnic groups.Examples: Christians, Jews, Muslims
6 Important Fact!Christianity, Islam, and Judaism all began in the Middle East.
8 Ethnic Groups in the Middle East Arabs are people who speak Arabic. عربيThey believe themselves to be descendants of Abraham in the Bible through his son, Ishmael.They are the most numerous group in SW Asia.Most are Sunni Muslim, some are Shi’a, and a few are Christians or other religions.
9 Ethnic Groups in the Middle East Kurds are people who speak Kurdish.They live or are from mountainous areas in Turkey, Iraq, and Iran.They hope to have their own country one day.Iraqis and Persians have conflicts with them.They may be any religion, though most are Sunni Muslim.
10 Ethnic Groups in the Middle East Persians are people who speak Persian (Farsi).They live or are from Iran (used to be called Persia).Their ancestors come from Central Europe and Southern Russia.They may be any religion, but most are Shi’a Muslim.
11 CRCT Test Prep page 88253. Which do Kurds share as part of their ethnic group?A. the Kurdish languageB. they live in the same countryC. self-rule in the land of KurdistanD. the ability to move freely to other countriesA. The Kurdish language
12 CRCT Test Prep page 88254. Which are the 3 main religious groups of Southwest Asia?A. Hinduism, Islam, JudaismB. Christianity, Islam, JudaismC. Buddhism, Hinduism, IslamD. Christianity, Islam, Shamanism
16 Islam Began in Arabia in the early 7th century (600s) (Video United Streaming "The Faith" 4 min. in length)Began in Arabia in the early 7th century (600s)Holy book: the Qur’anmonotheistic (one God) faith revealed to the prophets Abraham, Moses, and Jesus and finally, to Muhammad.Muslims are believers in Islam
17 Arabs: Religions Most Arabs are Muslims. Sunni Islam dominates in most areas.Shi’a Islam is prevalent in southern Iraq and adjacent parts of Saudi Arabia, and parts as parts of Syria.
18 Kurds: ReligionsThe Kurds are a non-Arabic people who speak a language related to Persian.Most follow the Sunni Muslim faith.They live in Armenia, Iran, Iraq, Syria and Turkey.
19 Persians: Religions Most Persians in Iran are Shi’a Muslims. There is also a sizeable number of Sunni Muslims.There are also smaller communities of Zoroastrians, Christians, Jews, and Bahá'ís.
20 Conflicts The most powerful Iraqis (Arabs) are Sunni. Most Iranians (Persians) are Shi’ites (Shi’a).Most Kurds are Sunni, but are more closely related to Iranians (Persians)Iraqi/ArabSunniIranian/PersianShi’aRemember: Sunni and Shi’a are both forms of Islam!Kurd/PersianSunni
21 SummaryMake a Venn diagram: ethnic group vs. religious group
22 Compare Religions of Arabs, Kurds, and Persians (see “Conflicts” slide #20) Ethnic GroupReligionLeader TitleBeliefsArabsKurdsPersians
23 CRCT Test Prep page 89255. Which ethnic group is most numerous in Southwest Asia?A. JewsB. KurdsC. ArabsD. Persians
24 CRCT Test Prep page 89256. What modern country is the home to those who call themselves Persian?A. IranB. IraqC. IsraelD. Syria
25 CRCT Test Prep page 89 257. What is the religion of most Persians? A. JudaismB. ChristianityC. Shi’a MuslimD. Sunni MuslimC. Shi’a
26 CRCT Test Prep page 89258. What is the religion of most of the Arabs in Southwest Asia?A. JudaismB. ChristianityC. Shi’a MuslimD. Sunni MuslimD. Sunni
27 CRCT Test Prep page 89 259. What is the religion of most of the Kurds? A. CatholicismB. ChristianityC. Shi’a MuslimD. Sunni MuslimD. Sunni
29 GPS and E.Q.GPS: SS7G8c. Compare and contrast the prominent religions of Southwest Asia (Middle East): Judaism, Islam, Christianity.E.Q. How do the prominent religions of the Middle East compare? How are they different?
30 Similarities All believe in one God (monotheistic) All trace ancestors back to AbrahamAll began in the Middle East
31 Connection between 3 Religions ProtestantShi’aEastern OrthodoxChristianity(Jesus)SunniIslam(Muhammad)Roman CatholicSufiReformJudaismConservative(Abraham)OrthodoxConnection between 3 Religions
32 Differences Judaism Founder: Abraham (about 2000 BC) Holy Book: Torah Followers: Jews# of Followers: about 15 millionOldest of the 3 religionsBeliefs: laws of God and words of His prophets3 types:OrthodoxConservativeReform
33 Differences Christianity Founder: Jesus (about 30 AD) Holy Book: Bible Followers: Christians# of Followers: about 2.1 billionLargest of 3 religionsBeliefs: teachings of Jesus3 types:Eastern OrthodoxRoman CatholicProtestant
34 Differences Islam Founder: Muhammad (about 610 AD) Holy Book: Koran or Qur’anFollowers: Muslims# of Followers: about 1.3 billion; fastest growing of the 3 religionsBeliefs: teachings of Muhammad, the last Prophet3 types:SunniShi’aSufi
35 CRCT Test Prep pages 90-93Read the passages on Judaism, Christianity, and Islam:Read the first paragraph.Share with a partner 1 thing you knew, 1 thing you found out, or 1 thing you want to know more about.Continue with the other passages until you have both read them all.Stop after each paragraph to share with each other.(See the following slides for important points to remember)
36 Judaism Monotheistic – belief in 1 God (Yahweh) Began with Abraham born in Ur about 2000 BCGod promised that Abraham would begin a new nation if he and his descendents would worship GodSettled in Canaan – had 2 sons: Isaac and Ishmael; Hebrews/Jews are descendents of Isaac (his 12 grandsons began 12 Tribes of Israel)
37 Judaism 1300-1200 BC – Hebrews were forced into slavery in Egypt. Moses led Hebrews out of slavery (Exodus – celebrated each year at Passover)God gave Ten Commandments to MosesHebrews returned to Canaan and settledAround 1000 BC Hebrews united under King Saul, then David, then Solomon
38 Judaism Kingdom was divided into North and South WesternWallKingdom was divided into North and SouthConquered by Babylon till 167 BCConquered by RomeTemple in Jerusalem destroyed in 70 AD (except for one part of Western Wall – still standing today)Jews scattered – “Diaspora” – to other countriesTanakh – Holy Book(contains Torah – first5 books of Old Testament)
39 Christianity Monotheistic – belief in 1 God Grew out of Judaism during Roman rule in Palestine (Canaan).Began with Jesus – born in Bethlehem about 4 BCBecame preacher/teacher at age 30
40 ChristianityJesus followed Jewish law/belief but spoke of more personal relationship with GodFocus on love of God and kindness toward othersFollowers called disciplesTheir writings form Gospels – 1st 4 books of New TestamentJewish and Roman leaders saw Jesus as threat; Jesus was crucified
41 ChristianityAfter death, followers believed Jesus rose from the dead; called him “Messiah” or “Christos” – Savior and “Son of God”Jesus’ teachings became basis for new religion – Christianity – Old Testament teachings + loving, forgiving GodChristians refused to worship Roman gods – many were put to death313 AD - Christianity approved by Roman emperor Constantine
42 Islam Monotheistic – belief in 1 God (Allah) Began in Mecca in 600s AD – trading centerKa’aba (rectangular building) in center of town – Meccans believed it was originally built by Abraham and Ishmael to honor God – over time many idols were placed in Ka’aba
43 IslamBegan with Muhammad – born in Mecca in 570 AD. At age 40 heard voice of angel Gabriel – told him to tell people the word of GodFollowers were called “Muslims” – “ones who submit” to God’s willEscaped to Medina in 622 AD – move was called “Hegira” – 1st year of Islamic calendar.
44 Islam Returned to Mecca in 630 AD with army – Mecca surrendered. Removed idols from Ka’aba and dedicated it to Allah.After Muhammad’s death, followers collected angel Gabriel’s teachings into holy book: Qur’an (Koran).
45 Islam 1 God Muhammad was final prophet Qur’an includes much of Old and New Testaments.5 Pillars:Shahada – There is no God but Allah and Muhammad is His ProphetSalat – pray 5 times a day toward MeccaZakat – charity toward poorSawm – fast during RamadanHajj – pilgrimage to Mecca
46 Islam Legal code based on Qur’an called shariah law Because so much of Old and New Testaments are part of Qur’an, most Muslims view Jews and Christians as “People of the Book” – recorded special respectIslam spread through Middle EastLeaders are called “Caliphs”
47 CRCT Test Prep page 91260. What is the main belief that distinguished the Jewish faith from the others in the ancient world?A. the belief in life after deathB. the organization of believers into a separate stateC. the worship of a single god rather than many godsD. the offering of sacrifices during religious ceremoniesC. The worship of a single god…
48 CRCT Test Prep page 91 261. Which is the holy writing of Judaism? A. TorahB. Qur’anC. ConstitutionD. New Testament
49 CRCT Test Prep page 91262. The “Exodus” in the history of the Jewish people was the time whenA. Jews were in captivity in Babylon.B. the Romans forced the Jews out of JerusalemC. Abraham left Mesopotamia and moved to Canaan.D. Jews were freed from slavery in Egypt and returned to the land of Canaan.D. Jews were freed from slavery…
50 CRCT Test Prep page 92263. Why did Jesus have trouble with both the Jewish leaders and the Roman authorities?A. Jesus urged people to tear down the Temple in Jerusalem.B. the new religion of Christianity was open to only a few people.C. He encouraged the people to form an army and revolt against the government.D. Jews accused him of crimes against their teachings; Romans saw him as a threat to the Roman Empire..D. Jews accused him of crimes…
51 CRCT Test Prep page 92264. What basic belief made Christianity different from Judaism?A. Christians believed Jesus was the Messiah, or savior of men.B. Only Judaism accepted and believed in the 10 Commandments.C. Jews never had problems with the Roman authorities, while the Christians did.D. Christians allowed the worship of many of the Roman gods, while Judaism did not.A. Christians believed Jesus was the Messiah…
52 CRCT Test Prep page 92265. Why was Christianity finally accepted by the Roman Emperor as a legal religion? A. Christian armies defeated the emperor in battle. B. There were few other religions left in the Roman Empire by 313 AD. C. Emperor Constantine recognized that many Romans had become Christians. D. Christians made the worship of Roman gods and goddesses part of their religion as well.
53 CRCT Test Prep pages 93-94266. What is the relationship among Judaism, Christianity, and Islam?A. The 3 religions all believe in different gods.B. All 3 religions accept Jesus as the “Son of God”.C. Unlike Judaism and Christianity, Islam won new converts only by war and force.D. Islam includes much of the old and new testaments in its holy book, the Qur’an.D. Islam includes much of the old and new testaments…
54 CRCT Test Prep pages 93-94267. What did Muhammad believe the angel Gabriel was asking him to do?A. Tell the word of God to the people.B. Bring an end to all religions other than Islam.C. Develop Mecca into a more powerful trading center.D. Tear down the Ka’aba because idols had been stored there.
55 CRCT Test Prep pages 93-94268. What is the importance of the Ka’aba to Muslims?A. The Ka’aba was the original home of Muhammad.B. They believe it was originally built by the prophet Abraham.C. This building is where most important business deals were made in Mecca.D. They believe it is the place where Gabriel gave Muhammad the word of God.
56 CRCT Test Prep pages 93-94269. Why did Islam spread so quickly after Muhammad’s death?A. Muslim armies conquered empires that had weakened over the years.B. Muslims refused to trade with anyone who would not convert to Islam.C. There were no religions in that part of the world to compete with Islam.D. Jews and Christians were forced to convert to Islam or face prison or death.
57 CRCT Test Prep pages 93-94 270. What are the Five Pillars? A. The first five books of the Qur’an.B. The five columns that support the roof of the Ka’aba.C. Five beliefs shared by Judaism, Christianity, and Islam.D. Five basic obligations that Muslims are supposed to meet in their lives..A. Five basic obligations that Muslims were supposed to meet in their lives.
58 CRCT Test Prep pages 93-94271. Why do Muslims call Jews and Christians “People of the Book”?A. People belonging to these religions could read.B. Followers of all three religions were taken in census records.C. Much of the Old and New Testaments in included in the Qur’an.D. Jews and Christians were the first groups in Southwest Asia who had a written language.
59 Reason for the Division Between Shi’a and Sunni Muslims
60 GPS and E.Q.GPS: SS7G8d. Explain the reason for the division between Sunni and Shi'a Muslims. E.Q.: How are Sunni and Shi’a Muslims different?
61 Why Islam has 2 Major Sects The principal issue centers on the question of leadership after Muhammad ascended into heaven.
62 Sunni Islam – Elected Leader The Prophet Muhammad died without choosing a successor to lead the Muslim community.The “Four Rightly Guided Caliphs” led Islam, one after the other. They were friends with Muhammad.The first caliph to be elected was Abu Bakr, Muhammad’s close friend, advisor, and father-in-law. When he died, a 2nd caliph was elected; when he died, a 3rd caliph was elected.Sunnis elect a qualified person to be their caliph (leader).
63 5 Pillars of Islam Sunnis *90% of Muslims are Sunni. *They believe the Shi’ites*Rulers must beMuhammad’s descendants.*10% of Muslims are Shi’ites.*There are different Shi’a sects.*They believe the soul canmigrate from 1 body toanother.*The number 7 is sacred.*Some Shi’ites recognize12 imams(successors); somerecognize 7.*Some believe in ahidden imam.Some believe in a hidden imamrelated to Muhammadwho didn’t die andwill reappear.Sunnis*90% of Muslimsare Sunni.*They believe thecommunity canelect the next leader.*The leader can be anydevout Muslim withproper qualifications.*They say there is nota current successor.*They accept the first3 caliphs asMuhammad’s trueSuccessors.5 Pillars ofIslam
64 Middle of Previous Venn Diagram All Muslims should believe in the following things:1. Allah is the creator of all things. Allah is all-powerful and knowledgeable2. His angels record the good and bad deeds of every Muslim.3. The prophet Mohammed is the messenger of God.4. The Qur'an (the holy word of God revealed through Mohammed) and the Old and New Testaments.5. The Day of Judgment. This is when it is decided if you will go to Heaven or Hell.6. Predestination (the fate and future of each person that is decided by the Will of Allah)All Muslims should practice the five Pillars of Islam. (religious duties)Witness - stating your belief in God.Worship/Prayer - Praying to God five times a day facing Mecca.Charity - giving 2.5% of your wealth to the poor each year.Fasting - not eating, drinking, or smoking from dawn until dusk for the ninth month of the Islamic calendar. (Ramadan)Pilgrimage - Every person should visit the temple in Mecca (Saudi Arabia) at least once in their lifetime.
65 Shi’a IslamThe 4th caliph to be elected was Muhammad’s cousin (blood relative), Ali ibn Abi Talib,.Shi'a believe Ali was the first true caliph after Muhammad, because he was related to him.The Shi’a believe that Imams (leaders) should come from Muhammad’s family.
66 CRCT Test Prep pages 94-95272. What issue led to the split between the Sunni and Shi’a in Islam? A. The Shi’a believed only Arabs could be Muslims. B. Arguments began over what should be included in the five Pillars. C. The Shi’a wanted to change the direction of prayer to Jerusalem rather than Mecca. D. They disagreed over who should lead the Muslim community after the death of Muhammad.
67 CRCT Test Prep pages 94-95273. Why were the four leaders of the Muslims after Muhammad’s death called the “Four Rightly Guided Caliphs?? A. They had been friends of Muhammad.. B. They had studied leadership for many years and were well prepared to rule. C. They arranged for a split in the community between Sunni and Shi’a Muslims. D. These men all ruled together so there could be no question about their decisions. A. They had been friends of Muhammad.
68 CRCT Test Prep pages 94-95 Use graph on page 95. 274. What part of the population of Iran is Sunni? A. 9% B. 33% C. 64% D. 89%
69 CRCT Test Prep pages 94-95 Use graph on page 95. 275. Which would be the BEST alternative for showing these data in another way? A. Use one circle graph. B. Use 2 line graphs. C. Use 2 circle graphs D. Use a line graph with 2 lines of different colors B. Use 2 circle graphs
70 CRCT Test Prep pages 94-95 Use graph on page 95. 276. Which question could be answered using information from the graph? A. Which country has the most Shi’a Muslims? B. What part of the population of Iran is Hindu? C. What part of the population of Iraq is Christian? D. Which country has the highest proportion of its population as Shi’a Muslim?
71 ProjectChoose a religious holiday from Judaism, Islam, or Christianity and make a poster.Due date to be announced
72 The Middle East: Literacy VS. The Standard of Living
73 Guiding QuestionDoes knowing how to read well affect how long you live?
74 GPS and E.Q.GPS: SS7G8e. Evaluate how the literacy rate affects the standard of living.E.Q.: How does the literacy rate affect the standard of living?
75 ActivityG8e Compare literacy rates and standard of living in Turkey, Israel, Saudi Arabia, Iraq, Iran, and Afghanistan using a graphic organizer (DRC).Standard of living = life expectancy, infant mortality (death) rate, income, poverty rateLiteracy rate = % of people age 15 and up who can read and write
76 DRC Literacy VS. Standard of Living Use facts on following slides to complete chartDRC Literacy VS. Standard of LivingSTANDARD OF LIVINGCOUNTRYLIFE EXPECTANCYINFANT MORTALITY RATEINCOME(GDP per capita)POVERTY RATELITERACY RATEIraqIranTurkeyIsraelSaudi ArabiaAfghanistan
77 Israel Infant mortality rate: total: 4.22 deaths/1,000 live births מְדִינַת יִשְׂרָאֵלInfant mortality rate: total: 4.22 deaths/1,000 live birthsLife expectancy at birth: total population: yearsAverage Income: $28,300 (2008 est.)Population below poverty line: 21.6%note: Israel's poverty line is $7.30 per person per day (2005)Literacy: total population: 97.1%male: 98.5%female: 95.9% (2004 est.)
78 Iran جمهوری اسلامی ایران Infant mortality rate: total: deaths/1,000 live birthsLife expectancy at birth: total population: yearsAverage Income: $12,800 (2008 est.)Population below poverty line: 18% (2007 est.)Literacy: total population: 77%male: 83.5%female: 70.4% (2002 est.)
79 Iraqجمهورية العراقInfant mortality rate: total: deaths/1,000 live birthsLife expectancy at birth: total population: yearsAverage Income: $3,700 (2008 est.)Population below poverty line: %Literacy: total population: 74.1%male: 84.1%female: 64.2% (2000 est.)
80 Saudi ArabiaInfant mortality rate: total: deaths/1,000 live birthsLife expectancy at birth: total population: 76.3 yearsAverage Income: $20,500 (2008 est.)Population below poverty line:1.6% to 30% ($320/mo or less)Literacy: total population: 78.8%male: 84.7%female: 70.8% (2003 est.)
81 Turkey Infant mortality rate: total: 25.78 deaths/1,000 live births Türkiye CumhuriyetiInfant mortality rate: total: deaths/1,000 live birthsLife expectancy at birth: total population: yearsAverage Income: $11,900 (2008 est.)Population below poverty line: 20% (2002)Literacy: total population: 87.4%male: 95.3%female: 79.6% (2004 est.)
82 جمهوری اسلامی افغانستان Afghanistanجمهوری اسلامی افغانستانInfant mortality rate: total: deaths/1,000 live birthsLife expectancy at birth: total population: yearsGDP - per capita (PPP): $700 (2008 est.)Population below poverty line: 53% (2003)Literacy: total population: 28.1%male: 43.1%female: 12.6% (2000 est.)
83 United StatesInfant mortality rate: total: 6.22 deaths/1,000 live birthsLife expectancy at birth: total population: yearsIncome: $46,000 (2009 est.)Population below poverty line: 12%Literacy: total population: 99%male: 99%female: 99% (2006 est.)
85 Summary – Write your answer in complete sentences at the bottom of your chart. Which country had the highest literacy rate? Which country had the highest standard of living? How do these compare? Does literacy affect the standard of living?