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Cultures in the Middle East. Guiding Question Why should we learn about the Middle East?

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Presentation on theme: "Cultures in the Middle East. Guiding Question Why should we learn about the Middle East?"— Presentation transcript:

1 Cultures in the Middle East

2 Guiding Question Why should we learn about the Middle East?

3 GPS and E.Q. GPS SS7G8: The student will describe the diverse cultures of the people who live in Southwest Asia (Middle East). a. Explain the differences between an ethnic group and a religious group. E.Q.: How does an ethnic group differ from a religious group?

4 Vocabulary Ethnic group: people united by common culture Religious group: people united by common religious beliefs Caliph: leader in the Sunni Islam religion Imam: Leader in the Shia Islam religion Monotheism: belief in one god Literacy rate: number of people age 15 and up who can read and write Standard of Living: how comfortably you live (based on life expectancy, infant mortality (death) rate, income, and poverty rate)

5 Differences Between Ethnic Groups and Religious Groups Ethnic Group Group of people with shared cultural beliefs (language, religion, shared history, types of foods, traditional stories and celebrations) Examples: Arabs, Kurds, Persians, Cherokee Religious Group Group of people who shares a belief system in a god or gods, with a specific set of rituals and holy book (religion). Can be from different ethnic groups. Examples: Christians, Jews, Muslims

6 Important Fact! Christianity, Islam, and Judaism all began in the Middle East.

7 Ethnic Groups in the Middle East

8 Arabs are people who speak Arabic. عربي They believe themselves to be descendants of Abraham in the Bible through his son, Ishmael. They are the most numerous group in SW Asia. Most are Sunni Muslim, some are Shia, and a few are Christians or other religions.

9 Ethnic Groups in the Middle East Kurds are people who speak Kurdish. They live or are from mountainous areas in Turkey, Iraq, and Iran. They hope to have their own country one day. Iraqis and Persians have conflicts with them. They may be any religion, though most are Sunni Muslim.

10 Ethnic Groups in the Middle East Persians are people who speak Persian (Farsi). They live or are from Iran (used to be called Persia). Their ancestors come from Central Europe and Southern Russia. They may be any religion, but most are Shia Muslim.

11 CRCT Test Prep page Which do Kurds share as part of their ethnic group? A. the Kurdish language B. they live in the same country C. self-rule in the land of Kurdistan D. the ability to move freely to other countries A. The Kurdish language

12 CRCT Test Prep page Which are the 3 main religious groups of Southwest Asia? A. Hinduism, Islam, Judaism B. Christianity, Islam, Judaism C. Buddhism, Hinduism, Islam D. Christianity, Islam, Shamanism B. Christianity, Islam, Judaism

13 Diversity of Religions In Southwest Asia

14 GPS and E.Q. GPS: SS7G8b. Explain the diversity of religions within the Arabs, Persians, and Kurds. E.Q.: Why do Arabs, Persians, and Kurds fight each other if theyre all from the Middle East??

15 Religious Groups in the Middle East

16 Islam Began in Arabia in the early 7 th century (600s) Holy book: the Quran monotheistic (one God) faith revealed to the prophets Abraham, Moses, and Jesus and finally, to Muhammad. Muslims are believers in Islam (Video United Streaming "The Faith" 4 min. in length)

17 Arabs: Religions Most Arabs are Muslims. Sunni Islam dominates in most areas. Shia Islam is prevalent in southern Iraq and adjacent parts of Saudi Arabia, and parts as parts of Syria.

18 Kurds: Religions The Kurds are a non-Arabic people who speak a language related to Persian. Most follow the Sunni Muslim faith. They live in Armenia, Iran, Iraq, Syria and Turkey.

19 Persians: Religions Most Persians in Iran are Shia Muslims. There is also a sizeable number of Sunni Muslims. There are also smaller communities of Zoroastrians, Christians, Jews, and Bahá'ís.

20 Conflicts The most powerful Iraqis (Arabs) are Sunni. Most Iranians (Persians) are Shiites (Shia). Most Kurds are Sunni, but are more closely related to Iranians (Persians) Iraqi/Arab Sunni Iranian/Persian Shia Kurd/Persian Sunni Remember: Sunni and Shia are both forms of Islam!

21 Summary Make a Venn diagram: ethnic group vs. religious group

22 Compare Religions of Arabs, Kurds, and Persians (see Conflicts slide #20) Ethnic Group ReligionLeader TitleBeliefs Arabs Kurds Persians

23 CRCT Test Prep page Which ethnic group is most numerous in Southwest Asia? A. Jews B. Kurds C. Arabs D. Persians C. Arabs

24 CRCT Test Prep page What modern country is the home to those who call themselves Persian? A. Iran B. Iraq C. Israel D. Syria A. Iran

25 CRCT Test Prep page What is the religion of most Persians? A. Judaism B. Christianity C. Shia Muslim D. Sunni Muslim C. Shia

26 CRCT Test Prep page What is the religion of most of the Arabs in Southwest Asia? A. Judaism B. Christianity C. Shia Muslim D. Sunni Muslim D. Sunni

27 CRCT Test Prep page What is the religion of most of the Kurds? A. Catholicism B. Christianity C. Shia Muslim D. Sunni Muslim D. Sunni

28 Prominent Religions In Southwest Asia

29 GPS and E.Q. GPS: SS7G8c. Compare and contrast the prominent religions of Southwest Asia (Middle East): Judaism, Islam, Christianity. E.Q. How do the prominent religions of the Middle East compare? How are they different?

30 Similarities All believe in one God (monotheistic) All trace ancestors back to Abraham All began in the Middle East

31 Connection between 3 Religions (Abraham) Judaism Christianity (Jesus) Islam Orthodox Conservative Reform Eastern Orthodox Roman Catholic Protestant Shia Sunni Sufi (Muhammad)

32 Differences Judaism –Founder: Abraham (about 2000 BC) –Holy Book: Torah –Followers: Jews –# of Followers: about 15 million –Oldest of the 3 religions –Beliefs: laws of God and words of His prophets –3 types: Orthodox Conservative Reform

33 Differences Christianity –Founder: Jesus (about 30 AD) –Holy Book: Bible –Followers: Christians –# of Followers: about 2.1 billion –Largest of 3 religions –Beliefs: teachings of Jesus –3 types: Eastern Orthodox Roman Catholic Protestant

34 Differences Islam –Founder: Muhammad (about 610 AD) –Holy Book: Koran or Quran –Followers: Muslims –# of Followers: about 1.3 billion; fastest growing of the 3 religions –Beliefs: teachings of Muhammad, the last Prophet –3 types: Sunni Shia Sufi

35 CRCT Test Prep pages Read the passages on Judaism, Christianity, and Islam: Read the first paragraph. –Share with a partner 1 thing you knew, 1 thing you found out, or 1 thing you want to know more about. Continue with the other passages until you have both read them all. –Stop after each paragraph to share with each other. (See the following slides for important points to remember)

36 Judaism Monotheistic – belief in 1 God (Yahweh) Began with Abraham –born in Ur about 2000 BC –God promised that Abraham would begin a new nation if he and his descendents would worship God –Settled in Canaan – had 2 sons: Isaac and Ishmael; Hebrews/Jews are descendents of Isaac (his 12 grandsons began 12 Tribes of Israel)

37 Judaism BC – Hebrews were forced into slavery in Egypt. Moses led Hebrews out of slavery (Exodus – celebrated each year at Passover) God gave Ten Commandments to Moses Hebrews returned to Canaan and settled Around 1000 BC Hebrews united under King Saul, then David, then Solomon

38 Judaism Kingdom was divided into North and South Conquered by Babylon till 167 BC Conquered by Rome Temple in Jerusalem destroyed in 70 AD (except for one part of Western Wall – still standing today) Jews scattered – Diaspora – to other countries Tanakh – Holy Book (contains Torah – first 5 books of Old Testament) Western Wall

39 Christianity Monotheistic – belief in 1 God Grew out of Judaism during Roman rule in Palestine (Canaan). Began with Jesus – born in Bethlehem about 4 BC Became preacher/teacher at age 30

40 Christianity Jesus followed Jewish law/belief but spoke of more personal relationship with God –Focus on love of God and kindness toward others –Followers called disciples Their writings form Gospels – 1 st 4 books of New Testament –Jewish and Roman leaders saw Jesus as threat; Jesus was crucified

41 Christianity After death, followers believed Jesus rose from the dead; called him Messiah or Christos – Savior and Son of God Jesus teachings became basis for new religion – Christianity – Old Testament teachings + loving, forgiving God Christians refused to worship Roman gods – many were put to death 313 AD - Christianity approved by Roman emperor Constantine

42 Islam Monotheistic – belief in 1 God (Allah) Began in Mecca in 600s AD – trading center Kaaba (rectangular building) in center of town – Meccans believed it was originally built by Abraham and Ishmael to honor God – over time many idols were placed in Kaaba

43 Islam Began with Muhammad – born in Mecca in 570 AD. At age 40 heard voice of angel Gabriel – told him to tell people the word of God Followers were called Muslims – ones who submit to Gods will Escaped to Medina in 622 AD – move was called Hegira – 1 st year of Islamic calendar.

44 Islam Returned to Mecca in 630 AD with army – Mecca surrendered. Removed idols from Kaaba and dedicated it to Allah. After Muhammads death, followers collected angel Gabriels teachings into holy book: Quran (Koran).

45 Islam 1 God Muhammad was final prophet Quran includes much of Old and New Testaments. 5 Pillars: 1.Shahada – There is no God but Allah and Muhammad is His Prophet 2.Salat – pray 5 times a day toward Mecca 3.Zakat – charity toward poor 4.Sawm – fast during Ramadan 5.Hajj – pilgrimage to Mecca

46 Islam Legal code based on Quran called shariah law Because so much of Old and New Testaments are part of Quran, most Muslims view Jews and Christians asPeople of the Book – recorded special respect Islam spread through Middle East Leaders are called Caliphs

47 CRCT Test Prep page What is the main belief that distinguished the Jewish faith from the others in the ancient world? A. the belief in life after death B. the organization of believers into a separate state C. the worship of a single god rather than many gods D. the offering of sacrifices during religious ceremonies C. The worship of a single god…

48 CRCT Test Prep page Which is the holy writing of Judaism? A. Torah B. Quran C. Constitution D. New Testament A. Torah

49 CRCT Test Prep page The Exodus in the history of the Jewish people was the time when A. Jews were in captivity in Babylon. B. the Romans forced the Jews out of Jerusalem C. Abraham left Mesopotamia and moved to Canaan. D. Jews were freed from slavery in Egypt and returned to the land of Canaan. D. Jews were freed from slavery…

50 CRCT Test Prep page Why did Jesus have trouble with both the Jewish leaders and the Roman authorities? A. Jesus urged people to tear down the Temple in Jerusalem. B. the new religion of Christianity was open to only a few people. C. He encouraged the people to form an army and revolt against the government. D. Jews accused him of crimes against their teachings; Romans saw him as a threat to the Roman Empire.. D. Jews accused him of crimes…

51 CRCT Test Prep page What basic belief made Christianity different from Judaism? A. Christians believed Jesus was the Messiah, or savior of men. B. Only Judaism accepted and believed in the 10 Commandments. C. Jews never had problems with the Roman authorities, while the Christians did. D. Christians allowed the worship of many of the Roman gods, while Judaism did not. A. Christians believed Jesus was the Messiah…

52 CRCT Test Prep page Why was Christianity finally accepted by the Roman Emperor as a legal religion? A. Christian armies defeated the emperor in battle. B. There were few other religions left in the Roman Empire by 313 AD. C. Emperor Constantine recognized that many Romans had become Christians. D. Christians made the worship of Roman gods and goddesses part of their religion as well. C. Emperor Constantine recognized that many Romans had become Christians.

53 CRCT Test Prep pages What is the relationship among Judaism, Christianity, and Islam? A. The 3 religions all believe in different gods. B. All 3 religions accept Jesus as the Son of God. C. Unlike Judaism and Christianity, Islam won new converts only by war and force. D. Islam includes much of the old and new testaments in its holy book, the Quran. D. Islam includes much of the old and new testaments…

54 CRCT Test Prep pages What did Muhammad believe the angel Gabriel was asking him to do? A. Tell the word of God to the people. B. Bring an end to all religions other than Islam. C. Develop Mecca into a more powerful trading center. D. Tear down the Kaaba because idols had been stored there. A. Tell the word of God to the people.

55 CRCT Test Prep pages What is the importance of the Kaaba to Muslims? A. The Kaaba was the original home of Muhammad. B. They believe it was originally built by the prophet Abraham. C. This building is where most important business deals were made in Mecca. D. They believe it is the place where Gabriel gave Muhammad the word of God. B. They believe it was originally built by the prophet Abraham.

56 CRCT Test Prep pages Why did Islam spread so quickly after Muhammads death? A. Muslim armies conquered empires that had weakened over the years. B. Muslims refused to trade with anyone who would not convert to Islam. C. There were no religions in that part of the world to compete with Islam. D. Jews and Christians were forced to convert to Islam or face prison or death. A. Muslim armies conquered empires that had weakened over the years.

57 CRCT Test Prep pages What are the Five Pillars? A. The first five books of the Quran. B. The five columns that support the roof of the Kaaba. C. Five beliefs shared by Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. D. Five basic obligations that Muslims are supposed to meet in their lives.. A. Five basic obligations that Muslims were supposed to meet in their lives.

58 CRCT Test Prep pages Why do Muslims call Jews and Christians People of the Book? A. People belonging to these religions could read. B. Followers of all three religions were taken in census records. C. Much of the Old and New Testaments in included in the Quran. D. Jews and Christians were the first groups in Southwest Asia who had a written language. C. Much of the Old and New Testaments in included in the Quran.

59 Reason for the Division Between Shia and Sunni Muslims

60 GPS and E.Q. GPS: SS7G8d. Explain the reason for the division between Sunni and Shi'a Muslims. E.Q.: How are Sunni and Shia Muslims different?

61 Why Islam has 2 Major Sects The principal issue centers on the question of leadership after Muhammad ascended into heaven. Islam SunniShia

62 Sunni Islam – Elected Leader The Prophet Muhammad died without choosing a successor to lead the Muslim community. The Four Rightly Guided Caliphs led Islam, one after the other. They were friends with Muhammad. The first caliph to be elected was Abu Bakr, Muhammads close friend, advisor, and father-in- law. When he died, a 2 nd caliph was elected; when he died, a 3 rd caliph was elected. Sunnis elect a qualified person to be their caliph (leader).

63 Sunnis *90% of Muslims are Sunni. *They believe the community can elect the next leader. *The leader can be any devout Muslim with proper qualifications. *They say there is not a current successor. *They accept the first 3 caliphs as Muhammads true Successors. Shiites *Rulers must be Muhammads descendants. *10% of Muslims are Shiites. *There are different Shia sects. *They believe the soul can migrate from 1 body to another. *The number 7 is sacred. *Some Shiites recognize 12 imams (successors); some recognize 7. *Some believe in a hidden imam. Some believe in a hidden imam related to Muhammad who didnt die and will reappear. 5 Pillars of Islam

64 Middle of Previous Venn Diagram All Muslims should believe in the following things: 1. Allah is the creator of all things. Allah is all-powerful and knowledgeable 2. His angels record the good and bad deeds of every Muslim. 3. The prophet Mohammed is the messenger of God. 4. The Qur'an (the holy word of God revealed through Mohammed) and the Old and New Testaments. 5. The Day of Judgment. This is when it is decided if you will go to Heaven or Hell. 6. Predestination (the fate and future of each person that is decided by the Will of Allah) All Muslims should practice the five Pillars of Islam. (religious duties) 1.Witness - stating your belief in God. 2.Worship/Prayer - Praying to God five times a day facing Mecca. 3.Charity - giving 2.5% of your wealth to the poor each year. 4.Fasting - not eating, drinking, or smoking from dawn until dusk for the ninth month of the Islamic calendar. (Ramadan) 5.Pilgrimage - Every person should visit the temple in Mecca (Saudi Arabia) at least once in their lifetime.

65 Shia Islam The 4 th caliph to be elected was Muhammads cousin (blood relative), Ali ibn Abi Talib,. Shi'a believe Ali was the first true caliph after Muhammad, because he was related to him. The Shia believe that Imams (leaders) should come from Muhammads family.

66 CRCT Test Prep pages What issue led to the split between the Sunni and Shia in Islam? A. The Shia believed only Arabs could be Muslims. B. Arguments began over what should be included in the five Pillars. C. The Shia wanted to change the direction of prayer to Jerusalem rather than Mecca. D. They disagreed over who should lead the Muslim community after the death of Muhammad.

67 CRCT Test Prep pages Why were the four leaders of the Muslims after Muhammads death called the Four Rightly Guided Caliphs?? A. They had been friends of Muhammad.. B. They had studied leadership for many years and were well prepared to rule. C. They arranged for a split in the community between Sunni and Shia Muslims. D. These men all ruled together so there could be no question about their decisions. A. They had been friends of Muhammad.

68 CRCT Test Prep pages Use graph on page What part of the population of Iran is Sunni? A. 9% B. 33% C. 64% D. 89% A. 9%

69 CRCT Test Prep pages Use graph on page Which would be the BEST alternative for showing these data in another way? A. Use one circle graph. B. Use 2 line graphs. C. Use 2 circle graphs D. Use a line graph with 2 lines of different colors B. Use 2 circle graphs

70 CRCT Test Prep pages Use graph on page Which question could be answered using information from the graph? A. Which country has the most Shia Muslims? B. What part of the population of Iran is Hindu? C. What part of the population of Iraq is Christian? D. Which country has the highest proportion of its population as Shia Muslim?

71 Project Choose a religious holiday from Judaism, Islam, or Christianity and make a poster. Due date to be announced

72 The Middle East: Literacy VS. The Standard of Living

73 Guiding Question Does knowing how to read well affect how long you live?

74 GPS and E.Q. GPS: SS7G8e. Evaluate how the literacy rate affects the standard of living. E.Q.: How does the literacy rate affect the standard of living?

75 Activity G8e Compare literacy rates and standard of living in Turkey, Israel, Saudi Arabia, Iraq, Iran, and Afghanistan using a graphic organizer (DRC). –Standard of living = life expectancy, infant mortality (death) rate, income, poverty rate –Literacy rate = % of people age 15 and up who can read and write

76 DRC Literacy VS. Standard of Living STANDARD OF LIVING COUNTRY LIFE EXPECTANCY INFANT MORTALITY RATE INCOME (GDP per capita) POVERTY RATE LITERACY RATE Iraq Iran Turkey Israel Saudi Arabia Afghanistan Use facts on following slides to complete chart

77 Israel Infant mortality rate: total: 4.22 deaths/1,000 live births Life expectancy at birth: total population: years Average Income: $28,300 (2008 est.) Population below poverty line: 21.6% –note: Israel's poverty line is $7.30 per person per day (2005) Literacy: total population: 97.1% –male: 98.5% –female: 95.9% (2004 est.) מְדִינַת יִשְׂרָאֵל

78 Iran Infant mortality rate: total: deaths/1,000 live births Life expectancy at birth: total population: years Average Income: $12,800 (2008 est.) Population below poverty line: 18% (2007 est.) Literacy: total population: 77% –male: 83.5% –female: 70.4% (2002 est.) جمهوری اسلامی ایران

79 Iraq Infant mortality rate: total: deaths/1,000 live births Life expectancy at birth: total population: years Average Income: $3,700 (2008 est.) Population below poverty line: 20-25% Literacy: total population: 74.1% –male: 84.1% –female: 64.2% (2000 est.) جمهورية العراق

80 Saudi Arabia Infant mortality rate: total: deaths/1,000 live births Life expectancy at birth: total population: 76.3 years Average Income: $20,500 (2008 est.) Population below poverty line:1.6% to 30% ($320/mo or less) Literacy: total population: 78.8% –male: 84.7% –female: 70.8% (2003 est.)

81 Turkey Infant mortality rate: total: deaths/1,000 live births Life expectancy at birth: total population: years Average Income: $11,900 (2008 est.) Population below poverty line: 20% (2002) Literacy: total population: 87.4% –male: 95.3% –female: 79.6% (2004 est.) Türkiye Cumhuriyeti

82 Afghanistan Infant mortality rate: total: deaths/1,000 live births Life expectancy at birth: total population: years GDP - per capita (PPP): $700 (2008 est.) Population below poverty line: 53% (2003) Literacy: total population: 28.1% –male: 43.1% –female: 12.6% (2000 est.) جمهوری اسلامی افغانستان

83 United States Infant mortality rate: total: 6.22 deaths/1,000 live births Life expectancy at birth: total population: years Income: $46,000 (2009 est.) Population below poverty line: 12% Literacy: total population: 99% –male: 99% –female: 99% (2006 est.)

84

85 Summary – Write your answer in complete sentences at the bottom of your chart. Which country had the highest literacy rate? Which country had the highest standard of living? How do these compare? Does literacy affect the standard of living?


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